At QSU, I have been working as the programmatic lead of the ‘learning health systems’ program and the statistical lead for a variety of clinical research studies across Stanford campus. In the past few years, I have been actively collaborating with clinical researchers, local public health agencies, and researchers in the industry to deliver best statistical practices that facilitates the integration of knowledge from real-word data in clinical and public health researches. My specialty includes designing, implementing and disseminating clinical researches using real-world evidence. Specifically, I’ve been working extensively with a variety of sources of real-world databases, such as Electronic Health Records (EHRs), claims data and registry databases, to address the cutting-edge research questions for health policy, hospital quality improvement and public health.
In the meantime, I've been actively collaborating with clinical researchers from a variety of clinical domains on randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and pragmatic trials including stepped-wedge trials. My scope of work for clinical trials includes implementing study design (estimating operation characteristics such as sample size through simulations), data management plan, statistical analysis plan, and facilitating the submissions of regulatory statistical documents to government agencies.
My specific statistical interest includes quasi-experimental design (e.g. difference-in-difference, interrupted time series), multi-level modeling, missing data techniques and causal inference, whereas I have been leading a couple of statistical method manuscripts. For mentorship experience, I supervise junior statisticians as well as serve as a KL2 method research mentor for the junior clinical researchers within Stanford. I’m one of the primary lecturers on the statistical method seminar series for clinical researchers, co-lead one of the workshops for women in data science conference 2021, and speak at statistical conferences such as Joint Statistical Meetings and Current Statistical Practice 2023.
Current Role at Stanford
Responsibility for Assistant Director, Learning Health Systems Program (LHS):
• Establish and update LHS program resources within QSU
• Host the onboard training program for new QSU hires and training sessions at a regular basis within QSU
• Establish and mentor a core team within QSU for the LHS program
• Guide the process of the projects assignments for quality improvement, pragmatic trials and studies involve real-world evidence generation using electronic health records (EHRs)
• Maintain close relationships with clinical advocators of LHS projects at our collaborating departments under the supports and advocacy of QSU leadership.
• Host an on-board session with department leaders who are interested in the program to communicate our missions of the program.
• Host educational sessions/lectures for clinical investigators across collaborating departments
• Establish close collaborations with a variety of data teams across campus departments under the supports and advocacy of QSU leadership
• Act as the point person for QSU on the LHS Program
Responsibility for Senior Biostatistician:
- Study Design and Study Protocol Development
- Statistical Analysis Plan
- Grant Preparation
- Statistical Methodology Research
- Data Quality Control
- Data Visualization
- Data Cleaning
- Statistical Programming
- Statistical Modeling
- Mentor junior statistician
Honors & Awards
Member at Delta Omega Public Health Honor Society Chapter Alpha, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health (May 2014)
Nancy-Fink Scholarship, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health (May 2013)
Education & Certifications
SAS Programmer, SAS, Statistical Programming (2013)
Certificate, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Public Health Informatics (2014)
Certficate, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health (2013)
BS, Fudan University, Biology (2012)
MHS, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Epidemiology (2014)
Characteristics associated with diagnostic yield of imaging for deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in the emergency department, hospital, and office settings: An Optum Clinformatics claims database study (2015-2019).
2023; 224: 4-12
Different patient characteristics influence the decision to order diagnostic imaging for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in different settings (emergency department (ED), hospital, and office). Diagnostic yield is defined as the proportion of tests that report positive results. We hypothesize different patient characteristics are associated with higher or lower diagnostic yield of imaging for DVT and PE in different settings.We used Optum Clinformatics™ national claims database (2015-2019) to assess the diagnostic yield of imaging for DVT and PE in three settings: (a) ED discharge, (b) Hospitalized, and (c) Office. We studied the patient characteristics associated with diagnostic yield using logistic regression.Diagnostic imaging for DVT and PE was performed in 1,502,417 and 710,263 visits, respectively. Diagnostic yield for DVT and PE was 9.8 ± 0.1 % and 12.7 ± 0.1 %, respectively in the overall cohort. In the ED discharge, hospitalized, and office settings, diagnostic yield for DVT was 10.4 ± 0.1 %, 16.9 ± 0.1 %, and 6.5 ± 0.1 %, respectively, and that for PE 6.4 ± 0.1 %, 18.7 ± 0.1 %, and 8.8 ± 0.2 %, respectively. Of the patients who underwent imaging for DVT, higher diagnostic yield was more likely with thrombophilia, central venous access, and cancer. Of the patients who underwent imaging for PE, higher diagnostic yield was most likely with thrombophilia, respiratory failure, and heart failure or acute myocardial infarction.In each setting, different patient characteristics influence the diagnostic yield of imaging for DVT and PE and can inform clinical practice. Judicious use of imaging for DVT and PE could reduce costs and avoid exposure to radiation and contrast.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.thromres.2023.02.004
View details for PubMedID 36774701
- Computer-aided detection of polyps does not improve colonoscopist performance in a pragmatic implementation trial. Gastroenterology 2022
Outcomes of a Neurohospitalist Program at an Academic Medical Center.
2022; 12 (3): 453-462
The purpose is to determine the impact of an academic neurohospitalist service on clinical outcomes.We performed a retrospective, quasi-experimental study of patients discharged from the general neurology service before (August 2010-July 2014) and after implementation of a full-time neurohospitalist service (August 2016-July 2018) compared to a control group of stroke patients. Primary outcomes were length of stay and 30-day readmission. Using the difference-in-difference approach, the impact of introducing a neurohospitalist service compared to controls was assessed with adjustment of patients' characteristics. Secondary outcomes included mortality, in-hospital complications, and cost.There were 2706 neurology admissions (1648 general; 1058 stroke) over the study period. The neurohospitalist service was associated with a trend in reduced 30-day readmissions (ratio of ORs: .52 [.27, .98], P = .088), while length of stay was not incrementally changed in the difference-in-difference model (-.3 [-.7, .1], P = .18). However, descriptive results demonstrated a significant reduction in mean adjusted LOS of .7 days (4.5 to 3.8 days, P < .001) and a trend toward reduced readmissions (8.9% to 7.6%, P = .42) in the post-neurohospitalist cohort despite a significant increase in patient complexity, shift to higher acuity diagnoses, more emergent admissions, and near quadrupling of observation status patients. Mortality and in-hospital complications remained low, patient satisfaction was stable, and cost was not incrementally changed in the post-neurohospitalist cohort.Implementation of a neurohospitalist service at an academic medical center is feasible and associated with a significant increase in patient complexity and acuity and a trend toward reduced readmissions.
View details for DOI 10.1177/19418744221083182
View details for PubMedID 35755235
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9214938
- COVIDNearTerm: A simple method to forecast COVID-19 hospitalizations JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE 2022; 6 (1)
COVIDNearTerm: A simple method to forecast COVID-19 hospitalizations.
Journal of clinical and translational science
2022; 6 (1): e59
COVID-19 has caused tremendous death and suffering since it first emerged in 2019. Soon after its emergence, models were developed to help predict the course of various disease metrics, and these models have been relied upon to help guide public health policy.Here we present a method called COVIDNearTerm to "forecast" hospitalizations in the short term, two to four weeks from the time of prediction. COVIDNearTerm is based on an autoregressive model and utilizes a parametric bootstrap approach to make predictions. It is easy to use as it requires only previous hospitalization data, and there is an open-source R package that implements the algorithm. We evaluated COVIDNearTerm on San Francisco Bay Area hospitalizations and compared it to models from the California COVID Assessment Tool (CalCAT).We found that COVIDNearTerm predictions were more accurate than the CalCAT ensemble predictions for all comparisons and any CalCAT component for a majority of comparisons. For instance, at the county level our 14-day hospitalization median absolute percentage errors ranged from 16 to 36%. For those same comparisons, the CalCAT ensemble errors were between 30 and 59%.COVIDNearTerm is a simple and useful tool for predicting near-term COVID-19 hospitalizations.
View details for DOI 10.1017/cts.2022.389
View details for PubMedID 35720970
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9161046
Race-ethnicity and COVID-19 Vaccination Beliefs and Intentions: A Cross-Sectional Study among the General Population in the San Francisco Bay Area.
1800; 9 (12)
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to compare intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccination by race-ethnicity, to identify beliefs that may mediate the association between race-ethnicity and intention to receive the vaccine and to identify the demographic factors and beliefs most strongly predictive of intention to receive a vaccine.DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted from November 2020 to January 2021, nested within a longitudinal cohort study of the prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 among a general population-based sample of adults in six San Francisco Bay Area counties (called TrackCOVID). Study Cohort: In total, 3161 participants among the 3935 in the TrackCOVID parent cohort responded.RESULTS: Rates of high vaccine willingness were significantly lower among Black (41%), Latinx (55%), Asian (58%), Multi-racial (59%), and Other race (58%) respondents than among White respondents (72%). Black, Latinx, and Asian respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents to endorse lack of trust of government and health agencies as a reason not to get vaccinated. Participants' motivations and concerns about COVID-19 vaccination only partially explained racial-ethnic differences in vaccination willingness. Concerns about a rushed government vaccine approval process and potential bad reactions to the vaccine were the two most important factors predicting vaccination intention.CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine outreach campaigns must ensure that the disproportionate toll of COVID-19 on historically marginalized racial-ethnic communities is not compounded by inequities in vaccination. Efforts must emphasize messages that speak to the motivations and concerns of groups suffering most from health inequities to earn their trust to support informed decision making.
View details for DOI 10.3390/vaccines9121406
View details for PubMedID 34960152
The COVID-19 Outpatient Pragmatic Platform Study (COPPS): Study design of a multi-center pragmatic platform trial.
Contemporary clinical trials
More than 3000 clinical trials related to COVID-19 have been registered through clinicaltrials.gov. With so many trials, there is a risk that many will be inconclusive due to being underpowered or due to an inability to recruit patients. At academic medical centers, multiple trials are competing for the same resources; the success of one may come at the expense of another. The COVID-19 Outpatient Pragmatic Protocol Study (COPPS) is a flexible phase 2, multi-site, randomized, blinded trial based at Stanford University designed to overcome these issues by simultaneously evaluating multiple COVID-19 treatments in the outpatient setting in one common platform with shared controls. This approach reduces the overall number of patients required for statistical power, while improving the likelihood that any enrolled patient receives active treatment. The platform study has two main domains designed to evaluate COVID-19 treatments by assessing their ability to reduce viral shedding (Viral Domain), measured with self-collected nasal swabs, or improve clinical outcomes (Clinical Domain), measured through self-reported symptomology data. Data are collected on both domains for all participants enrolled. Participants are followed over a 28-day period. COPPS has the advantage of pragmatism created around its workflow that is also appealing to potential participants because of a lower probability of inactive treatment. At the conclusion of this clinical trial we expect to have identified potentially effective therapeutic strategy/ies for treating COVID-19 in the outpatient setting, which will have a transformative impact on medicine and public health.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2021.106509
View details for PubMedID 34274494
Comparison of Adverse Events Among Home- vs Facility-Administered Biologic Infusions, 2007-2017.
