Zahra Shokri Varniab, MD, studied medicine at Tehran University of Medicine Sciences, Iran, and earned her medical degree in 2020. Her goal in novel cellular and molecular imaging is to develop novel in vivo imaging approaches to visualize, characterize and quantify molecular and cellular processes involved in developing brain tumors. She intends to utilize non-invasive imaging techniques to assess tumor microenvironment to understand their role in cancer, develop a method for determining tumor profiles, and also using brain MR Imaging to assess treatment response. She hopes cancer to be history.

Honors & Awards

  • Ranked top 1% of Iran’s National University Entrance Examination, Iran (2011)
  • Awarded of the Iranian Book Festival of the Year, Iran (2018)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2021)
  • Postdoctoral Research Scholar, Stanford University (2022)
  • Postdoctoral Research Assistant, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2020)
  • Doctor of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2020)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Two-Photon Intravital Microscopy of Glioblastoma in a Murine Model. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Nernekli, K., Mangarova, D. B., Shi, Y., Varniab, Z. S., Chang, E., Tikenogullari, O. Z., Pisani, L., Tikhomirov, G., Wang, G., Daldrup-Link, H. E. 2024


    The delivery of intravenously administered cancer therapeutics to brain tumors is limited by the blood-brain barrier. A method to directly image the accumulation and distribution of macromolecules in brain tumors in vivo would greatly enhance our ability to understand and optimize drug delivery in preclinical models. This protocol describes a method for real-time in vivo tracking of intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nanoparticles with two-photon intravital microscopy (2P-IVM) in a mouse model of glioblastoma (GBM). The protocol contains a multi-step description of the procedure, including anesthesia and analgesia of experimental animals, creating a cranial window, GBM cell implantation, placing a head bar, conducting 2P-IVM studies, and post-surgical care for long-term follow-up studies. We show representative 2P-IVM imaging sessions and image analysis, examine the advantages and disadvantages of this technology, and discuss potential applications. This method can be easily modified and adapted for different research questions in the field of in vivo preclinical brain imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.3791/66304

    View details for PubMedID 38497657

  • Triglyceride-glucose index and obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lipids in health and disease Behnoush, A. H., Khalaji, A., Ghondaghsaz, E., Masrour, M., Shokri Varniab, Z., Khalaji, S., Cannavo, A. 2024; 23 (1): 4


    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance (IR). The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index could be a simply calculated marker of IR in OSA. However, its clinical application appears still limited. Hence, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to respond to this question by analyzing all the existing studies showing an association between OSA and the TyG index.Four online databases, including PubMed, Scopus, the Web of Science, and Embase were searched for studies evaluating the TyG index in OSA. After screening and data extraction, a random-effect meta-analysis was performed to compare the TyG index in OSA patients vs. healthy controls by calculating standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and pooling the area under the curves (AUCs) for diagnosis of OSA based on this index.Ten studies involving 16,726 individuals were included in the current systematic review. Meta-analysis indicated that there was a significantly higher TyG index in patients with OSA, compared with the healthy controls (SMD 0.856, 95% CI 0.579 to 1.132, P < 0.001). Also, TyG had a diagnostic ability for OSA representing a pooled AUC of 0.681 (95% CI 0.627 to 0.735). However, based on the two studies' findings, no difference between different severities of OSA was observed. Finally, our data showed that the TyG index is a good potential predictor of adverse outcomes in these patients.Our study revealed that the TyG index is an easy-to-measure marker of IR for assessing OSA, both in diagnosis and prognosis. Our study supports its implementation in routine practice to help clinicians in decision-making and patient stratification.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12944-024-02005-3

