Dr. XuchaoLyu (Lv) reveived his bachelor's degree in biology and chemistry from Jilin University, China in 2011. He completed his Ph.D. in metabolism disease at Tsinghua University in 2019. He worked with Peng Li to study the mechanism of lipid droplet growth. He uncovered the unique lipid-permeable condensate that allows lipid transfer which is formed through 2D phase separation on the phospholipid membrane. Xuchao is currently a postdoc in Jonathan Long's lab at Stanford University. He is studying the secreted factors from various tissues during exercise. Outside of the lab, he enjoys eating and cooking.

Professional Education

  • Bachelor of Science, Jilin University (2011)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, Tsinghua University (2019)
  • PhD, Tsinghua Univeristy, Obesity and metabolism (2019)
  • BA, Jilin University, Biology and chemistiry (2011)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • ENPP1 is an innate immune checkpoint of the anticancer cGAMP-STING pathway. bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology Wang, S., Böhnert, V., Joseph, A. J., Sudaryo, V., Swinderman, J., Yu, F. B., Lyu, X., Skariah, G., Subramanyam, V., Gilbert, L. A., Goodarzi, H., Lingyin, L. 2023


    ENPP1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in many cancers, and we previously discovered that ENPP1 is the dominant hydrolase of extracellular cGAMP: a cancer-cell-produced immunotransmitter that activates the anticancer STING pathway. However, ENPP1 has other catalytic activities and the molecular and cellular mechanisms contributing to its tumorigenic effects remain unclear. Here, using single cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq), we show that ENPP1 overexpression drives primary breast tumor growth and metastasis by synergistically dampening extracellular cGAMP-STING mediated antitumoral immunity and activating immunosuppressive extracellular adenosine (eADO) signaling. In addition to cancer cells, stromal and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) also express ENPP1 that restrains their response to tumor-derived cGAMP. Enpp1 loss-of-function in both cancer cells and normal tissues slowed primary tumor initiation and growth and prevented metastasis in an extracellular cGAMP- and STING-dependent manner. Selectively abolishing the cGAMP hydrolysis activity of ENPP1 phenocopied total ENPP1 knockout, demonstrating that restoration of paracrine cGAMP-STING signaling is the dominant anti-cancer mechanism of ENPP1 inhibition. Strikingly, we find that breast cancer patients with low ENPP1 expression have significantly higher immune infiltration and improved response to therapeutics impacting cancer immunity upstream or downstream of the cGAMP-STING pathway, like PARP inhibitors and anti-PD1. Altogether, selective inhibition of ENPP1's cGAMP hydrolase activity alleviates an innate immune checkpoint to boost cancer immunity and is therefore a promising therapeutic approach against breast cancer that may synergize with other cancer immunotherapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/2023.06.01.543353

    View details for PubMedID 37333273

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10274658

  • CYP4F2 is a human-specific determinant of circulating N-acyl amino acid levels. The Journal of biological chemistry Tanzo, J. T., Li, V. L., Wiggenhorn, A. L., Moya-Garzon, M. D., Wei, W., Lyu, X., Dong, W., Tahir, U. A., Chen, Z. Z., Cruz, D. E., Deng, S., Shi, X., Zheng, S., Guo, Y., Sims, M., Abu-Remaileh, M., Wilson, J. G., Gerszten, R. E., Long, J. Z., Benson, M. D. 2023: 104764