JAMA network open
2021; 4 (6): e2110268
Importance: Infusion reactions occur in 7% to 20% of patients receiving biologics. Home infusions are convenient and incur lower costs but may be associated with more adverse events; the safety of receiving biologic infusions for immune-mediated diseases at home remains unclear.Objective: To assess whether patients receiving home biologic infusions have increased adverse events requiring emergency department (ED) or hospital admission compared with patients receiving facility infusions.Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used administrative claims data from a large national insurer for adult patients who received biologic infusions for immune-mediated disease between January 2007 and December 2017. Patients with hematologic malignant neoplasms or bone marrow transplantation were excluded. Data were analyzed from August 2019 to October 2020.Main Outcomes and Measures: ED or hospital admission on the same or next day after administration of a biologic infusion at home vs at a facility; secondary outcomes included discontinuation of the biologic after an ED or hospital admission and postinfusion mortality.Results: Of a total of 57 220 patients (mean [SD] age, 50.1 [14.8] years; 512 314 [68.1%] women) who received 752 150 biologic infusions (34 078 home infusions [4.5%] to 3954 patients and 718 072 facility infusions [95.5%] to 54 770 patients), patients who received home infusions were younger (mean [SD] age, 43.2 [13.2] vs 51.3 [14.8] years), more likely to be men (14 031 [41.2%] vs 225 668 [31.4%]), and had a lower Charlson comorbidity score compared with patients who received facility infusions (mean [SD] score, 0.5 [1.0] vs 1.1 [1.3]). Home infusions were associated with 25% increased odds of ED or hospital admission on the same or next day after the infusion (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09-1.44; P=.002) and 28% increased odds of discontinuation of the biologic after the ED or hospital admission (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51; P=.005). There was no difference in postinfusion mortality between home or facility infusions. The rates of adverse events were highest with home infusions of tocilizumab (48 of 481 infusions [10.0%]), vedolizumab (150 of 2681 infusions [5.6%]), and infliximab (1085 of 20 653 infusions [5.3%]), although the number of tocilizumab and vedolizumab infusions was low.Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, biologic infusions administered at home, compared with those administered at a facility, were associated with increased adverse events requiring escalation of care. Because the number of home infusions has increased and is expected to continue to rise, the safety implications of administering biologic infusions at home needs to be further assessed.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.10268
View details for PubMedID 34081140
Clinical trials in a COVID-19 pandemic: Shared infrastructure for continuous learning in a rapidly changing landscape.
Clinical trials (London, England)
Clinical trials, conducted efficiently and with the utmost integrity, are a key component in identifying effective vaccines, therapies, and other interventions urgently needed to solve the COVID-19 crisis. Yet launching and implementing trials with the rigor necessary to produce convincing results is a complicated and time-consuming process. Balancing rigor and efficiency involves relying on designs that employ flexible features to respond to a fast-changing landscape, measuring valid endpoints that result in translational actions and disseminating findings in a timely manner. We describe the challenges involved in creating infrastructure with potential utility for shared learning.We have established a shared infrastructure that borrows strength across multiple trials. The infrastructure includes an endpoint registry to aid in selecting appropriate endpoints, a registry to facilitate establishing a Data & Safety Monitoring Board, common data collection instruments, a COVID-19 dedicated design and analysis team, and a pragmatic platform protocol, among other elements.The authors have relied on the shared infrastructure for six clinical trials for which they serve as the Data Coordinating Center and have a design and analysis team comprising 15 members who are dedicated to COVID-19. The authors established a pragmatic platform to simultaneously investigate multiple treatments for the outpatient with adaptive features to add or drop treatment arms.The shared infrastructure provides appealing opportunities to evaluate disease in a more robust manner with fewer resources and is especially valued during a pandemic where efficiency in time and resources is crucial. The most important element of the shared infrastructure is the pragmatic platform. While it may be the most challenging of the elements to establish, it may provide the greatest benefit to both patients and researchers.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1740774520988298
View details for PubMedID 33535821
Osteoarthritis risk is reduced after treatment with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel: a propensity score matching analysis.
Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of joint pain and disability, and effective treatments are lacking. Extracellular adenosine has anti-inflammatory effects and can prevent and treat OA in animal models. Ticagrelor and clopidogrel are both used in patients with coronary artery disease, but only ticagrelor increases extracellular adenosine. The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with ticagrelor was associated with a lower risk of OA.We conducted a 1:2 propensity score matching analysis using the Optum Clinformatics™ Data Mart from 2011 to 2017. We included patients who received either ticagrelor or clopidogrel for at least 90 days and excluded those with a prior diagnosis of OA or inflammatory arthritis. OA was identified using International Classification of Diseases codes. The primary outcome was the time to diagnosis of OA after treatment with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel.Our propensity score matched cohort consisted of 7,007 ticagrelor-treated patients and 14,014 clopidogrel-treated patients, with a median number of days on treatment of 287 and 284 respectively. For both groups, the mean age was 64 years, and 73% of the patients were male. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis estimated a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% CI 0.64-0.79, p<0.001) for developing OA after treatment with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel.Treatment with ticagrelor was associated with a 29% lower risk of developing OA compared to clopidogrel over five years of follow-up. We hypothesize that the reduction in OA seen in patients who received ticagrelor may in part be due to increased extracellular adenosine.
View details for DOI 10.1002/art.41412
View details for PubMedID 32564514
Trajectory analysis for postoperative pain using electronic health records: A nonparametric method with robust linear regression and K-medians cluster analysis.
Health informatics journal
Postoperative pain scores are widely monitored and collected in the electronic health record, yet current methods fail to fully leverage the data with fast implementation. A robust linear regression was fitted to describe the association between the log-scaled pain score and time from discharge after total knee replacement. The estimated trajectories were used for a subsequent K-medians cluster analysis to categorize the longitudinal pain score patterns into distinct clusters. For each cluster, a mixture regression model estimated the association between pain score and time to discharge adjusting for confounding. The fitted regression model generated the pain trajectory pattern for given cluster. Finally, regression analyses examined the association between pain trajectories and patient outcomes. A total of 3442 surgeries were identified with a median of 22 pain scores at an academic hospital during 2009-2016. Four pain trajectory patterns were identified and one was associated with higher rates of outcomes. In conclusion, we described a novel approach with fast implementation to model patients' pain experience using electronic health records. In the era of big data science, clinical research should be learning from all available data regarding a patient's episode of care instead of focusing on the "average" patient outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1460458219881339
View details for PubMedID 31621460
Initiative for prevention and early identification of delirium in medical-surgical units: Lessons learnt in the past five years.
The American journal of medicine
BACKGROUND: Delirium is an acute change in mental status affecting 10-64% of hospitalized patients, and may be preventable in 30-40% cases. In October 2013, a task force for delirium prevention and early identification in medical-surgical units was formed at our hospital. We studied if our standardized protocol prevented delirium among high-risk patients.METHODS: We studied 105,455 patient encounters between November 2013 and January 2018. Since November 2013, there has been ongoing education to decrease deliriogenic medications use. Since 2014, nurses screen all patients for presence or absence of delirium using confusion assessment method (CAM). Since 2015, nurses additionally screen all patients for risk of delirium. In 2015, a physician order set for delirium was created. Non-pharmacological measures are implemented for high-risk or CAM positive patients.RESULTS: 98.8% of patient encounters had CAM screening, and 99.6% had delirium risk screening. Since 2013, odds of opiate use decreased by 5.0% per year (P<0.001), and odds of benzodiazepines use decreased by 8.0% per year (P<0.001). There was no change in anticholinergics use. In the adjusted analysis, since 2015, odds of delirium decreased by 25.3% per year among high-risk patients (N=21,465; P<0.001). Among high-risk patients or those diagnosed with delirium (N=22,121), estimated LOS decreased by 0.13days per year (P<0.001), odds of inpatient mortality decreased by 16.0% per year (P=0.011), and odds of discharge to nursing home decreased by 17.1% per year (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: With high clinician engagement and simplified workflows, our delirium initiative has shown sustained results.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2019.05.035
View details for PubMedID 31228413
- Can Machine Learning Methods Produce Accurate and Easy-to-use Prediction Models of 30-day Complications and Mortality After Knee or Hip Arthroplasty? CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH 2019; 477 (2): 452–60
Left Ventricular Dysfunction Associated With Brain Death: Results From the Donor Heart Study.
Left ventricular dysfunction in potential donors meeting brain death criteria often results in nonuse of donor hearts for transplantation, yet little is known about its incidence or pathophysiology. Resolving these unknowns was a primary aim of the DHS (Donor Heart Study), a multisite prospective cohort study.The DHS enrolled potential donors by neurologic determination of death (n=4333) at 8 organ procurement organizations across the United States between February 2015 and May 2020. Data included medications administered, serial diagnostic tests, and transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) performed: (1) within 48 hours after brain death was formally diagnosed; and (2) 24±6 hours later if left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was initially present. LV dysfunction was defined as an LV ejection fraction <50% and was considered reversible if LV ejection fraction was >50% on the second TTE. TTEs were also examined for presence of LV regional wall motion abnormalities and their reversibility. We assessed associations between LV dysfunction, donor heart acceptance for transplantation, and recipient 1-year survival.An initial TTE was interpreted for 3794 of the 4333 potential donors by neurologic determination of death. A total of 493 (13%) of these TTEs showed LV dysfunction. Among those donors with an initial TTE, LV dysfunction was associated with younger age, underweight, and higher NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and troponin levels. A second TTE was performed within 24±6 hours for a subset of donors (n=224) with initial LV dysfunction; within this subset, 130 (58%) demonstrated reversibility. Sixty percent of donor hearts with normal LV function were accepted for transplant compared with 56% of hearts with reversible LV dysfunction and 24% of hearts with nonreversible LV dysfunction. Donor LV dysfunction, whether reversible or not, was not associated with recipient 1-year survival.LV dysfunction associated with brain death occurs in many potential heart donors and is sometimes reversible. These findings can inform decisions made during donor evaluation and help guide donor heart acceptance for transplantation.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.122.063400
View details for PubMedID 37465972
- Chatbot vs Medical Student Performance on Free-Response Clinical Reasoning Examinations. JAMA internal medicine 2023
Antifungal stewardship in practice: Insights from a prospective audit and feedback program.
