Bio


Zahra Shokri Varniab, MD, studied medicine at Tehran University of Medicine Sciences, Iran, and earned her medical degree in 2020. Her goal in novel cellular and molecular imaging is to develop novel in vivo imaging approaches to visualize, characterize and quantify molecular and cellular processes involved in developing osteosarcoma and arthritis. She intends to utilize non-invasive imaging techniques to assess tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to understand their role in cancer, develop a method for determining tumor profiles, selecting patients for individualized immunotherapy, and monitoring their results. She hopes cancer to be history.

Honors & Awards


  • Ranked top 1% of Iran’s National University Entrance Examination, Iran (2011)
  • Awarded of the Iranian Book Festival of the Year, Iran (2018)

Professional Education


  • Postdoctoral Research Scholar, Stanford University (2022)
  • Postdoctoral Research Assistant, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2020)
  • Doctor of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2020)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications


  • Regional and national burden of leukemia and its attributable burden to risk factors in 21 countries and territories of North Africa and Middle East, 1990-2019: results from the GBD study 2019. Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology Heidari-Foroozan, M., Saeedi Moghaddam, S., Keykhaei, M., Shobeiri, P., Azadnajafabad, S., Esfahani, Z., Rezaei, N., Nasserinejad, M., Rezaei, N., Rayzan, E., Shokri Varniab, Z., Golestani, A., Haghshenas, R., Kompani, F., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F. 2022

    Abstract

    Regional and national data on leukemia's burden provide a better comprehension of leukemia's trends and are vital for policy-makers for better allocation of the resources. This study reports the burden of leukemia, and the attributed burden to its risk factors in 21 countries and territories of the North Africa and Middle East.Data from cancer registration, scientific literature, survey, and reports were the input to estimate the burden of leukemia. In addition, the burden of attributable risk factors with evidence of causation with leukemia was calculated using the comparative risk assessment framework. All measures are reported as counts and rates divided by sex and specific age groups.In 2019, there were 39,297 (95% uncertainty interval: 32,617-45,056) incident cases of leukemia with an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 7.8 (6.5-8.8) per 100,000 in the region. There were also 25,143 (21,109-28,826) deaths and 1,011,555 (822,537-1,173,621) DALYs attributed to Leukemia with an ASR of 5.4 (4.6-6.1) per 100,000 and 183.4 (150.7-211.2) per 100,000, respectively. Years of life lost (YLLs) (179.4 [147.2-206.7]) were accountable for the major part of DALYs. All count measures increased, while all the ASRs decreased during 1990-2019. The Syrian Arab Republic, Qatar, and Afghanistan had the highest ASR incidence, mortality, and DALYs rate in 2019. Incidence, DALYs, and prevalence rates were higher in males of all age groups except under five, and the highest rates were observed in +75 age group. Four major risk factors for leukemia were smoking, high body mass index, occupational exposure to benzene, and formaldehyde.Despite the reduction in age-standardized rates of incidence and mortality, the burden of leukemia has increased steadily, due to population growth and aging. Notable variations exist between age-standardized rates in region's countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00432-022-04293-7

    View details for PubMedID 36048271

  • Estimates of incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years of lung cancer in Iran, 1990-2019: A systematic analysis from the global burden of disease study 2019 CANCER MEDICINE Varniab, Z., Tehrani, Y., Langroudi, A., Azadnajafabad, S., Rezaei, N., Rashidi, M., Esfahani, Z., Malekpour, M., Ghasemi, E., Ghamari, A., Dilmaghani-Marand, A., Fateh, S., Shabestari, A., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F. 2022

    Abstract

    Lung cancer is one of the leading cancers, with a high burden worldwide. As a developing country, Iran is facing with population growth, widespread tobacco use, demographic and epidemiologic changes, and environmental exposures, which lead to cancers becoming a severe concern of public health in Iran. We aimed to examine the burden of lung cancer and its risk factors in Iran.We utilized the Global Burden of Disease 2019 data and analyzed the total burden of the lung cancer and seven related risk factors by sex, age at national and sub-national levels from 1990 to 2019.The lung cancer age-standardized death rate increased from 11.8 (95% Uncertainty Interval: 9.7-14.4) to 12.9 (11.9-13.9) per 100,000 between 1990 and 2019. This increase was among women from 5 (4.2-7.1) to 8 (7.2-8.8) per 100,000; in contrast, there was a decline among men from 18.5 (14.8-22.6) to 17.8 (16.2-19.4) per 100,000. The burden of lung cancer is concentrated in the advanced age groups. Smoking with 53.5% of total attributable deaths (51.0%-55.9%) was the leading risk factor. At the provincial level, there was a wide range between the lowest and highest, from 8.3 (7.0-10.0) to 19.1 (16.4-22.0) per 100,000 population in the incidence rate and from 8.7 (7.3-10.3) to 20.6 (17.7-24.0) per 100,000 population in mortality rate, respectively in Tehran and West Azerbaijan provinces in 2019.The increasing trend of lung cancer burden among the entire Iranian population, the inter-provincial disparities, and the significant rise in burden of this cancer in women necessitate the urgent implementation and development of policies to prevent and manage lung cancer burden and strategies to reduce exposure to risk factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cam4.4792

