Illuminating membrane structural dynamics of fusion and endocytosis with advanced light imaging techniques.
Biochemical Society transactions
Visualization of cellular dynamics using fluorescent light microscopy has become a reliable and indispensable source of experimental evidence for biological studies. Over the past two decades, the development of super-resolution microscopy platforms coupled with innovations in protein and molecule labeling led to significant biological findings that were previously unobservable due to the barrier of the diffraction limit. As a result, the ability to image the dynamics of cellular processes is vastly enhanced. These imaging tools are extremely useful in cellular physiology for the study of vesicle fusion and endocytosis. In this review, we will explore the power of stimulated emission depletion (STED) and confocal microscopy in combination with various labeling techniques in real-time observation of the membrane transformation of fusion and endocytosis, as well as their underlying mechanisms. We will review how STED and confocal imaging are used to reveal fusion and endocytic membrane transformation processes in live cells, including hemi-fusion; hemi-fission; hemi-to-full fusion; fusion pore opening, expansion, constriction and closure; shrinking or enlargement of the Omega-shape membrane structure after vesicle fusion; sequential compound fusion; and the sequential endocytic membrane transformation from flat- to O-shape via the intermediate Lambda- and Omega-shape transition. We will also discuss how the recent development of imaging techniques would impact future studies in the field.
View details for DOI 10.1042/BST20210263
View details for PubMedID 35960003