    N-acyl amino acids are a large family of circulating lipid metabolites that modulate energy expenditure and fat mass in rodents. However, little is known about the regulation and potential cardiometabolic functions of N-acyl amino acids in humans. Here, we analyze the cardiometabolic phenotype associations and genomic associations of four plasma N-acyl amino acids (N-oleoyl-leucine, N-oleoyl-phenylalanine, N-oleoyl-serine, and N-oleoyl-glycine) in 2,351 individuals from the Jackson Heart Study. We find that plasma levels of specific N-acyl amino acids are associated with cardiometabolic disease endpoints independent of free amino acid plasma levels and in patterns according to the amino acid head group. By integrating whole genome sequencing data with N-acyl amino acid levels, we identify that the genetic determinants of N-acyl amino acid levels also cluster according to amino acid head group. Furthermore, we identify the CYP4F2 locus as a genetic determinant of plasma N-oleoyl-leucine and N-oleoyl-phenylalanine levels in human plasma. In experimental studies, we demonstrate that CYP4F2-mediated hydroxylation of N-oleoyl-leucine and N-oleoyl-phenylalanine results in metabolic diversification and production of many previously unknown lipid metabolites with varying characteristics of the fatty acid tail group, including several that structurally resemble fatty acid hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs). These studies provide a structural framework for understanding the regulation and disease-associations of N-acyl amino acids in humans and identify that the diversity of this lipid signaling family can be significantly expanded through CYP4F-mediated ω-hydroxylation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbc.2023.104764

    View details for PubMedID 37121548

  • Organism-wide, cell-type-specific secretome mapping of exercise training in mice. Cell metabolism Wei, W., Riley, N. M., Lyu, X., Shen, X., Guo, J., Raun, S. H., Zhao, M., Moya-Garzon, M. D., Basu, H., Sheng-Hwa Tung, A., Li, V. L., Huang, W., Wiggenhorn, A. L., Svensson, K. J., Snyder, M. P., Bertozzi, C. R., Long, J. Z. 2023


    There is a significant interest in identifying blood-borne factors that mediate tissue crosstalk and function as molecular effectors of physical activity. Although past studies have focused on an individual molecule or cell type, the organism-wide secretome response to physical activity has not been evaluated. Here, we use a cell-type-specific proteomic approach to generate a 21-cell-type, 10-tissue map of exercise training-regulated secretomes in mice. Our dataset identifies >200 exercise training-regulated cell-type-secreted protein pairs, the majority of which have not been previously reported. Pdgfra-cre-labeled secretomes were the most responsive to exercise training. Finally, we show anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and exercise performance-enhancing activities for proteoforms of intracellular carboxylesterases whose secretion from the liver is induced by exercise training.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2023.04.011

    View details for PubMedID 37141889

  • A class of secreted mammalian peptides with potential to expand cell-cell communication BioRxiv Wiggenhorn, A. L. 2023
  • An exercise-inducible metabolite that suppresses feeding and obesity. Nature Li, V. L., He, Y., Contrepois, K., Liu, H., Kim, J. T., Wiggenhorn, A. L., Tanzo, J. T., Tung, A. S., Lyu, X., Zushin, P. H., Jansen, R. S., Michael, B., Loh, K. Y., Yang, A. C., Carl, C. S., Voldstedlund, C. T., Wei, W., Terrell, S. M., Moeller, B. C., Arthur, R. M., Wallis, G. A., van de Wetering, K., Stahl, A., Kiens, B., Richter, E. A., Banik, S. M., Snyder, M. P., Xu, Y., Long, J. Z. 2022


    Exercise confers protection against obesity, type 2 diabetes and other cardiometabolic diseases1-5. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate the metabolic benefits of physical activity remain unclear6. Here we show that exercise stimulates the production of N-lactoyl-phenylalanine (Lac-Phe), a blood-borne signalling metabolite that suppresses feeding and obesity. The biosynthesis of Lac-Phe from lactate and phenylalanine occurs in CNDP2+ cells, including macrophages, monocytes and other immune and epithelial cells localized to diverse organs. In diet-induced obese mice, pharmacological-mediated increases in Lac-Phe reduces food intake without affecting movement or energy expenditure. Chronic administration of Lac-Phe decreases adiposity and body weight and improves glucose homeostasis. Conversely, genetic ablation of Lac-Phe biosynthesis in mice increases food intake and obesity following exercise training. Last, large activity-inducible increases in circulating Lac-Phe are also observed in humans and racehorses, establishing this metabolite as a molecular effector associated with physical activity across multiple activity modalities and mammalian species. These data define a conserved exercise-inducible metabolite that controls food intake and influences systemic energy balance.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-04828-5