    View details for PubMedID 38185682

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10773018

  • Exploring metabolically healthy obesity: prevalence, characteristics, and cardiovascular risk in the Iranian population based on the STEPS 2021 JOURNAL OF DIABETES AND METABOLIC DISORDERS Langroudi, A., Farzi, Y., Masinaei, M., Varniab, Z., Shahin, S., Rashidi, M., Moghaddam, S., Rahimi, S., Khalili, M., Keykhaei, M., Ahmadi, N., Kazemi, A., Ghasemi, E., Azadnajafabad, S., Yoosefi, M., Fattahi, N., Nasserinejad, M., Rezaei, N., Haghshenas, R., Dilmaghani-Marand, A., Abdolhamidi, E., Djalalinia, S., Rezaei, N., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F. 2023
  • The levels and trends of cancer incidence in the elderly population at national and sub-national scales in Iran from 1990 to 2016 CANCER REPORTS Varniab, Z., Moghaddam, S., Langroudi, A., Azadnajafabad, S., Mortazavi, S., Sheidaei, A., Gohari, K., Farzi, Y., Moghaddam, Z., Sohrabi, H., Shati, M. 2023: e1937


    Cancer is most commonly associated with aging. It is necessary to gain a better understanding of cancer's trend and distribution among elderlies and provide comprehensive cancer care for this population.The aim of the current study was to show the trends in cancer incidence focusing on the population aged 60+ from 1990 to 2016 in Iran.We used the dataset of the Iran Cancer Registry to estimate cancer incidences by sex, age, province, and year. In order to account for incomplete data we used a two-stage spatiotemporal model along with random intercept mixed effect models. We calculated annual age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) for age groups 60+ and 5-interval age groups. There was an increasing trend of 25.3% to 936.9% (95% uncertainty interval: 769.6-1141.8) in ASIR in the elderly in 2016. ASIR of all cancers were 889.7 (731.3-1083.6) in women and 988.1 (811.1-1205) in men in 2016, per 100 000 respectively, which had an increasing trend comparing 1990. Skin, breast, and stomach cancers in women and prostate, skin, and stomach cancers in men were the most common types in 2016. All the most incident cancer subtypes underwent an increasing trend in both sexes, except for the bladder, esophageal, and skin cancers which almost had a similar level in 1990 and 2016. Most provinces had an increasing trend in ASIR in all cancers combined from 1990 to 2016 except Zanjan with a decreasing trend.Regarding the persistent increasing trend of most elderly cancers' incidence, this is crucial for policymakers to establish preventive plans, determine proper resource allocation, and develop specific treatments for elderly cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cnr2.1937

    View details for Web of Science ID 001112768800001

    View details for PubMedID 38049962

  • The national trend of the burden of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Iran from 1990 to 2019. Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders Khashayar, P., Sharifnejad Tehrani, Y., Tabatabaei-Malazy, O., Khashayar, P., Saeedi Moghaddam, S., Shobeiri, P., Golestani, A., Esfahani, Z., Shokri Varniab, Z., Nasserinejad, M., Pourabhari Langroudi, A., Dilmaghani-Marand, A., Kazemi, A., Rezaei, N., Larijani, B. 2023; 22 (2): 1657-1671


    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) has become the 8th leading cause of death in Iran in 2017, 5 steps up from 1990. This is important as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic glomerulonephritis along with exposure to toxins or heavy metals are the main risk factors for the disease. Despite its heavy burden, there are limited studies on the incidence and prevalence of the disease in the Iranian adult population. The present article studies the burden of CKD at the national level in 2019, and its trend over the past three decades.In 2019, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study provided an annual estimation of the burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries from 1990 until 2019. The data estimating CKD and related mortality in Iran were collected from the disease registry, survey, and scientific literature. All-ages and age-standardised indices of incidence, prevalence, deaths, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were extracted for both sexes.Since 1990, the age-standardized incidence (34.7% (95% uncertainty interval 30.8 - 38.8)) and prevalence (19.6% (17.7 - 21.8)) of CKD have risen, while a 21.5% (-28.8 - -15.4) and 18.0% (-35.4 - -10.8) decrease were noted in age-standardized DALYs and deaths rates, respectively. The lowest prevalence was reported in the eastern and western provinces.Current study provides comprehensive knowledge about the CKD burden, suggesting the Iranian healthcare system has been more effective in averting deaths rather than managing morbidities. Multi-sectoral action plans are needed to strengthen preventive and early detection programs in high-risk areas.The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40200-023-01298-y.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s40200-023-01298-y