Infection control and hospital epidemiology
To identify characteristics of antifungal prospective audit and feedback (PAF) and to compare rates of PAF recommendation and acceptance between antifungal and antibiotic agents.Retrospective cohort study of antifungal and antibiotic audits by a children's hospital antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) from November 1, 2020, to October 31, 2022.Antimicrobial audit data were retrieved from the ASP data warehouse. We characterized antifungal PAF using descriptive statistics. We then compared the overall rates of PAF recommendation and recommendation acceptance between antifungals and antibiotics. We also compared the differences in antifungal and antibiotic PAF recommendation and acceptance rates across various factors, including infectious problem, medical service, and recommendation type.Of 10,402 antimicrobial audits identified during the study period, 8,599 (83%) were for antibiotics and 1,803 (17%) were for antifungals. The highest antifungal recommendation rates were for liposomal amphotericin B, antifungals used for sepsis or respiratory tract infection, and antifungals prescribed in the cardiovascular intensive care unit. The rate of PAF recommendation was higher for antibiotics than for antifungals (29% vs 21%; P < .001); however, the rates of recommendation acceptance were similar. Recommendations to discontinue or for medication monitoring were more common for antifungals.Our analysis of antifungal PAF identified key opportunities to improve antifungal use, including the optimized use of specific agents and targeted use by certain medical services. Moreover, antifungal PAF, despite identifying fewer recommendations compared to antibiotic PAF, were associated with similarly high rates of acceptance, highlighting a promising opportunity for antifungal stewardship.
View details for DOI 10.1017/ice.2023.129
View details for PubMedID 37381887
A quality-improvement approach to urgent-care antibiotic stewardship for respiratory tract infections during the COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons learned.
Infection control and hospital epidemiology
OBJECTIVE: We investigated a decrease in antibiotic prescribing for respiratory illnesses in 2 academic urgent-care clinics during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using semistructured clinician interviews.METHODS: We conducted a quality-improvement project from November 2020 to May 2021. We investigated provider antibiotic decision making using a mixed-methods explanatory design including interviews. We analyzed transcripts using a thematic framework approach to identify emergent themes. Our performance measure was antibiotic prescribing rate (APR) for encounters with respiratory diagnosis billing codes. We extracted billing and prescribing data from the electronic medical record and assessed differences using run charts, p charts and generalized linear regression.RESULTS: We observed significant reductions in the APR early during the COVID-19 pandemic (relative risk [RR], 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.25), which was maintained over the study period (P < .001). The average APRs were 14% before the COVID-19 pandemic, 4% during the QI project, and 7% after the project. All providers prescribed less antibiotics for respiratory encounters during COVID-19, but only 25% felt their practice had changed. Themes from provider interviews included changing patient expectations and provider approach to respiratory encounters during COVID-19, the impact of increased telemedicine encounters, and the changing epidemiology of non-COVID-19 respiratory infections.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the decrease in APR was likely multifactorial. The average APR decreased significantly during the pandemic. Although the APR was slightly higher after the QI project, it did not reach prepandemic levels. Future studies should explore how these factors, including changing patient expectations, can be leveraged to improve urgent-care antibiotic stewardship.
View details for DOI 10.1017/ice.2023.8
View details for PubMedID 36815249
Association between Obesity and Length of COVID-19 Hospitalization: Unexpected Insights from the American Heart Association National COVID-19 Registry.
Journal of obesity & metabolic syndrome
Background: Observational analyses have noted an association between obesity and poor clinical outcome from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The mechanism for this finding remains unclear.Methods: We analyzed data from 22,915 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in non-intensive care units using the American Heart Association National COVID Registry of adult COVID-19 admissions from March 2020 to April 2021. A multivariable Poisson model adjusted for age, sex, medical history, admission respiratory status, hospitalization characteristics, and select laboratory findings was used to calculate length of stay (LOS) as a function of body mass index (BMI) category. Additionally, 5,327 patients admitted to intensive care units were similarly analyzed for comparison.Results: Relative to normal BMI subjects, overweight, class I obese, and class II obese patients had approximately half-day reductions in LOS (-0.469 days, P<0.01; -0.480 days, P<0.01; -0.578 days, P<0.01, respectively).Conclusion: The model identified a dose-dependent, inverse relationship between BMI category and LOS for COVID-19, which was not seen when the model was applied to critically ill patients.
View details for DOI 10.7570/jomes22042
View details for PubMedID 36058896
Posttreatment FDG-PET/CT Hopkins criteria predict locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Head & neck
BACKGROUND: Metabolic response assessment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) aids in identifying locoregional persistence/recurrence (LRR). The Hopkins Criteria are a standardized qualitative response assessment system using posttreatment FDG-PET/CT.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with node-positive OPSCC treated with definitive (chemo)radiotherapy. We assessed Hopkins Criteria performance for LRR, then developed and validated a competing-risks model.RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2018, 259 patients were included with median follow-up of 43months. The Hopkins Criteria sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 68%, 88%, 95%, and 85%. The 36-month cumulative incidence of LRR was greater with positive scores (45% vs. 5%, HR 12.60, p<0.001). PET/CTs performed ≤10weeks after radiotherapy were associated with a four-fold increase in pathologically negative biopsies/surgeries (36% vs. 9%, p=0.03). The AUC for LRR was 0.89 using a model integrating the Hopkins score.CONCLUSIONS: The Hopkins Criteria predict LRR with high accuracy for OPSCC response assessment.
View details for DOI 10.1002/hed.27160
View details for PubMedID 35920790
A Cross-sectional Study Characterizing Pediatric Temperature Percentiles in Children at Well-Child Visits.
BACKGROUND: Temperature measurement plays a central role in determining pediatric patients' disease risk and management. However, current pediatric temperature thresholds may be outdated and not applicable to children.OBJECTIVE: To characterize pediatric temperature norms and variation by patient characteristics, time of measurement, and thermometer route.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 134,641 well-child visits occurring between 2014-2019 at primary care clinics that routinely measured temperature. We performed bivariate and multivariable quantile regressions with clustered standard errors to determine temperature percentiles and variation by age, sex, time of measurement, and thermometer route. We performed sensitivity analyses: 1) using a cohort that excluded visits with infectious diagnoses that could explain temperature aberrations and 2) including clinic as a fixed effect.RESULTS: The median rectal temperature for visits of infants ≤12 months old was 37.2˚C, which was 0.4˚C higher than the median axillary temperature. The median axillary temperature for children 1-18 years old was 36.7˚C, which was 0.1˚C lower than the median values of all other routes. The 99th percentile for rectal temperatures in infants was 37.8˚C and the 99.9th percentile for axillary temperatures in children was 38.5˚C. Adjusted analyses did not demonstrate clinically significant variation in temperature by sex, age, or time of measurement.CONCLUSIONS: These updated temperature norms can serve as reference values in clinical practice and should be considered in the context of thermometer route used and the clinical condition being evaluated. Variations in temperature values by sex, age, and time of measurement were not clinically significant.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.015
View details for PubMedID 35914730
- Outcomes of a Neurohospitalist Program at an Academic Medical Center NEUROHOSPITALIST 2022
- Detailed characterization of hospitalized patients infected with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. Journal of internal medicine 2022
Incidence and prevalence of COVID-19 within a healthcare worker cohort during the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
BACKGROUND: Preventing SARS-CoV2 infections in healthcare workers (HCWs) is critical for healthcare delivery. We aimed to estimate and characterize the prevalence and incidence of COVID-19 in a US HCW cohort and to identify risk factors associated with infection.METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of HCWs at 3 Bay Area medical centers using serial surveys and SARS-CoV-2 viral and orthogonal serological testing, including measurement of neutralizing antibodies. We estimated baseline prevalence and cumulative incidence of COVID-19. We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations of baseline factors with incident infections and evaluated the impact of time-varying exposures on time to COVID-19 using marginal structural models.RESULTS: 2435 HCWs contributed 768 person years of follow-up time. We identified 21/2435 individuals with prevalent infection, resulting in a baseline prevalence of 0.86% (95% CI, 0.53% to 1.32%). We identified 70/2414 (2.9%) incident infections yielding a cumulative incidence rate of 9.11 cases per 100 person years (95% CI 7.11 to 11.52). Community contact with a known COVID-19 case most strongly correlated with increased hazard for infection (HR 8.1, 95% CI, 3.8, 17.5). High-risk work-related exposures (i.e., breach in protective measures) drove an association between work exposure and infection (HR 2.5, 95% CI, 1.3-4.8). More cases were identified in HCW when community case rates were high.CONCLUSION: We observed modest COVID-19 incidence despite consistent exposure at work. Community contact was strongly associated with infections but contact at work was not unless accompanied by high-risk exposure.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciac210
View details for PubMedID 35279023
Implementation of an Inpatient Reproductive Health Screening Consult Service.
OBJECTIVES: Reproductive health is an important issue in the care of adolescents and young adults (AYA). Unfortunately, many AYAs, particularly those with chronic medical conditions, may not regularly access primary care to address these issues. This study evaluates the impact of an inpatient reproductive health consult service on reproductive health care.METHODS: A reproductive health-focused screening consult service was initiated in June 2017 at an academic teaching hospital. Patients aged 15 to 26 admitted to pediatric ward teams were eligible for screening. A retrospective chart review was conducted from December 2016 to June 2019 to determine the effect of the consult service on the primary outcome, documentation of a psychosocial assessment, and reproductive health concerns.RESULTS: Nine hundred twenty-nine encounters were analyzed (345 preintervention and 584 during intervention), representing 675 patients. The proportion of encounters with a documented psychosocial assessment increased from 14.8% to 41.3% during the intervention (P < .001); a reproductive health screening consult was responsible for 37.3% (109 of 292) of the documented assessments. There were high self-reported rates of sexual activity (38%), substance use (47%), and mood concerns (48%) among hospitalized AYA; all behaviors were documented at statistically significant increased frequencies (P < .001) during the intervention compared with preintervention.CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of an inpatient reproductive health screening consult service led to increased documentation of psychosocial assessments, including increased documentation of sexual health history and other risk factors. With improved screening of reproductive and psychosocial needs, targeted interventions can meet underrecognized needs among hospitalized AYA.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2021-006178
View details for PubMedID 35165737
- High Completion of COVID-19 Vaccination Among Health Care Workers Despite Initial Self-Reported Vaccine Reluctance. Open forum infectious diseases 2021; 8 (10): ofab446
Implementing health communication tools at scale: mobile audio messaging and paper-based job aids for front-line workers providing community health education to mothers in Bihar, India.