    View details for Web of Science ID 000810267400001

    View details for PubMedID 35698451

  • Meatal stenosis following three types of circumcision with frenular artery preservation (FAP), the Plastibell device (PD), and frenular artery ligation (FAL): a long-term follow-up IRISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Varniab, Z., Langroudi, A., Neishabouri, A., Torabinavid, P., Arbab, M., Heidari, F., Milani, S., Eftekharzadeh, S., Sabetkish, S., Kajbafzadeh, A. 2022

    Abstract

    Despite the simplicity of male circumcision, complications occur frequently. Post-circumcision meatal stenosis is a concerning complication that might require several interventions.This study aims to evaluate the incidence of meatal stenosis in long-term follow-up, following three common circumcision methods: frenular artery preservation, frenular ligation, and the Plastibell device.This study is the continuation of the previous randomized clinical trial, the preliminary abstract of which has been accepted in the annual meeting of the American Urological Association in 2011. However, in this paper, we only included the patients with results of long-term follow-up. Patients were followed for a median of 11 years (range, 7-17). Follow-ups were recorded by evaluation of meatus and signs and symptoms of meatal stenosis.Two hundred six boys (80 neonates and 126 non-neonates) at the time of procedure were included in this study. The circumcision was conducted on 23.3% (48/206) of boys with the Plastibell device (PD) and 39.3% (81/206) of cases with frenular artery preservation (FAP) and 37.4% (77/206) of cases with frenular artery ligation (FAL). Meatal stenosis presented in 13 children during follow-up. Considering the three methods of circumcision, a significant difference in the incidence of meatal stenosis among the types of circumcisions was observed (6.3% in PD and 1.2% in FAP, 11.7% in FAL, P = 0.026).The present study revealed that the technique preserving the frenular artery is associated with a significantly lower incidence of meatal stenosis. Hence, the FAP is the recommended technique for circumcision as compared to two other methods.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11845-022-03040-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000805732300003