    View details for PubMedID 37975103

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10638225

  • Urinary and circulatory netrin-1 as biomarker in diabetes and its related complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Endocrine Behnoush, A. H., Khalaji, A., Shokri Varniab, Z., Rahbarghazi, A., Amini, E., Klisic, A. 2023


    Novel biomarkers have been suggested for the diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes mellitus. The biomarker utility of netrin-1 in diabetes as an extracellular protein has been investigated. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we reviewed the role of netrin-1 as a biomarker in prediabetes, diabetes, and complications of diabetes.PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were systematically searched for studies that measured circulatory and/or urinary netrin-1 levels in diabetes and compared them with non-diabetic patients or evaluated the prognostic role of this marker. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-effect meta-analysis to compare netrin-1 levels between groups. The impact of mean age, male sex percentage, sample size, mean body mass index, and publication year on the overall heterogeneity was assessed using meta-regression.Among 413 records from international databases, 19 original studies were included with 2061 cases (1137 diabetics, 196 prediabetics, and 728 healthy controls). Meta-analysis of eight studies measuring netrin-1 in patients with diabetes and comparing it with healthy controls showed no significant difference between the two groups (SMD 0.69, 95% CI -0.78 to 2.16, I2 = 98%, p-value = 0.36). On the other hand, a meta-analysis of netrin-1 levels in patients with prediabetes in comparison with healthy controls revealed that they had lower levels (SMD -0.51, 95% CI -0.81 to -0.21, p-value < 0.01). Diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria had significantly higher circulatory netrin-1 levels compared to normoalbuminuric group SMD 1.18, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.53, p-value < 0.01 and SMD 1.67, 95% CI 0.76 to 2.58, p-value < 0.01, respectively). Moreover, no difference in urinary netrin-1 levels was found between micro-, macro-, and normoalbuminuric groups (p-value > 0.05).Netrin-1 showed promising results as a biomarker in diabetes prognosis. However, more studies are required to confirm our findings, and higher sample size studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of this marker.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12020-023-03598-y

    View details for PubMedID 37996774

    View details for PubMedCentralID 4205573

  • Composite lipid indices in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lipids in health and disease Behnoush, A. H., Bahiraie, P., Shokri Varniab, Z., Foroutani, L., Khalaji, A. 2023; 22 (1): 84


    One of the most prevalent sleep disorders affecting the individual's daily life is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), for which obesity is a major risk factor. Several novel lipid indices have been suggested to have associations with OSA, among which visceral adiposity index (VAI), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and lipid accumulation product (LAP) are the most important ones. Herein, the current study aimed to systematically investigate the association between these indices and OSA.Four international databases, including PubMed, Scopus, the Web of Science, and Embase were searched in order to find relevant studies that investigated LAP, VAI, or AIP in OSA and compared them with non-OSA cases or within different severities of OSA. Random-effect meta-analysis was used to generate the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference in lipid indices between OSA and non-OSA cases. Moreover, the pooled area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) observed in individual studies for diagnosis of OSA based on these lipid indices were calculated by random-effect meta-analysis.Totally 14 original studies were included, comprised of 14,943 cases. AIP, LAP, and VAI were assessed in eight, five, and five studies, respectively. Overall, these lipid indices had acceptable diagnostic ability (AUC 0.70, 95% CI 0.67 to 073). Meta-analysis revealed that AIP was significantly higher in patients with OSA (SMD 0.71, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.97, P < 0.01). Moreover, AIP also increased in higher severities of OSA. Regarding LAP, a higher LAP was observed in OSA/patients with high risk for OSA rather than in controls/low risk for OSA (SMD 0.53, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.81, P < 0.01). VAI was also increased in OSA based on results from two studies.These findings suggest that composite lipid indices are increased in OSA. Also, these indices can have the potential beneficiary diagnostic and prognostic ability in OSA. Future studies can confirm these findings and enlighten the role of lipid indices in OSA.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12944-023-01859-3