BMJ global health
2021; 6 (Suppl 5)
INTRODUCTION: As part of an investment by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to support the Government of Bihar to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition (RMNCHN) statewide, BBC Media Action implemented multiple communication tools to support front-line worker (FLW) outreach. We analyse the impacts of a package of mHealth audio messaging and paper-based job aids used by FLWs during government-sponsored village health, sanitation and nutrition days (VHSNDs) on knowledge and practices of childbearing women across the RMNCHN continuum of care.METHODS: Data from two surveys collected between July and September 2016 were analysed using logistic regression to compare health-related knowledge and behaviours between women who had been exposed at VHSNDs to the mHealth GupShup Potli (GSP) audio recordings or interpersonal communication (IPC) tools versus those who were unexposed.RESULTS: Exposure to GSP recordings (n=2608) was associated with improved knowledge across all continuum-of-care domains, as well as improved health-related behaviours in some domains. The odds of having taken iron-folic acid (IFA) tablets were significantly higher in exposed women (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.2), as was contraceptive use (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2). There were no differences in birth preparedness or complementary feeding practices between groups. Exposure to IPC paper-based tools (n=2002) was associated with a twofold increased odds of IFA consumption (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.2) and contraceptive use (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). Women exposed to both tools were generally at least twice as likely to subsequently discuss the messages with others.CONCLUSION: BBC Media Action's mHealth audio messaging job aids and paper-based IPC tools were associated with improved knowledge and practices of women who were exposed to them across multiple domains, suggesting their important potential for improving health outcomes for beneficiaries at scale in low-resource settings.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02726230.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005538
View details for PubMedID 34312155
Impact of Modified Anesthesia Management for Pediatric Patients With Williams Syndrome.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the percent change in systolic blood pressure and the incidence of adverse cardiac events (ACEs; defined as cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, arrhythmias, or ST-segment changes) during anesthesia induction in patients with Williams syndrome (WS) before and after implementation of a perioperative management strategy.DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study.SETTING: Single quaternary academic referral center.PARTICIPANTS: The authors reviewed the records of all children with WS at the authors' institution who underwent general anesthesia for cardiac catheterization, diagnostic imaging, or any type of surgery between November 2008 and August 2019. The authors identified 142 patients with WS, 48 of whom underwent 118 general anesthesia administrations. A historic group (HG) was compared with the intervention group (IG).INTERVENTIONS: Change in perioperative management (three-stage risk stratification: preoperative intravenous hydration, intravenous anesthesia induction, and early use of vasoactives).MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors determined event rates within 60 minutes of anesthesia induction. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated (SMD >0.2 suggests clinically meaningful difference). Sixty-seven general anesthesia encounters were recorded in the HG (mean age, 4.8 years; mean weight, 16.3 kg) and 51 in the IG (mean age, 6.0 years; mean weight, 18.2 kg). The change in systolic blood pressure was -17.5% (-30.0, -5.0) in the HG versus -9% (-18.0, 5.0) in the IG (p = 0.015; SMD = 0.419), and the incidence of ACEs was 6% in the HG and 2% in the IG (p = 0.542; SMD = 0.207).CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative risk stratification, preoperative intravenous hydration, intravenous induction, and early use of continuous vasoactives resulted in greater hemodynamic stability, with a 2% incidence of ACEs.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jvca.2021.04.019
View details for PubMedID 34049787
Lung Ultrasound Findings in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19.
Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
OBJECTIVES: Lung ultrasound (LUS) can accurately diagnose several pulmonary diseases, including pneumothorax, effusion, and pneumonia. LUS may be useful in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19.METHODS: This study was conducted at two United States hospitals from 3/21/2020 to 6/01/2020. Our inclusion criteria included hospitalized adults with COVID-19 (based on symptomatology and a confirmatory RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2) who received a LUS. Providers used a 12-zone LUS scanning protocol. The images were interpreted by the researchers based on a pre-developed consensus document. Patients were stratified by clinical deterioration (defined as either ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death within 28days from the initial symptom onset) and time from symptom onset to their scan.RESULTS: N = 22 patients (N = 36 scans) were included. Eleven (50%) patients experienced clinical deterioration. Among N = 36 scans, only 3 (8%) were classified as normal. The remaining scans demonstrated B-lines (89%), consolidations (56%), pleural thickening (47%), and pleural effusion (11%). Scans from patients with clinical deterioration demonstrated higher percentages of bilateral consolidations (50 versus 15%; P = .033), anterior consolidations (47 versus 11%; P = .047), lateral consolidations (71 versus 29%; P = .030), pleural thickening (69 versus 30%; P = .045), but not B-lines (100 versus 80%; P = .11). Abnormal findings had similar prevalences between scans collected 0-6days and 14-28days from symptom onset.DISCUSSION: Certain LUS findings may be common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, especially for those that experience clinical deterioration. These findings may occur anytime throughout the first 28days of illness. Future efforts should investigate the predictive utility of these findings on clinical outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jum.15683
View details for PubMedID 33665872
Perceptions of Support Among Transgender and Gender-Expansive Adolescents and Their Parents.
The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
PURPOSE: To capture and compare the perspectives of parents and their transgender and gender expansive (TGE) adolescents during pivotal moments of gender identity development and to report the level of adjustment during these parental experiences.METHODS: We utilized a mixed-methods approach and interviewed 36 parents and 23 TGE adolescents at our Gender Clinic. Parents retrospectively identified "pivotal moments" in their child's gender identity development and rated their levels of support and adjustment. Adolescents independently rated their parent's level of support during these moments to allow for comparative analyses.RESULTS: The supportive behavior most frequently identified by parents was connecting the adolescent to services, while adolescents considered their parents' use of the affirmed name or pronouns to be most supportive. We found a positive correlation between the parents' perceptions of support and those of TGE adolescents during pivotal moments (r= 0.4, p < 0.001). Adolescents rated the degree of parental support to be 3.73 points (95% confidence interval: [2.67,4.8], p < 0.001) higher on a Likert scale than corresponding ratings provided by parents in a generalized estimating equation model. Parents experienced moderate need for adjustment during these moments.CONCLUSIONS: Providers may use these findings to guide parents toward gender affirmative behaviors that may protect against negative mental health outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.11.021
View details for PubMedID 33707145
Interobserver agreement of lung ultrasound findings of COVID-19.
Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LUS) has received considerable interest in the clinical evaluation of patients with COVID-19. Previously described LUS manifestations for COVID-19 include B-lines, consolidations, and pleural thickening. The interrater reliability (IRR) of these findings for COVID-19 is unknown.METHODS: This study was conducted between March and June 2020. Nine physicians (hospitalists: n = 4; emergency medicine: n = 5) from 3 medical centers independently evaluated n = 20 LUS scans (n = 180 independent observations) collected from patients with COVID-19, diagnosed via RT-PCR. These studies were randomly selected from an image database consisting of COVID-19 patients evaluated in the emergency department with portable ultrasound devices. Physicians were blinded to any patient information or previous LUS interpretation. Kappa values (kappa) were used to calculate IRR.RESULTS: There was substantial IRR on the following items: normal LUS scan (kappa = 0.79 [95% CI: 0.72-0.87]), presence of B-lines (kappa = 0.79 [95% CI: 0.72-0.87]), ≥3 B-lines observed (kappa = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.64-0.79]). Moderate IRR was observed for the presence of any consolidation (kappa = 0.57 [95% CI: 0.50-0.64]), subpleural consolidation (kappa = 0.49 [95% CI: 0.42-0.56]), and presence of effusion (kappa = 0.49 [95% CI: 0.41-0.56]). Fair IRR was observed for pleural thickening (kappa = 0.23 [95% CI: 0.15-0.30]).DISCUSSION: Many LUS manifestations for COVID-19 appear to have moderate to substantial IRR across providers from multiple specialties utilizing differing portable devices. The most reliable LUS findings with COVID-19 may include the presence/count of B-lines or determining if a scan is normal. Clinical protocols for LUS with COVID-19 may require additional observers for the confirmation of less reliable findings such as consolidations.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jum.15620
View details for PubMedID 33426734
Enhancing Social Initiations Using Naturalistic Behavioral Intervention: Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Autism.
Journal of autism and developmental disorders
Deficits in social skills are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and there is an urgent need for effective social skills interventions, especially for improving interactions with typically developing peers. This study examined the effects of a naturalistic behavioral social skills intervention in improving social initiations to peers through a randomized controlled trial. Analyses of multimethod, multi-informant measures indicated that children in the active group (SIMI) demonstrated greater improvement in the types of initiations which were systematically prompted and reinforced during treatment (i.e., behavior regulation). Generalization to joint attention and social interaction initiation types, as well as collateral gains in broader social functioning on clinician- and parent-rated standardized measures were also observed.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-020-04787-8
View details for PubMedID 33387236
Design of a population-based longitudinal cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 incidence and prevalence among adults in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Annals of epidemiology
We describe the design of a longitudinal cohort study to determine SARS-CoV-2 incidence and prevalence among a population-based sample of adults living in six San Francisco Bay Area counties.Using an address-based sample, we stratified households by county and by census-tract risk. Risk strata were determined by using regression models to predict infections by geographic area using census-level sociodemographic and health characteristics. We disproportionately sampled high and medium risk strata, which had smaller population sizes, to improve precision of estimates, and calculated a desired sample size of 3400. Participants were primarily recruited by mail and were followed monthly with PCR testing of nasopharyngeal swabs, testing of venous blood samples for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antigens, and testing of the presence of neutralizing antibodies, with completion of questionnaires about socio-demographics and behavior. Estimates of incidence and prevalence will be weighted by county, risk strata and sociodemographic characteristics of non-responders, and will take into account laboratory test performance.We enrolled 3842 adults from August to December, 2020, and completed follow-up March 31, 2021. We reached target sample sizes within most strata.Our stratified random sampling design will allow us to recruit a robust general population cohort of adults to determine the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Identifying risk strata was unique to the design and will help ensure precise estimates, and high-performance testing for presence of virus and antibodies will enable accurate ascertainment of infections.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annepidem.2021.11.001
View details for PubMedID 34800659
Frequency and Consequences of Routine Temperature Measurement at Well-Child Visits.
To determine the (1) frequency and visit characteristics of routine temperature measurement and (2) rates of interventions by temperature measurement practice and the probability of incidental fever detection.In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed well-child visits between 2014-2019. We performed multivariable regression to characterize visits associated with routine temperature measurement and conducted generalized estimating equations regression to determine adjusted rates of interventions (antibiotic prescription, and diagnostic testing) and vaccine deferral by temperature measurement and fever status, clustered by clinic and patient. Through dual independent chart review, fever (≥100.4°F) was categorized as probable, possible, or unlikely to be incidentally detected.Temperature measurement occurred at 155 527 of 274 351 (58.9%) well-child visits. Of 24 clinics, 16 measured temperature at >90% of visits ("routine measurement clinics") and 8 at <20% of visits ("occasional measurement clinics"). After adjusting for age, ethnicity, race, and insurance, antibiotic prescription was more common (adjusted odds ratio: 1.21; 95% CI 1.13-1.29), whereas diagnostic testing was less common (adjusted odds ratio: 0.76; 95% CI 0.71-0.82) at routine measurement clinics. Fever was detected at 270 of 155 527 (0.2%) routine measurement clinic visits, 47 (17.4%) of which were classified as probable incidental fever. Antibiotic prescription and diagnostic testing were more common at visits with probable incidental fever than without fever (7.4% vs 1.7%; 14.8% vs 1.2%; P < .001), and vaccines were deferred at 50% such visits.Temperature measurement occurs at more than one-half of well-child visits and is a clinic-driven practice. Given the impact on subsequent interventions and vaccine deferral, the harm-benefit profile of this practice warrants consideration.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2021-053412
View details for PubMedID 34890449
Testing Hypnotizability by Phone: Development and Validation of the Remote Hypnotic Induction Profile (rHIP).