    View details for PubMedID 35657540

  • The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet (London, England) GBD 2019 Cancer Risk Factors Collaborators, Tran, K. B., Lang, J. J., Compton, K., Xu, R., Acheson, A. R., Henrikson, H. J., Kocarnik, J. M., Penberthy, L., Aali, A., Abbas, Q., Abbasi, B., Abbasi-Kangevari, M., Abbasi-Kangevari, Z., Abbastabar, H., Abdelmasseh, M., Abd-Elsalam, S., Abdelwahab, A. A., Abdoli, G., Abdulkadir, H. A., Abedi, A., Abegaz, K. H., Abidi, H., Aboagye, R. G., Abolhassani, H., Absalan, A., Abtew, Y. D., Abubaker Ali, H., Abu-Gharbieh, E., Achappa, B., Acuna, J. M., Addison, D., Addo, I. Y., Adegboye, O. A., Adesina, M. A., Adnan, M., Adnani, Q. E., Advani, S. M., Afrin, S., Afzal, M. S., Aggarwal, M., Ahinkorah, B. O., Ahmad, A. R., Ahmad, R., Ahmad, S., Ahmad, S., Ahmadi, S., Ahmed, H., Ahmed, L. A., Ahmed, M. B., Ahmed Rashid, T., Aiman, W., Ajami, M., Akalu, G. T., Akbarzadeh-Khiavi, M., Aklilu, A., Akonde, M., Akunna, C. J., Al Hamad, H., Alahdab, F., Alanezi, F. M., Alanzi, T. M., Alessy, S. A., Algammal, A. M., Al-Hanawi, M. K., Alhassan, R. K., Ali, B. A., Ali, L., Ali, S. S., Alimohamadi, Y., Alipour, V., Aljunid, S. M., Alkhayyat, M., Al-Maweri, S. A., Almustanyir, S., Alonso, N., Alqalyoobi, S., Al-Raddadi, R. M., Al-Rifai, R. H., Al-Sabah, S. K., Al-Tammemi, A. B., Altawalah, H., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amare, F., Ameyaw, E. K., Aminian Dehkordi, J. J., Amirzade-Iranaq, M. H., Amu, H., Amusa, G. A., Ancuceanu, R., Anderson, J. A., Animut, Y. A., Anoushiravani, A., Anoushirvani, A. A., Ansari-Moghaddam, A., Ansha, M. G., Antony, B., Antwi, M. H., Anwar, S. L., Anwer, R., Anyasodor, A. E., Arabloo, J., Arab-Zozani, M., Aremu, O., Argaw, A. M., Ariffin, H., Aripov, T., Arshad, M., Artaman, A., Arulappan, J., Aruleba, R. T., Aryannejad, A., Asaad, M., Asemahagn, M. A., Asemi, Z., Asghari-Jafarabadi, M., Ashraf, T., Assadi, R., Athar, M., Athari, S. S., Atout, M. M., Attia, S., Aujayeb, A., Ausloos, M., Avila-Burgos, L., Awedew, A. F., Awoke, M. A., Awoke, T., Ayala Quintanilla, B. P., Ayana, T. M., Ayen, S. S., Azadi, D., Azadnajafabad, S., Azami-Aghdash, S., Azanaw, M. M., Azangou-Khyavy, M., Azari Jafari, A., Azizi, H., Azzam, A. Y., Babajani, A., Badar, M., Badiye, A. D., Baghcheghi, N., Bagheri, N., Bagherieh, S., Bahadory, S., Baig, A. A., Baker, J. L., Bakhtiari, A., Bakshi, R. K., Banach, M., Banerjee, I., Bardhan, M., Barone-Adesi, F., Barra, F., Barrow, A., Bashir, N. Z., Bashiri, A., Basu, S., Batiha, A. M., Begum, A., Bekele, A. B., Belay, A. S., Belete, M. A., Belgaumi, U. I., Bell, A. W., Belo, L., Benzian, H., Berhie, A. Y., Bermudez, A. N., Bernabe, E., Bhagavathula, A. S., Bhala, N., Bhandari, B. B., Bhardwaj, N., Bhardwaj, P., Bhattacharyya, K., Bhojaraja, V. S., Bhuyan, S. S., Bibi, S., Bilchut, A. H., Bintoro, B. S., Biondi, A., Birega, M. G., Birhan, H. E., Bjorge, T., Blyuss, O., Bodicha, B. B., Bolla, S. R., Boloor, A., Bosetti, C., Braithwaite, D., Brauer, M., Brenner, H., Briko, A. N., Briko, N. I., Buchanan, C. M., Bulamu, N. B., Bustamante-Teixeira, M. T., Butt, M. H., Butt, N. S., Butt, Z. A., Caetano Dos Santos, F. L., Camera, L. A., Cao, C., Cao, Y., Carreras, G., Carvalho, M., Cembranel, F., Cerin, E., Chakraborty, P. A., Charalampous, P., Chattu, V. K., Chimed-Ochir, O., Chirinos-Caceres, J. L., Cho, D. Y., Cho, W. C., Christopher, D. J., Chu, D., Chukwu, I. S., Cohen, A. J., Conde, J., Cortes, S., Costa, V. M., Cruz-Martins, N., Culbreth, G. T., Dadras, O., Dagnaw, F. T., Dahlawi, S. M., Dai, X., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Daneshpajouhnejad, P., Danielewicz, A., Dao, A. T., Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R., Darwesh, A. M., Das, S., Davitoiu, D. V., Davtalab