Doctor of Philosophy, Washington University (2021)
Bachelor of Science, China Agriculture University (2015)
PhD, Washington University in St. Louis (2021)
BS, Cornell University, Biological Sciences (2015)
BS, China Agricultural University, Biological Sciences (2015)
Mark Krasnow, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Transcriptomic atlas and interaction networks of brain cells in mouse CNS demyelination and remyelination.
2023; 42 (4): 112293
Demyelination is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis, leukoencephalopathies, cerebral vasculopathies, and several neurodegenerative diseases. The cuprizone mouse model is widely used to simulate demyelination and remyelination occurring in these diseases. Here, we present a high-resolution single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) analysis of gene expression changes across all brain cells in this model. We define demyelination-associated oligodendrocytes (DOLs) and remyelination-associated MAFBhi microglia, as well as astrocytes and vascular cells with signatures of altered metabolism, oxidative stress, and interferon response. Furthermore, snRNA-seq provides insights into how brain cell types connect and interact, defining complex circuitries that impact demyelination and remyelination. As an explicative example, perturbation of microglia caused by TREM2 deficiency indirectly impairs the induction of DOLs. Altogether, this study provides a rich resource for future studies investigating mechanisms underlying demyelinating diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.112293
View details for PubMedID 36952346
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10511667
Human early-onset dementia caused by DAP12 deficiency reveals a unique signature of dysregulated microglia.
2023; 24 (3): 545-557
The TREM2-DAP12 receptor complex sustains microglia functions. Heterozygous hypofunctional TREM2 variants impair microglia, accelerating late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Homozygous inactivating variants of TREM2 or TYROBP-encoding DAP12 cause Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD), an early-onset dementia characterized by cerebral atrophy, myelin loss and gliosis. Mechanisms underpinning NHD are unknown. Here, single-nucleus RNA-sequencing analysis of brain specimens from DAP12-deficient NHD individuals revealed a unique microglia signature indicating heightened RUNX1, STAT3 and transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways that mediate repair responses to injuries. This profile correlated with a wound healing signature in astrocytes and impaired myelination in oligodendrocytes, while pericyte profiles indicated vascular abnormalities. Conversely, single-nuclei signatures in mice lacking DAP12 signaling reflected very mild microglial defects that did not recapitulate NHD. We envision that DAP12 signaling in microglia attenuates wound healing pathways that, if left unchecked, interfere with microglial physiological functions, causing pathology in human. The identification of a dysregulated NHD microglia signature sparks potential therapeutic strategies aimed at resetting microglia signaling pathways.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41590-022-01403-y
View details for PubMedID 36658241
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9992145
Human and mouse single-nucleus transcriptomics reveal TREM2-dependent and TREM2-independent cellular responses in Alzheimer's disease.
2020; 26 (1): 131-142
Glia have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Variants of the microglia receptor triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) increase AD risk, and activation of disease-associated microglia (DAM) is dependent on TREM2 in mouse models of AD. We surveyed gene-expression changes associated with AD pathology and TREM2 in 5XFAD mice and in human AD by single-nucleus RNA sequencing. We confirmed the presence of Trem2-dependent DAM and identified a previously undiscovered Serpina3n+C4b+ reactive oligodendrocyte population in mice. Interestingly, remarkably different glial phenotypes were evident in human AD. Microglia signature was reminiscent of IRF8-driven reactive microglia in peripheral-nerve injury. Oligodendrocyte signatures suggested impaired axonal myelination and metabolic adaptation to neuronal degeneration. Astrocyte profiles indicated weakened metabolic coordination with neurons. Notably, the reactive phenotype of microglia was less evident in TREM2-R47H and TREM2-R62H carriers than in non-carriers, demonstrating a TREM2 requirement in both mouse and human AD, despite the marked species-specific differences.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41591-019-0695-9
View details for PubMedID 31932797
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6980793