The International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis
2021; 69 (1): 94–111
Standard hypnotizability scales require physical contact or direct observation by tester and participant. The authors addressed this limitation by developing and testing the remote Hypnotic Induction Profile (rHIP), a hypnotizability test derived from the Hypnotic Induction Profile that is completed by telephone. To assess the validity of the rHIP, 56 volunteers naive to hypnotizability testing completed both the HIP and the rHIP, with order of testing randomized. Results indicate a strong correlation between HIP and rHIP scores, r s=.71(0.53-0.84), p <.0001, and good concordance, difference=.03(-0.53, 0.59), p =.91, independent of testing order. The rHIP had few complications. Possible advantages of using the rHIP include improving patient expectancy prior to scheduling a hypnosis session, increasing access to hypnotizability testing for remote interventions, and obviating resource-intensive in-person hypnotizability screening for trials that exclude subjects with certain scores.
View details for DOI 10.1080/00207144.2021.1827937
View details for PubMedID 33513064
Factors Associated with Hospital-Acquired Delirium in Patients 18–65 Years Old
J GEN INTERN MED
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-020-06378-w
Characteristics of Younger and Older Adults with Hospital-Acquired Delirium: a Claims Data Study Spanning 14 years
J GEN INTERN MED
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-020-06379-9
Merits of Surgical Comanagement of Patients With Hip Fracture by Dedicated Orthopaedic Hospitalists.
Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Global research & reviews
2021; 5 (3)
Rotating medical consultants, hospitalists or geriatricians, are involved in the care of patients with hip fracture, often after medical complications have already occurred. In August 2012, we implemented a unique surgical comanagement (SCM) model in which the same Internal Medicine hospitalists are dedicated year-round to the orthopaedic surgery service. We examine whether this SCM model was associated with a decrease in medical complications, length of stay, and inpatient mortality in patients with hip fracture admitted at our institution, compared with the previous model.We included 2,252 admissions to the orthopaedic surgery service with a hip fracture between 2009 and 2018 (757 pre-SCM and 1495 post-SCM). We adjusted for age, Charlson comorbidity score, and operating time in all regression analyses.Mean Charlson comorbidity score (1.6 versus 1.2) and median case mix index (2.1 versus 1.9) were higher in the post-SCM group. A 32% decrease was observed in the odds of having ≥1 medical complication(s) (odds ratio, 0.68 [95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 0.91], P = 0.009) post-SCM. No change was observed in length of stay or inpatient mortality despite an increase in medical complexity post-SCM.Having dedicated orthopaedic hospitalists may contribute to fewer medical complications in patients with hip fracture.
View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOSGlobal-D-20-00231
View details for PubMedID 33720101
- Effect of electronic clinical decision support on inappropriate prescriptions in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2021
DO TARGETED QUALITY IMPROVEMENT INTERVENTIONS IMPROVE PEDIATRIC SEPSIS BUNDLE COMPLIANCE?
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021: 623
View details for Web of Science ID 000672597102367
Active surveillance of serious adverse events following transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma.
The reported incidence of adverse reactions following Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) transfusion has generally been lower than expected based on the incidence of transfusion reactions that have been observed in studies of conventional plasma transfusion. This raises the concern for under-reporting of adverse events in studies of CCP that rely on passive surveillance strategies.Our institution implemented a protocol to actively identify possible adverse reactions to CCP transfusion. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of inpatients who received CCP at Stanford Hospital between May 13, 2020 and January 31, 2021. We determined the incidence of adverse events following CCP transfusion.A total of 49 patients received CCP. Seven patients (14%) had an increased supplemental oxygen requirement within 4 h of transfusion completion, including one patient who was intubated during the transfusion. An additional 11 patients (total of 18, 37%) had increased oxygen requirements within 24 h of transfusion, including 3 patients who were intubated. Six patients (12%) fulfilled criteria for transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO).Using an active surveillance strategy, we commonly observed adverse events following the transfusion of CCP to hospitalized patients. It was not possible to definitively determine whether or not these adverse events are related to CCP transfusion. TACO was likely over-diagnosed given overlap with the manifestations of COVID-19. Nevertheless, these results suggest that the potential adverse effects of CCP transfusion may be underestimated by reports from passive surveillance studies.
View details for DOI 10.1111/trf.16711
View details for PubMedID 34677830
Trends in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition indicators during five years of piloting and scaling-up of Ananya interventions in Bihar, India.
Journal of global health
2020; 10 (2): 021003
Background: The Ananya program in Bihar implemented household and community-level interventions to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition (RMNCHN) in two phases: a first phase of intensive ancillary support to governmental implementation and innovation testing by non-government organisation (NGO) partners in eight focus districts (2012-2014), followed by a second phase of state-wide government-led implementation with techno-managerial assistance from NGOs (2014 onwards). This paper examines trends in RMNCHN indicators in the program's implementation districts from 2012-2017.Methods: Eight consecutive rounds of cross-sectional Community-based Household Surveys conducted by CARE India in 2012-2017 provided comparable data on a large number of indicators of frontline worker (FLW) performance, mothers' behaviours, and facility-based care and outreach service delivery across the continuum of maternal and child care. Logistic regression, considering the complex survey design and sample weights generated by that design, was used to estimate trends using survey rounds 2-5 for the first phase in the eight focus districts and rounds 6-9 for the second phase in all 38 districts statewide, as well as the overall change from round 2-9 in focus districts. To aid in contextualising the results, indicators were also compared amongst the formerly focus and the non-focus districts at the beginning of the second phase.Results: In the first phase, the levels of 34 out of 52 indicators increased significantly in the focus districts, including almost all indicators of FLW performance in antenatal and postnatal care, along with mother's birth preparedness, some breastfeeding practices, and immunisations. Between the two phases, 33 of 52 indicators declined significantly. In the second phase, the formerly focus districts experienced a rise in the levels of 14 of 50 indicators and a decline in the levels of 14 other indicators. There was a rise in the levels of 22 out of 50 indicators in the non-focus districts in the second phase, with a decline in the levels of 13 other indicators.Conclusions: Improvements in indicators were conditional on implementation support to program activities at a level of intensity that was higher than what could be achieved at scale so far. Successes during the pilot phase of intensive support suggests that RMNCHN can be improved statewide in Bihar with sufficient investments in systems performance improvements.Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02726230.
View details for DOI 10.7189/jogh.10.021003
View details for PubMedID 33427818
Health layering of self-help groups: impacts on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition in Bihar, India.
Journal of global health
2020; 10 (2): 021007
Background: Self-help group (SHG) interventions have been widely studied in low and middle income countries. However, there is little data on specific impacts of health layering, or adding health education modules upon existing SHGs which were formed primarily for economic empowerment. We examined three SHG interventions from 2012-2017 in Bihar, India to test the hypothesis that health-layering of SHGs would lead to improved health-related behaviours of women in SHGs.Methods: A model for health layering of SHGs - Parivartan - was developed by the non-governmental organisation (NGO), Project Concern International, in 64 blocks of eight districts. Layering included health modules, community events and review mechanisms. The health layering model was adapted for use with government-led SHGs, called JEEViKA+HL, in 37 other blocks of Bihar. Scale-up of government-led SHGs without health layering (JEEViKA) occurred contemporaneously in 433 other blocks, providing a natural comparison group. Using Community-based Household Surveys (CHS, rounds 6-9) by CARE India, 62 reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition (RMNCHN) and sanitation indicators were examined for SHGs with health layering (Pavivartan SHGs and JEEViKA+HL SHGs) compared to those without. We calculated mean, standard deviation and odds ratios of indicators using surveymeans and survey logistic regression.Results: In 2014, 64% of indicators were significantly higher in Parivartan members compared to non-members residing in the same blocks. During scale up, from 2015-17, half (50%) of indicators had significantly higher odds in health layered SHG members (Parivartan or JEEViKA+HL) in 101 blocks compared to SHG members without health layering (JEEViKA) in 433 blocks.Conclusions: Health layering of SHGs was demonstrated by an NGO-led model (Parivartan), adapted and scaled up by a government model (JEEViKA+HL), and associated with significant improvements in health compared to non-health-layered SHGs (JEEViKA). These results strengthen the evidence base for further layering of health onto the SHG platform for scale-level health change.Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02726230.
View details for DOI 10.7189/jogh.10.021007
View details for PubMedID 33425331
Health impact of self-help groups scaled-up statewide in Bihar, India.
Journal of global health
2020; 10 (2): 021006
Background: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of self-help groups (SHGs) and subsequent scale-up on reproductive, maternal, newborn, child health, and nutrition (RMNCHN) and sanitation outcomes among marginalised women in Bihar, India from 2014-2017.Methods: We examined RMNCHN and sanitation behaviors in women who were members of any SHGs compared to non-members, without differentiating between types of SHGs. We analysed annual surveys across 38 districts of Bihar covering 62690 women who had a live birth in the past 12 months. All analyses utilised data from Community-based Household Surveys (CHS) rounds 6-9 collected in 2014-2017 by CARE India as part of the Bihar Technical Support Program funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. We examined 66 RMNCHN and sanitation indicators using survey logistic regression; the comparison group in all cases was age-comparable women from the geographic contexts of the SHG members but who did not belong to SHGs. We also examined links between discussion topics in SHGs and changes in relevant behaviours, and stratification of effects by parity and mother's age.Results: SHG members had higher odds compared to non-SHG members for 60% of antenatal care indicators, 22% of delivery indicators, 70% of postnatal care indicators, 50% of nutrition indicators, 100% of family planning and sanitation indicators and no immunisation indicators measured. According to delivery platform, most FLW performance indicators (80%) had increased odds, followed by maternal behaviours (57%) and facility care and outreach service delivery (22%) compared to non-SHG members. Self-report of discussions within SHGs on specific topics was associated with increased related maternal behaviours. Younger SHG members (<25 years) had attenuated health indicators compared to older group members (≥25 years), and women with more children had more positive indicators compared to women with fewer children.Conclusions: SHG membership was associated with improved RMNCHN and sanitation indicators at scale in Bihar, India. Further work is needed to understand the specific impacts of health layering upon SHGs. Working through SHGs is a promising vehicle for improving primary health care.Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02726230.
View details for DOI 10.7189/jogh.10.021006
View details for PubMedID 33425330
Impact of mHealth interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition at scale: BBC Media Action and the Ananya program in Bihar, India.