Esmaeili, E., De la Hoz, F. P., Debela, S. A., Dehghan, A., Demisse, B., Demisse, F. W., Denova-Gutierrez, E., Derakhshani, A., Derbew Molla, M., Dereje, D., Deribe, K. S., Desai, R., Desalegn, M. D., Dessalegn, F. N., Dessalegni, S. A., Dessie, G., Desta, A. A., Dewan, S. M., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dhimal, M., Dianatinasab, M., Diao, N., Diaz, D., Digesa, L. E., Dixit, S. G., Doaei, S., Doan, L. P., Doku, P. N., Dongarwar, D., Dos Santos, W. M., Driscoll, T. R., Dsouza, H. L., Durojaiye, O. C., Edalati, S., Eghbalian, F., Ehsani-Chimeh, E., Eini, E., Ekholuenetale, M., Ekundayo, T. C., Ekwueme, D. U., El Tantawi, M., Elbahnasawy, M. A., Elbarazi, I., Elghazaly, H., Elhadi, M., El-Huneidi, W., Emamian, M. H., Engelbert Bain, L., Enyew, D. B., Erkhembayar, R., Eshetu, T., Eshrati, B., Eskandarieh, S., Espinosa-Montero, J., Etaee, F., Etemadimanesh, A., Eyayu, T., Ezeonwumelu, I. J., Ezzikouri, S., Fagbamigbe, A. F., Fahimi, S., Fakhradiyev, I. R., Faraon, E. J., Fares, J., Farmany, A., Farooque, U., Farrokhpour, H., Fasanmi, A. O., Fatehizadeh, A., Fatima, W., Fattahi, H., Fekadu, G., Feleke, B. E., Ferrari, A. A., Ferrero, S., Ferro Desideri, L., Filip, I., Fischer, F., Foroumadi, R., Foroutan, M., Fukumoto, T., Gaal, P. A., Gad, M. M., Gadanya, M. A., Gaipov, A., Galehdar, N., Gallus, S., Garg, T., Gaspar Fonseca, M., Gebremariam, Y. H., Gebremeskel, T. G., Gebremichael, M. A., Geda, Y. F., Gela, Y. Y., Gemeda, B. N., Getachew, M., Getachew, M. E., Ghaffari, K., Ghafourifard, M., Ghamari, S., Ghasemi Nour, M., Ghassemi, F., Ghimire, A., Ghith, N., Gholamalizadeh, M., Gholizadeh Navashenaq, J., Ghozy, S., Gilani, S. A., Gill, P. S., Ginindza, T. G., Gizaw, A. T., Glasbey, J. C., Godos, J., Goel, A., Golechha, M., Goleij, P., Golinelli, D., Golitaleb, M., Gorini, G., Goulart, B. N., Grosso, G., Guadie, H. A., Gubari, M. I., Gudayu, T. W., Guerra, M. R., Gunawardane, D. A., Gupta, B., Gupta, S., Gupta, V. B., Gupta, V. K., Gurara, M. K., Guta, A., Habibzadeh, P., Haddadi Avval, A., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Hajj Ali, A., Haj-Mirzaian, A., Halboub, E. S., Halimi, A., Halwani, R., Hamadeh, R. R., Hameed, S., Hamidi, S., Hanif, A., Hariri, S., Harlianto, N. I., Haro, J. M., Hartono, R. K., Hasaballah, A. I., Hasan, S. M., Hasani, H., Hashemi, S. M., Hassan, A. M., Hassanipour, S., Hayat, K., Heidari, G., Heidari, M., Heidarymeybodi, Z., Herrera-Serna, B. Y., Herteliu, C., Hezam, K., Hiraike, Y., Hlongwa, M. M., Holla, R., Holm, M., Horita, N., Hoseini, M., Hossain, M. M., Hossain, M. B., Hosseini, M., Hosseinzadeh, A., Hosseinzadeh, M., Hostiuc, M., Hostiuc, S., Househ, M., Huang, J., Hugo, F. N., Humayun, A., Hussain, S., Hussein, N. R., Hwang, B., Ibitoye, S. E., Iftikhar, P. M., Ikuta, K. S., Ilesanmi, O. S., Ilic, I. M., Ilic, M. D., Immurana, M., Innos, K., Iranpour, P., Irham, L. M., Islam, M. S., Islam, R. M., Islami, F., Ismail, N. E., Isola, G., Iwagami, M., J, L. M., Jaiswal, A., Jakovljevic, M., Jalili, M., Jalilian, S., Jamshidi, E., Jang, S., Jani, C. T., Javaheri, T., Jayarajah, U. U., Jayaram, S., Jazayeri, S. B., Jebai, R., Jemal, B., Jeong, W., Jha, R. P., Jindal, H. A., John-Akinola, Y. O., Jonas, J. B., Joo, T., Joseph, N., Joukar, F., Jozwiak, J. J., Jurisson, M., Kabir, A., Kacimi, S. E., Kadashetti, V., Kahe, F., Kakodkar, P. V., Kalankesh, L. R., Kalankesh, L. R., Kalhor, R., Kamal, V. K., Kamangar, F., Kamath, A., Kanchan, T., Kandaswamy, E., Kandel, H., Kang, H., Kanno, G. G., Kapoor, N., Kar, S. S., Karanth, S. D., Karaye, I. M., Karch, A., Karimi, A., Kassa, B. G., Katoto, P. D., Kauppila, J. H., Kaur, H., Kebede, A. G., Keikavoosi-Arani, L., Kejela, G. G., Kemp Bohan, P. M., Keramati, M., Keykhaei, M., Khajuria, H., Khan, A., Khan, A. A., Khan, E. A., Khan, G., Khan, M. N., Khan, M. A., Khanali, J., Khatab, K., Khatatbeh, M. M., Khatib, M. N., Khayamzadeh, M., Khayat Kashani, H. R., Khazeei Tabari, M. A., Khezeli, M., Khodadost, M., Kim, M. S., Kim, Y. J., Kisa, A., Kisa, S., Klugar, M., Klugarova, J., Kolahi, A., Kolkhir, P., Kompani, F., Koul, P. A., Koulmane Laxminarayana, S. L., Koyanagi, A., Krishan, K., Krishnamoorthy, Y., Kucuk Bicer, B., Kugbey, N., Kulimbet, M., Kumar, A., Kumar, G. A., Kumar, N., Kurmi, O. P., Kuttikkattu, A., La Vecchia, C., Lahiri, A., Lal, D. K., Lam, J., Lan, Q., Landires, I., Larijani, B., Lasrado, S., Lau, J., Lauriola, P., Ledda, C., Lee, S., Lee, S. W., Lee, W., Lee, Y. Y., Lee, Y. H., Legesse, S. M., Leigh, J., Leong, E., Li, M., Lim, S. S., Liu, G., Liu, J., Lo, C., Lohiya, A., Lopukhov, P. D., Lorenzovici, L., Lotfi, M., Loureiro, J. A., Lunevicius, R., Madadizadeh, F., Mafi, A. R., Magdeldin, S., Mahjoub, S., Mahmoodpoor, A., Mahmoudi, M., Mahmoudimanesh, M., Mahumud, R. A., Majeed, A., Majidpoor, J., Makki, A., Makris, K. C., Malakan Rad, E., Malekpour, M., Malekzadeh, R., Malik, A. A., Mallhi, T. H., Mallya, S. D., Mamun, M. A., Manda, A. L., Mansour-Ghanaei, F., Mansouri, B., Mansournia, M. A., Mantovani, L. G., Martini, S., Martorell, M., Masoudi, S., Masoumi, S. Z., Matei, C. N., Mathews, E., Mathur, M. R., Mathur, V., McKee, M., Meena, J. K., Mehmood, K., Mehrabi Nasab, E., Mehrotra, R., Melese, A., Mendoza, W., Menezes, R. G., Mengesha, S. D., Mensah, L. G., Mentis, A. A., Mera-Mamian, A. Y., Meretoja, T. J., Merid, M. W., Mersha, A. G., Meselu, B. T., Meshkat, M., Mestrovic, T., Miao Jonasson, J., Miazgowski, T., Michalek, I. M., Mijena, G. F., Miller, T. R., Mir, S. A., Mirinezhad, S. K., Mirmoeeni, S., Mirza-Aghazadeh-Attari, M., Mirzaei, H., Mirzaei, H. R., Misganaw, A. S., Misra, S., Mohammad, K. A., Mohammadi, E., Mohammadi, M., Mohammadian-Hafshejani, A., Mohammadpourhodki, R., Mohammed, A., Mohammed, S., Mohan, S., Mohseni, M., Moka, N., Mokdad, A. H., Molassiotis, A., Molokhia, M., Momenzadeh, K., Momtazmanesh, S., Monasta, L., Mons, U., Montasir, A. A., Montazeri, F., Montero, A., Moosavi, M. A., Moradi, A., Moradi, Y., Moradi Sarabi, M., Moraga, P., Morawska, L., Morrison, S. D., Morze, J., Mosapour, A., Mostafavi, E., Mousavi, S. M., Mousavi Isfahani, H., Mousavi Khaneghah, A., Mpundu-Kaambwa, C., Mubarik, S., Mulita, F., Munblit, D., Munro, S. B., Murillo-Zamora, E., Musa, J., Nabhan, A. F., Nagarajan, A. J., Nagaraju, S. P., Nagel, G., Naghipour, M., Naimzada, M. D., Nair, T. S., Naqvi, A. A., Narasimha Swamy, S., Narayana, A. I., Nassereldine, H., Natto, Z. S., Nayak, B. P., Ndejjo, R., Nduaguba, S. O., Negash, W. W., Nejadghaderi, S. A., Nejati, K., Neupane