    View details for PubMedID 35705806

  • Protocol for cell type-specific labeling, enrichment, and proteomic profiling of plasma proteins in mice. STAR protocols Wei, W., Riley, N. M., Lyu, X., Bertozzi, C. R., Long, J. Z. 1800; 2 (4): 101014


    Secreted polypeptides represent a fundamental axis of intercellular communication. Here, we present a protocol for the cell type-specific biotinylation, enrichment, and proteomic profiling of secreted plasma proteins directly in mice. This protocol uses conditional "turn-on" adeno-associated viruses expressing an endoplasmic reticulum-targeted biotin ligase to globally biotinylate proteins of the secretory pathway in a cell type-specific manner. Biotinylated secreted proteins can be directly purified from blood plasma and analyzed by SDS-PAGE gel or shotgun proteomics. For complete information on the generation and use of this protocol, please refer to Wei et al. (2021).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xpro.2021.101014

    View details for PubMedID 34950890

  • A gel-like condensation of Cidec generates lipid-permeable plates for lipid droplet fusion. Developmental cell Lyu, X., Wang, J., Wang, J., Yin, Y. S., Zhu, Y., Li, L. L., Huang, S., Peng, S., Xue, B., Liao, R., Wang, S. Q., Long, M., Wohland, T., Chua, B. T., Sun, Y., Li, P., Chen, X. W., Xu, L., Chen, F. J., Li, P. 2021


    Membrane contact between intracellular organelles is important in mediating organelle communication. However, the assembly of molecular machinery at membrane contact site and its internal organization correlating with its functional activity remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a gel-like condensation of Cidec, a crucial protein for obesity development by facilitating lipid droplet (LD) fusion, occurs at the LD-LD contact site (LDCS) through phase separation. The homomeric interaction between the multivalent N terminus of Cidec is sufficient to promote its phase separation both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, Cidec condensation at LDCSs generates highly plastic and lipid-permeable fusion plates that are geometrically constrained by donor LDs. In addition, Cidec condensates are distributed unevenly in the fusion plate generating stochastic sub-compartments that may represent unique lipid passageways during LD fusion. We have thus uncovered the organization and functional significance of geometry-constrained Cidec phase separation in mediating LD fusion and lipid homeostasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2021.08.015

    View details for PubMedID 34508658

  • Identification of gene products that control lipid droplet size in yeast using a high-throughput quantitative image analysis BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR AND CELL BIOLOGY OF LIPIDS Lv, X., Liu, J., Qin, Y., Liu, Y., Jin, M., Dai, J., Chua, B., Yang, H., Li, P. 2019; 1864 (2): 113-127


    Lipid droplets (LDs) are important organelles involved in energy storage and expenditure. LD dynamics has been investigated using genome-wide image screening methods in yeast and other model organisms. For most studies, genes were identified using two-dimensional images with LD enlargement as readout. Due to imaging limitation, reduction of LD size is seldom explored. Here, we aim to set up a screen that specifically utilizes reduced LD size as the readout. To achieve this, a novel yeast screen is set up to quantitatively and systematically identify genes that regulate LD size through a three-dimensional imaging-based approach. Cidea which promotes LD fusion and growth in mammalian cells was overexpressed in a yeast knockout library to induce large LD formation. Next, an automated, high-throughput image analysis method that monitors LD size was utilized. With this screen, we identified twelve genes that reduced LD size when deleted. The effects of eight of these genes on LD size were further validated in fld1 null strain background. In addition, six genes were previously identified as LD-regulating genes. To conclude, this methodology represents a promising strategy to screen for players in LD size control in both yeast and mammalian cells to aid in the investigation of LD-associated metabolic diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbalip.2018.11.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000456224700001

    View details for PubMedID 30414449