Journal of global health
2020; 10 (2): 021005
Background: Mobile health (mHealth) tools have potential for improving the reach and quality of health information and services through community health workers in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluates the impact of an mHealth tool implemented at scale as part of the statewide reproductive,maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition (RMNCHN) program in Bihar, India.Methods: Three survey-based data sets were analysed to compare the health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours amongst childbearing women exposed to the Mobile Kunji and Dr. Anita mHealth tools during their visits with frontline workers compared with those who were unexposed.Results: An evaluation by Mathematica (2014) revealed that exposure to Mobile Kunji and Dr. Anita recordings were associated with significantly higher odds of consuming iron-folic acid tablets (odds ratio (OR)=2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.8-3.1) as well as taking a set of three measures for delivery preparedness (OR=2.8, 95% CI=1.9-4.2) and appropriate infant complementary feeding (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.0-3.5). CARE India's Community-based Household Surveys (2012-2017) demonstrated significant improvements in early breastfeeding (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.5-1.78) and exclusive breastfeeding (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.33-1.62) in addition to birth preparedness practices. BBC Media Action's Usage & Engagement Survey (2014) demonstrated a positive association between exposure to Mobile Kunji and Dr. Anita and exclusive breastfeeding (58% exposed vs 43% unexposed, P<0.01) as well as maternal respondents' trust in their frontline worker.Conclusions: Significant improvements in RMNCHN-related knowledge and behaviours were observed for Bihari women who were exposed to Mobile Kunji and Dr. Anita. This analysis is unique in its rigorous evaluation across multiple data sets of mHealth interventions implemented at scale. These results can help inform global understanding of how best to use mHealth tools, for whom, and in what contexts.Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02726230.
View details for DOI 10.7189/jogh.10.021005
View details for PubMedID 33425329
Evaluation of a large-scale reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition program in Bihar, India, through an equity lens.
Journal of global health
2020; 10 (2): 021011
Background: Despite increasing focus on health inequities in low- and middle income countries, significant disparities persist. We analysed impacts of a statewide maternal and child health program among the most compared to the least marginalised women in Bihar, India.Methods: Utilising survey-weighted logistic regression, we estimated programmatic impact using difference-in-difference estimators from Mathematica data collected at the beginning (2012, n=10174) and after two years of program implementation (2014, n=9611). We also examined changes in disparities over time using eight rounds of Community-based Household Surveys (CHS) (2012-2017, n=48349) collected by CARE India.Results: At baseline for the Mathematica data, least marginalised women generally performed desired health-related behaviours more frequently than the most marginalised. After two years, most disparities persisted. Disparities increased for skilled birth attendant identification [+16.2% (most marginalised) vs +32.6% (least marginalized), P<0.01) and skin-to-skin care (+14.8% vs +20.4%, P<0.05), and decreased for immediate breastfeeding (+10.4 vs -4.9, P<0.01). For the CHS data, odds ratios compared the most to the least marginalised women as referent. Results demonstrated that disparities were most significant for indicators reliant on access to care such as delivery in a facility (OR range: 0.15 to 0.48) or by a qualified doctor (OR range: 0.08 to 0.25), and seeking care for complications (OR range: 0.26 to 0.64).Conclusions: Disparities observed at baseline generally persisted throughout program implementation. The most significant disparities were observed amongst behaviours dependent upon access to care. Changes in disparities largely were due to improvements for the least marginalised women without improvements for the most marginalised. Equity-based assessments of programmatic impacts, including those of universal health approaches, must be undertaken to monitor disparities and to ensure equitable and sustainable benefits for all.Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02726230.
View details for DOI 10.7189/jogh.10.021011
View details for PubMedID 33425335
Impact of the Ananya program on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition in Bihar, India: early results from a quasi-experimental study.
Journal of global health
2020; 10 (2): 021002
Background: The Government of Bihar (GoB) in India, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and several non-governmental organisations launched the Ananya program aimed to support the GoB to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition (RMNCHN) statewide. Here we summarise changes in indicators attained during the initial two-year pilot phase (2012-2013) of implementation in eight focus districts of approximately 28 million population, aimed to inform subsequent scale-up.Methods: The quasi-experimental impact evaluation included statewide household surveys at two time points during the pilot phase: January-April 2012 ("baseline") including an initial cohort of beneficiaries and January-April 2014 ("midline") with a new cohort. The two arms were: 1) eight intervention districts, and 2) a comparison arm comprised of the remaining 30 districts in Bihar where Ananya interventions were not implemented. We analysed changes in indicators across the RMNCHN continuum of care from baseline to midline in intervention and comparison districts using a difference-in-difference analysis.Results: Indicators in the two arms were similar at baseline. Overall, 40% of indicators (20 of 51) changed significantly from baseline to midline in the comparison districts unrelated to Ananya; two-thirds (n=13) of secular indicator changes were in a direction expected to promote health. Statistically significant impact attributable to the Ananya program was found for 10% (five of 51) of RMNCHN indicators. Positive impacts were most prominent for mother's behaviours in contraceptive utilisation.Conclusions: The Ananya program had limited impact in improving health-related outcomes during the first two-year period covered by this evaluation. The program's theories of change and action were not powered to observe statistically significant differences in RMNCHN indicators within two years, but rather aimed to help inform program improvements and scale-up. Evaluation of large-scale programs such as Ananya using theory-informed, equity-sensitive (including gender), mixed-methods approaches can help elucidate causality and better explain pathways through which supply- and demand-side interventions contribute to changes in behaviour among the actors involved in the production of population-level health outcomes. Evidence from Bihar indicates that deep structural constraints in health system organisation and delivery of interventions pose substantial limitations on behaviour change among health care providers and beneficiaries.Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02726230.
View details for DOI 10.7189/jogh.10.021002
View details for PubMedID 33427822
"MAKING A LIST AND CHECKING IT TWICE": A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE ADVISORY IN PRIMARY CARE
SPRINGER. 2020: S702
View details for Web of Science ID 000567143602227
Portable Ultrasound Device Usage and Learning Outcomes Among Internal Medicine Trainees: A Parallel-Group Randomized Trial.
Journal of hospital medicine
2020; 15 (2): e1–e6
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how to effectively train residents with point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) despite increasing usage.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether handheld ultrasound devices (HUDs), alongside a year-long lecture series, improved trainee image interpretation skills with POCUS.METHODS: Internal medicine intern physicians (N = 149) at a single academic institution from 2016 to 2018 participated in the study. The 2017 interns (n = 47) were randomized 1:1 to receive personal HUDs (n = 24) for patient care vs no-HUDs (n = 23). All 2017 interns received a repeated lecture series regarding cardiac, thoracic, and abdominal POCUS. Interns were assessed on their ability to interpret POCUS images of normal/abnormal findings. The primary outcome was the difference in end-of-the-year assessment scores between interns randomized to receive HUDs vs not. Secondary outcomes included trainee scores after repeating lectures and confidence with POCUS. Intern scores were also compared with historical (2016, N = 50) and contemporaneous (2018, N = 52) controls who received no lectures.RESULTS: Interns randomized to HUDs did not have significantly higher image interpretation scores (median HUD score: 0.84 vs no-HUD score: 0.84; P = .86). However, HUD interns felt more confident in their abilities. The 2017 cohort had higher scores (median 0.84), compared with the 2016 historical control (median 0.71; P = .001) and 2018 contemporaneous control (median 0.48; P < .001). Assessment scores improved after first-time exposure to the lecture series, while repeated lectures did not improve scores.CONCLUSIONS: Despite feeling more confident, personalized HUDs did not improve interns' POCUS-related knowledge or interpretive ability. Repeated lecture exposure without further opportunities for deliberate practice may not be beneficial for mastering POCUS.
View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3351
View details for PubMedID 32118565
Improving primary health care delivery in Bihar, India: Learning from piloting and statewide scale-up of Ananya.
Journal of global health
2020; 10 (2): 021001
In 2010, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) partnered with the Government of Bihar (GoB), India to launch the Ananya program to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition (RMNCHN) outcomes. The program sought to address supply- and demand-side barriers to the adoption, coverage, quality, equity and health impact of select RMNCHN interventions. Approaches included strengthening frontline worker service delivery; social and behavior change communications; layering of health, nutrition and sanitation into women's self-help groups (SHGs); and quality improvement in maternal and newborn care at primary health care facilities. Ananya program interventions were piloted in approximately 28 million population in eight innovation districts from 2011-2013, and then beginning in 2014, were scaled up by the GoB across the rest of the state's population of 104 million. A Bihar Technical Support Program provided techno-managerial support to governmental Health as well as Integrated Child Development Services, and the JEEViKA Technical Support Program supported health layering and scale-up of the GoB's SHG program. The level of support at the block level during statewide scale-up in 2014 onwards was approximately one-fourth that provided in the pilot phase of Ananya in 2011-2013. This paper - the first manuscript in an 11-manuscript and 2-viewpoint collection on Learning from Ananya: Lessons for primary health care performance improvement - seeks to provide a broad description of Ananya and subsequent statewide adaptation and scale-up, and capture the background and context, key objectives, interventions, delivery approaches and evaluation methods of this expansive program. Subsequent papers in this collection focus on specific intervention delivery platforms. For the analyses in this series, Stanford University held key informant interviews and worked with the technical support and evaluation grantees of the Ananya program, as well as leadership from the India Country Office of the BMGF, to analyse and synthesise data from multiple sources. Capturing lessons from the Ananya pilot program and statewide scale-up will assist program managers and policymakers to more effectively design and implement RMNCHN programs at scale through technical assistance to governments.
View details for DOI 10.7189/jogh.10.021001
View details for PubMedID 33414906
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7757841
Direct versus indirect bypass procedure for the treatment of ischemic moyamoya disease: results of an individualized selection strategy.
Journal of neurosurgery
The only effective treatment for ischemic moyamoya disease (iMMD) is cerebral revascularization by an extracranial to intracranial bypass. The preferred revascularization method remains controversial: direct versus indirect bypass. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that method choice should be personalized based on angiographic, hemodynamic, and clinical characteristics to balance the risk of perioperative major stroke against treatment efficacy.Patients with iMMD were identified retrospectively from a prospectively maintained database. Those with mild to moderate internal carotid artery or M1 segment stenosis, preserved cerebrovascular reserve, intraoperative M4 segment anterograde flow ≥ 8 ml/min, or the absence of frequent and severe transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or stroke had been assigned to indirect bypass. The criteria for direct bypass were severe ICA or M1 segment stenosis or occlusion, impaired cerebrovascular reserve or steal phenomenon, intraoperative M4 segment retrograde flow or anterograde flow < 8 ml/min, and the presence of frequent and severe TIAs or clinical strokes. The primary study endpoint was MRI-confirmed symptomatic stroke ≤ 7 days postoperatively resulting in a decline in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively. As a secondary endpoint, the authors assessed 6-month postoperative DSA-demonstrated revascularization, which was classified as < 1/3, 1/3-2/3, or > 2/3 of the middle cerebral artery territory.One hundred thirty-eight patients with iMMD affecting 195 hemispheres revascularized in the period from March 2016 to June 2018 were included in this analysis. One hundred thirty-three hemispheres were revascularized with direct bypass and 62 with indirect bypass. The perioperative stroke rate was 4.7% and 6.8% in the direct and indirect groups, respectively (p = 0.36). Degree of revascularization was higher in the direct bypass group (p = 0.03). The proportion of patients improving to an mRS score 0-1 (from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively) tended to be higher in the direct bypass group, although the difference between the two bypass groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.27).The selective use of an indirect bypass procedure for iMMD did not decrease the perioperative stroke rate. Direct bypass provided a significantly higher degree of revascularization. The authors conclude that direct bypass is the treatment of choice for iMMD.