Kandel, S., Nguyen, H. V., Niazi, R. K., Noor, N. M., Noori, M., Noroozi, N., Nouraei, H., Nowroozi, A., Nunez-Samudio, V., Nzoputam, C. I., Nzoputam, O. J., Oancea, B., Odukoya, O. O., Oghenetega, O. B., Ogunsakin, R. E., Oguntade, A. S., Oh, I., Okati-Aliabad, H., Okekunle, A. P., Olagunju, A. T., Olagunju, T. O., Olakunde, B. O., Olufadewa, I. I., Omer, E., Omonisi, A. E., Ong, S., Onwujekwe, O. E., Orru, H., Otstavnov, S. S., Oulhaj, A., Oumer, B., Owopetu, O. F., Oyinloye, B. E., P A, M., Padron-Monedero, A., Padubidri, J. R., Pakbin, B., Pakshir, K., Pakzad, R., Palicz, T., Pana, A., Pandey, A., Pandey, A., Pant, S., Pardhan, S., Park, E., Park, E., Park, S., Patel, J., Pati, S., Paudel, R., Paudel, U., Paun, M., Pazoki Toroudi, H., Peng, M., Pereira, J., Pereira, R. B., Perna, S., Perumalsamy, N., Pestell, R. G., Pezzani, R., Piccinelli, C., Pillay, J. D., Piracha, Z. Z., Pischon, T., Postma, M. J., Pourabhari Langroudi, A., Pourshams, A., Pourtaheri, N., Prashant, A., Qadir, M. M., Quazi Syed, Z., Rabiee, M., Rabiee, N., Radfar, A., Radhakrishnan, R. A., Radhakrishnan, V., Raeisi, M., Rafiee, A., Rafiei, A., Raheem, N., Rahim, F., Rahman, M. O., Rahman, M., Rahman, M. A., Rahmani, A. M., Rahmani, S., Rahmanian, V., Rajai, N., Rajesh, A., Ram, P., Ramezanzadeh, K., Rana, J., Ranabhat, K., Ranasinghe, P., Rao, C. R., Rao, S. J., Rashedi, S., Rashidi, A., Rashidi, M., Rashidi, M., Ratan, Z. A., Rawaf, D. L., Rawaf, S., Rawal, L., Rawassizadeh, R., Razeghinia, M. S., Rehman, A. U., Rehman, I. U., Reitsma, M. B., Renzaho, A. M., Rezaei, M., Rezaei, N., Rezaei, N., Rezaei, N., Rezaei, S., Rezaeian, M., Rezapour, A., Riad, A., Rikhtegar, R., Rios-Blancas, M., Roberts, T. J., Rohloff, P., Romero-Rodriguez, E., Roshandel, G., Rwegerera, G. M., S, M., Saber-Ayad, M. M., Saberzadeh-Ardestani, B., Sabour, S., Saddik, B., Sadeghi, E., Saeb, M. R., Saeed, U., Safaei, M., Safary, A., Sahebazzamani, M., Sahebkar, A., Sahoo, H., Sajid, M. R., Salari, H., Salehi, S., Salem, M. R., Salimzadeh, H., Samodra, Y. L., Samy, A. M., Sanabria, J., Sankararaman, S., Sanmarchi, F., Santric-Milicevic, M. M., Saqib, M. A., Sarveazad, A., Sarvi, F., Sathian, B., Satpathy, M., Sayegh, N., Schneider, I. J., Schwarzinger, M., Sekerija, M., Senthilkumaran, S., Sepanlou, S. G., Seylani, A., Seyoum, K., Sha, F., Shafaat, O., Shah, P. 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    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally.METHODS: The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented.FINDINGS: Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01-4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3-48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1-45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60-3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8-54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36-1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5-41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6-28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8-25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9-42·8] and 33·3% [25·8-42·0]).INTERPRETATION: The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden.FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01438-6

    View details for PubMedID 35988567

  • Findings of Abdominal Imaging in Patients with COVID-19 Part 1: Hollow Organs Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseaes Pourabhari Langroudi, A., Shokri Varniab , Z., Amouei, M., Pak, N., Khosravi, B., Mirsharifi, A., Radmard, A. 2022; 14

    View details for DOI 10.34172/mejdd.2022.284