View details for DOI 10.3171/2020.3.JNS192847
View details for PubMedID 32534489
Improvement in Patient Safety May Precede Policy Changes: Trends in Patient Safety Indicators in the United States, 2000-2013.
Journal of patient safety
Quality and safety improvement are global priorities. In the last two decades, the United States has introduced several payment reforms to improve patient safety. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed tools to identify preventable inpatient adverse events using administrative data, patient safety indicators (PSIs). The aim of this study was to assess changes in national patient safety trends that corresponded to U.S. pay-for-performance reforms.This is a retrospective, longitudinal analysis to estimate temporal changes in 13 AHRQ's PSIs. National inpatient sample from the AHRQ and estimates were weighted to represent a national sample. We analyzed PSI trends, Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services payment policy changes, and Inpatient Prospective Payment System regulations and notices between 2000 and 2013.Of the 13 PSIs studied, 10 had an overall decrease in rates and 3 had an increase. Joinpoint analysis showed that 12 of 13 PSIs had decreasing or stable trends in the last 5 years of the study. Central-line blood stream infections had the greatest annual decrease (-31.1 annual percent change between 2006 and 2013), whereas postoperative respiratory failure had the smallest decrease (-3.5 annual percent change between 2005 and 2013). With the exception of postoperative hip fracture, significant decreases in trends preceded federal payment reform initiatives.National in-hospital patient safety has significantly improved between 2000 and 2015, as measured by PSIs. In this study, improvements in PSI trends often proceeded policies targeting patient safety events, suggesting that intense public discourses targeting patient safety may drive national policy reforms and that these improved trends may be sustained by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services policies that followed.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PTS.0000000000000615
View details for PubMedID 32217926
Surgical Comanagement by Hospitalists: Continued Improvement Over 5 Years
Journal of Hospital Medicine
View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3363
Community Pediatric Hospitalist Workload: Results from a National Survey.
Journal of hospital medicine
2019; 14: E1–E4
As a newly recognized subspecialty, understanding programmatic models for pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) programs is vital to lay the groundwork for a sustainable field. Although variability has been described within university-based PHM programs, there remains no national benchmark for community-based PHM programs. In this report, we describe the workload, clinical services, employment, and perception of sustainability of 70 community-based PHM programs in 29 states through a survey of community site leaders. The median hours for a full-time hospitalist was 1,882 hours/year with those employed by community hospitals working 8% more hours/year and viewing appropriate morning pediatric census as 20% higher than those employed by university institutions. Forty-three out of 70 (63%) site leaders perceived their programs as sustainable, with no significant difference by employer structure. Future studies should further explore root causes for workload discrepancies between community and academic employed programs along with establishing potential standards for PHM program development.
View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3263
View details for PubMedID 31433774
Can Machine Learning Methods Produce Accurate and Easy-to-use Prediction Models of 30-day Complications and Mortality After Knee or Hip Arthroplasty?
Clinical orthopaedics and related research
BACKGROUND: Existing universal and procedure-specific surgical risk prediction models of death and major complications after elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have limitations including poor transparency, poor to modest accuracy, and insufficient validation to establish performance across diverse settings. Thus, the need remains for accurate and validated prediction models for use in preoperative management, informed consent, shared decision-making, and risk adjustment for reimbursement.QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to use machine learning methods and large national databases to develop and validate (both internally and externally) parsimonious risk-prediction models for mortality and complications after TJA.METHODS: Preoperative demographic and clinical variables from all 107,792 nonemergent primary THAs and TKAs in the 2013 to 2014 American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) were evaluated as predictors of 30-day death and major complications. The NSQIP database was chosen for its high-quality data on important outcomes and rich characterization of preoperative demographic and clinical predictors for demographically and geographically diverse patients. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, a type of machine learning that optimizes accuracy and parsimony, was used for model development. Tenfold validation was used to produce C-statistics, a measure of how well models discriminate patients who experience an outcome from those who do not. External validation, which evaluates the generalizability of the models to new data sources and patient groups, was accomplished using data from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). Models previously developed from VASQIP data were also externally validated using NSQIP data to examine the generalizability of their performance with a different group of patients outside the VASQIP context.RESULTS: The models, developed using LASSO regression with diverse clinical (for example, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, comorbidities) and demographic (for example, age, gender) inputs, had good accuracy in terms of discriminating the likelihood a patient would experience, within 30 days of arthroplasty, a renal complication (C-statistic, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.80), death (0.73; 95% CI, 0.70-0.76), or a cardiac complication (0.73; 95% CI, 0.71-0.75) from one who would not. By contrast, the models demonstrated poor accuracy for venous thromboembolism (C-statistic, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.60-0.62) and any complication (C-statistic, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.63-0.65). External validation of the NSQIP- derived models using VASQIP data found them to be robust in terms of predictions about mortality and cardiac complications, but not for predicting renal complications. Models previously developed with VASQIP data had poor accuracy when externally validated with NSQIP data, suggesting they should not be used outside the context of the Veterans Health Administration.CONCLUSIONS: Moderately accurate predictive models of 30-day mortality and cardiac complications after elective primary TJA were developed as well as internally and externally validated. To our knowledge, these are the most accurate and rigorously validated TJA-specific prediction models currently available (http://med.stanford.edu/s-spire/Resources/clinical-tools-.html). Methods to improve these models, including the addition of nonstandard inputs such as natural language processing of preoperative clinical progress notes or radiographs, should be pursued as should the development and validation of models to predict longer term improvements in pain and function.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study.
View details for PubMedID 30624314
Use of mobile technology by frontline health workers to promote reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition: a cluster randomized controlled Trial in Bihar, India.
Journal of global health
2019; 9 (2): 0204249
mHealth technology holds promise for improving the effectiveness of frontline health workers (FLWs), who provide most health-related primary care services, especially reproductive, maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition services (RMNCHN), in low-resource - especially hard-to-reach - settings. Data are lacking, however, from rigorous evaluations of mHealth interventions on delivery of health services or on health-related behaviors and outcomes.The Information Communication Technology-Continuum of Care Service (ICT-CCS) tool was designed for use by community-based FLWs to increase the coverage, quality and coordination of services they provide in Bihar, India. It consisted of numerous mobile phone-based job aids aimed to improve key RMNCHN-related behaviors and outcomes. ICT-CCS was implemented in Saharsa district, with cluster randomization at the health sub-center level. In total, evaluation surveys were conducted with approximately 1100 FLWs and 3000 beneficiaries who had delivered an infant in the previous year in the catchment areas of intervention and control health sub-centers, about half before implementation (mid-2012) and half two years afterward (mid-2014). Analyses included bivariate and difference-in-difference analyses across study groups.The ICT-CCS intervention was associated with more frequent coordination of AWWs with ASHAs on home visits and greater job confidence among ASHAs. The intervention resulted in an 11 percentage point increase in FLW antenatal home visits during the third trimester (P = 0.04). In the post-implementation period, postnatal home visits during the first week were increased in the intervention (72%) vs the control (60%) group (P < 0.01). The intervention also resulted in 13, 12, and 21 percentage point increases in skin-to-skin care (P < 0.01), breastfeeding immediately after delivery (P < 0.01), and age-appropriate complementary feeding (P < 0.01). FLW supervision and other RMNCHN behaviors were not significantly impacted.Important improvements in FLW home visits and RMNCHN behaviors were achieved. The ICT-CCS tool shows promise for facilitating FLW effectiveness in improving RMNCHN behaviors.
View details for DOI 10.7189/jogh.09.020424
View details for PubMedID 31788233
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6875677
Development and validation of a predictive model for American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status.
BMC health services research
2019; 19 (1): 859
The American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA-PS) classification system was developed to categorize the fitness of patients before surgery. Increasingly, the ASA-PS has been applied to other uses including justification of inpatient admission. Our objectives were to develop and cross-validate a statistical model for predicting ASA-PS; and 2) assess the concurrent and predictive validity of the model by assessing associations between model-derived ASA-PS, observed ASA-PS, and a diverse set of 30-day outcomes.Using the 2014 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Participant Use Data File, we developed and internally cross-validated multinomial regression models to predict ASA-PS using preoperative NSQIP data. Accuracy was assessed with C-Statistics and calibration plots. We assessed both concurrent and predictive validity of model-derived ASA-PS relative to observed ASA-PS and 30-day outcomes. To aid further research and use of the ASA-PS model, we implemented it into an online calculator.Of the 566,797 elective procedures in the final analytic dataset, 8.9% were ASA-PS 1, 48.9% were ASA-PS 2, 39.1% were ASA-PS 3, and 3.2% were ASA-PS 4. The accuracy of the 21-variable model to predict ASA-PS was C = 0.77 +/- 0.0025. The model-derived ASA-PS had stronger association with key indicators of preoperative status including comorbidities and higher BMI (concurrent validity) compared to observed ASA-PS, but less strong associations with postoperative complications (predictive validity). The online ASA-PS calculator may be accessed at https://s-spire-clintools.shinyapps.io/ASA_PS_Estimator/ CONCLUSIONS: Model-derived ASA-PS better tracked key indicators of preoperative status compared to observed ASA-PS. The ability to have an electronically derived measure of ASA-PS can potentially be useful in research, quality measurement, and clinical applications.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12913-019-4640-x
View details for PubMedID 31752856
Effects of team-based goals and non-monetary incentives on front-line health worker performance and maternal health behaviours: a cluster randomised controlled trial in Bihar, India.
BMJ global health
2019; 4 (4): e001146
Introduction: We evaluated the impact of a 'Team-Based Goals and Incentives' (TBGI) intervention in Bihar, India, designed to improve front-line (community health) worker (FLW) performance and health-promoting behaviours related to reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition.Methods: This study used a cluster randomised controlled trial design and difference-in-difference analyses of improvements in maternal health-related behaviours related to the intervention's team-based goals (primary), and interactions of FLWs with each other and with maternal beneficiaries (secondary). Evaluation participants included approximately 1300 FLWs and 3600 mothers at baseline (May to June 2012) and after 2.5 years of implementation (November to December 2014) who had delivered an infant in the previous year.Results: The TBGI intervention resulted in significant increases in the frequency of antenatal home visits (15 absolute percentage points (PP), p=0.03) and receipt of iron-folic acid (IFA) tablets (7 PP, p=0.02), but non-significant changes in other health behaviours related to the trial's goals. Improvements were seen in selected attitudes related to coordination and teamwork among FLWs, and in the provision of advice to beneficiaries (ranging from 8 to 14 PP) related to IFA, cord care, breast feeding, complementary feeding and family planning.Conclusion: Results suggest that combining an integrated set of team-based coverage goals and targets, small non-cash incentives for teams who meet targets and team building to motivate FLWs resulted in improvements in FLW coordination and teamwork, and in the quality and quantity of FLW-beneficiary interactions. These improvements represent programmatically meaningful steps towards improving health behaviours and outcomes.Trial registration number: NCT03406221.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001146
View details for PubMedID 31543982
Utility of a Quantitative Approach Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Prognostication Regarding Motor and Functional Outcomes in Patients With Surgically Resected Deep Intracranial Cavernous Malformations.
Resection of deep intracranial cavernous malformations (CMs) is associated with a higher risk of neurological deterioration and uncertainty regarding clinical outcomes.To examine diffusion tractography imaging (DTI) data evaluating the corticospinal tract (CST) in relation to motor and functional outcomes in patients with surgically resected deep CMs.Perilesional CST was characterized as disrupted, displaced, or normal. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for whole ipsilateral CST and in 3 regions: subcortical (proximal), perilesional, and distally. Mean FA values in anatomically equivalent regions in the contralateral CST were obtained. Clinical and radiological data were collected independently. Multivariable regression analysis was used for statistical analysis.A total of 18 patients [brainstem (15) and thalamus/basal ganglia (3); median follow-up: 270 d] were identified over 2 yr. The CST was identified preoperatively as disrupted (6), displaced (8), and normal (4). Five of 6 patients with disruption had weakness. Higher preoperative mean FA values for distal ipsilateral CST segment were associated with better preoperative lower (P < .001), upper limb (P = .004), postoperative lower (P = .005), and upper limb (P < .001) motor examination. Preoperative mean FA values for distal ipsilateral CST segment (P = .001) and contralateral perilesional CST segment (P < .001) were negatively associated with postoperative modified Rankin scale scores.Lower preoperative mean FA values for overall and defined CST segments corresponded to worse patient pre- and postoperative motor examination and/or functional status. FA value for the distal ipsilateral CST segment has prognostic potential with respect to clinical outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1093/neuros/nyz259
View details for PubMedID 31360998
- Trajectory analysis for postoperative pain using electronic health records: A nonparametric method with robust linear regression and K-medians cluster analysis Health Informatics Journal 2019
Utility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography in Evaluating Motor Examination and Functional Outcomes in Patients with Surgically Resected Deep Intracranial Cavernous Malformations: A Preliminary Model
Journal of Neurological Surgery
View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0039-1679505
- Comparison of Outcomes for Adult Inpatients With Sickle Cell Disease Cared for by Hospitalists Versus Hematologists. American journal of medical quality : the official journal of the American College of Medical Quality 2019: 1062860619892060
NOS3 895G>T and CBR3 730G>A Are Associated with Recurrence Risk in Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer with Intravesical Instillations of THP.
2018; 63 (4): 191-197
To analyze the correlation between pharmacogenomic biomarkers and the efficacy of pirarubicin (THP, also named 4'-O-tetrahydropyranyl-adriamycin) and to explore potential associations of individual genetic backgrounds with the clinical outcomes of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients.Between July 2003 and June 2011, a total of 91 patients were treated with transurethral resection (TUR) of the bladder tumor and were histopathologically confirmed to have NMIBC. Patients received an immediate instillation and maintenance therapy with THP. All patients underwent follow-up for recurrence. We genotyped 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from blood and saliva DNA samples of all patients.The associations of patients' genotypes with tumor recurrence risks were analyzed by survival analysis. A total of 16 (17.6%) of the 91 patients with NMIBC had tumor recurrences with a median follow-up of 17 months (range, 2-83 months). We confirmed the effect of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk score for predicting tumor recurrence (p = 0.002, log-rank test). We adjusted for the EORTC score and found that 2 SNPs, NOS3 895G>T (rs1799983) (p = 0.02, HR = 4.32, 95% CI, 1.30-14.39, GT+TT vs. GG) and CBR3 730G>A (rs1056892) (p = 0.04, HR = 2.57, 95% CI, 1.07-6.18, GA+AA vs. GG), were significantly associated with a higher recurrence risk after TUR and instillations of THP in NMIBC patients.Our results suggest that NOS3 895G>T and CBR3 730G>A are genetic markers that can be used to predict tumor recurrence in NMIBC patients receiving intravesical instillations of THP. The effects of those 2 SNPs are independent of the EORTC scores. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups are needed to confirm our results.
View details for DOI 10.1159/000489402
View details for PubMedID 30125887
Effect of Medicare's Nonpayment Policy on Surgical Site Infections Following Orthopedic Procedures.
Infection control and hospital epidemiology
OBJECTIVE Orthopedic procedures are an important focus in efforts to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs). In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) stopped reimbursements for additional charges associated with serious hospital-acquired conditions, including SSI following certain orthopedic procedures. We aimed to evaluate the CMS policy's effect on rates of targeted orthopedic SSIs among the Medicare population. DESIGN We examined SSI rates following orthopedic procedures among the Medicare population before and after policy implementation compared to a similarly aged control group. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for 2000-2013, we estimated rate ratios (RRs) of orthopedic SSIs among Medicare and non-Medicare patients using a difference-in-differences approach. RESULTS Following policy implementation, SSIs significantly decreased among both the Medicare and non-Medicare populations (RR, 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6-0.8) and RR, 0.8l; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9), respectively. However, the estimated decrease among the Medicare population was not significantly greater than the decrease among the control population (RR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8-1.1). CONCLUSIONS While SSI rates decreased significantly following the implementation of the CMS nonpayment policy, this trend was not associated with policy intervention but rather larger secular trends that likely contributed to decreasing SSI rates over time. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-6.
View details for DOI 10.1017/ice.2017.86
View details for PubMedID 28487001
Improving Pain Management and Long-Term Outcomes Following High-Energy Orthopaedic Trauma (Pain Study)
JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA
2017; 31: S71–S77
Poor pain control after orthopaedic trauma is a predictor of physical disability and numerous negative long-term outcomes. Despite increased awareness of the negative consequences of poorly controlled pain, analgesic therapy among hospitalized patients after orthopaedic trauma remains inconsistent and often inadequate. The Pain study is a 3 armed, prospective, double-blind, multicenter randomized trial designed to evaluate the effect of standard pain management versus standard pain management plus perioperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or pregabalin in patients of ages 18-85 with extremity fractures. The primary outcomes are chronic pain, opioid utilization during the 48 hours after definitive fixation and surgery for nonunion in the year after fixation. Secondary outcomes include preoperative and postoperative pain intensity, adverse events and complications, physical function, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. One year treatment costs are also compared between the groups.
View details for DOI 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000793
View details for Web of Science ID 000402085500014
View details for PubMedID 28323806
National Readmission Patterns of Isolated Splenic Injuries Based on Initial Management Strategy.
2017; 152 (12): 1119–25
Options for managing splenic injuries have evolved with a focus on nonoperative management. Long-term outcomes, such as readmissions and delayed splenectomy rate, are not well understood.To describe the natural history of isolated splenic injuries in the United States and determine whether patterns of readmission were influenced by management strategy.The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Readmission Database is an all-payer, all-ages, longitudinal administrative database that provides data on more than 35 million weighted US discharges yearly. The database was used to identify patients with isolated splenic injuries and the procedures that they received. Adult patients with isolated splenic injuries admitted from January 1 through June 30, 2013, and from January 1 through June 30, 2014, were included. Those who died during the index hospitalization or who had an additional nonsplenic injury with an Abbreviated Injury Score of 2 or greater were excluded. Univariate and mixed-effects logistic regression analysis controlling for center effect were used. Weighted numbers are reported.Initial management strategy at the time of index hospitalization, including nonprocedural management, angioembolization, and splenectomy.All-cause 6-month readmission rate. Secondary outcome was delayed splenectomy rate.A weighted sample of 3792 patients (2146 men [56.6%] and 1646 women [43.4%]; mean [SE] age, 48.5 [0.7] years) with 5155 admission events was included. During the index hospitalization, 825 (21.8%) underwent splenectomy, 293 (7.7%) underwent angioembolization, and 2673 (70.5%) had no procedure. The overall readmission rate was 21.1% (799 patients). Readmission rates did not differ based on initial management strategy (195 patients undergoing splenectomy [23.6%], 70 undergoing angioembolism [23.9%], and 534 undergoing no procedure [20%]; P = .33). Splenectomy was performed in 36 of 799 readmitted patients (4.5%) who did not have a splenectomy at their index hospitalization, leading to an overall delayed splenectomy rate of 1.2% (36 of 2967 patients). In mixed-effects logistic regression analysis controlling for patient, injury, clinical, and hospital characteristics, the choice of splenectomy (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.66-1.31) vs angioembolization (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.72-1.97) as initial management strategy was not associated with readmission.This national evaluation of the natural history of isolated splenic injuries from index admission through 6 months found that approximately 1 in 5 patients are readmitted within 6 months of discharge after an isolated splenic injury. However, the chance of readmission for splenectomy after initial nonoperative management was 1.2%. This finding suggests that the current management strategies used for isolated splenic injuries in the United States are well matched to patient need.
View details for PubMedID 28768329
A Dietary Intervention in Urban African Americans Results of the "Five Plus Nuts and Beans" Randomized Trial
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
2016; 50 (1): 87-95
Unhealthy diets, often low in potassium, likely contribute to racial disparities in blood pressure. We tested the effectiveness of providing weekly dietary advice, assistance with selection of higher potassium grocery items, and a $30 per week food allowance on blood pressure and other outcomes in African American adults with hypertension.We conducted an 8-week RCT with two parallel arms between May 2012 and November 2013.We randomized 123 African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, and implemented the trial in partnership with a community supermarket and the Baltimore City Health Department. Mean (SD) age was 58.6 (9.5) years; 71% were female; blood pressure was 131.3 (14.7)/77.2 (10.5) mmHg; BMI was 34.5 (8.2); and 28% had diabetes.Participants randomized to the active intervention group (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]-Plus) received coach-directed dietary advice and assistance with weekly online ordering and purchasing of high-potassium foods ($30/week) delivered by a community supermarket to a neighborhood library. Participants in the control group received a printed DASH diet brochure along with a debit account of equivalent value to that of the DASH-Plus group.The primary outcome was blood pressure change. Analyses were conducted in January to October 2014.Compared with the control group, the DASH-Plus group increased self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (mean=1.4, 95% CI=0.7, 2.1 servings/day); estimated intake of potassium (mean=0.4, 95% CI=0.1, 0.7 grams/day); and urine potassium excretion (mean=19%, 95% CI=1%, 38%). There was no significant effect on blood pressure.A program providing dietary advice, assistance with grocery ordering, and $30/week of high-potassium foods in African American patients with controlled hypertension in a community-based clinic did not reduce BP. However, the intervention increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and urinary excretion of potassium.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.06.010
View details for Web of Science ID 000366845300016
View details for PubMedID 26321012