    View details for PubMedID 37386562

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10308736

  • Effect of air pollution on disease burden, mortality, and life expectancy in North Africa and the Middle East: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet. Planetary health Abbasi-Kangevari, M., Malekpour, M. R., Masinaei, M., Moghaddam, S. S., Ghamari, S. H., Abbasi-Kangevari, Z., Rezaei, N., Rezaei, N., Mokdad, A. H., Naghavi, M., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F., Murray, C. J. 2023; 7 (5): e358-e369


    Air pollution is the sixth highest risk factor for attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in North Africa and the Middle East, but the relative importance of different subtypes of air pollution and any potential differences in their health effects by population demographics or country-level socioeconomic factors have not been fully explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high ambient particulate matter less than 2·5 μm in size (PM) and ambient ozone air pollution on disease burden, mortality, and life expectancy in 21 countries in the North Africa and the Middle East super-region from 1990 to 2019 using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study estimates.The study data were derived from GBD 2019, examining data from 1999 to 2019 in North Africa and the Middle East. In this study, the types of air pollution investigated included PM pollution and ambient ozone pollution. PM pollution itself was categorised as household air pollution from solid fuels and ambient PM pollution. The burden attributable to each risk factor, directly or indirectly, was incorporated in the population attributable fraction to estimate the total attributable deaths and DALYs. The summary exposure value (SEV) as the relative risk-weighted prevalence of exposure was extracted to compare the distribution of excess risk times the exposure level in a population where everyone is at maximum risk and ranges from zero (no excess risk exists in a population) to 100 (highest risk). The effect of air pollution on life expectancy was estimated via a cause-deleted life table analysis.The age-standardised DALYs rate attributable to air pollution declined by 44·5%, from 4884·2 (95% uncertainty interval 4381·5-5555·4) to 2710·4 (2317·3-3125·6) per 100 000 from 1990 to 2019. Afghanistan (6992·3, 5627·7-8482·7), Yemen (4212·4, 3241·3-5418·1), and Egypt (4034·8, 3027·7-5138·6) had the highest age-standardised DALYs rates attributable to air pollution in 2019 per 100 000, whereas Türkiye (1329·2, 1033·7-1654·7), Jordan (1447·3, 1154·2-1758·5), and Iran (1603·0, 1404·7-1813·8) had the lowest rates. During the study period, the age-standardised SEV of air pollution (PM and ambient ozone in total) decreased by 10·9% (5·8-17·7%) in the super-region, whereas the SEV of ambient ozone pollution alone increased by 7·7% (0·7-14·3%). Among the components of PM pollution, the SEV of ambient PM pollution increased by 40·1% (25·2-63·7%); however, the SEV of household air pollution from solid fuels decreased by 70·6% (64·1-77·0%). Among the investigated types of air pollution, 98·9% of the DALYs from air pollution in the super-region were attributable to PM pollution. If air pollution had been lowered to the theoretical minimum risk exposure levels for 2019, then the average life expectancy would have been 1·6 years higher.The burden attributable to air pollution substantially decreased in the study period across the super-region as a whole. Most of the burden from air pollution is attributed to PM pollution, the exposure to which has substantially increased in the past three decades. Interventions and policies that reduce population exposure to PM pollution could potentially increase the average life expectancy in the super-region. This finding calls for concerted efforts from governments and public health authorities in the super-region to tackle air pollution as an important threat to population health.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2542-5196(23)00053-0

    View details for PubMedID 37164512

  • Effect of air pollution on disease burden, mortality, and life expectancy in North Africa and the Middle East: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 LANCET PLANETARY HEALTH Abbasi-Kangevari, M., Malekpour, M., Masinaei, M., Moghaddam, S., Ghamari, S., Abbasi-Kangevari, Z., Rezaei, N., Rezaei, N., Mokdad, A. H., Naghavi, M., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F., Murray, C. L., GBD North Africa Middle East Air 2023; 7 (5): E358-E369
  • A novel endoscopic approach for management of hutch diverticulum concomitant vesicoureteral reflux with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection. Journal of pediatric urology Pourabhari Langroudi, A., Shokri Varniab, Z., Nabavizadeh, B., Neishabouri, A., Kajbafzadeh, A. M. 2023


    There are various treatment options for symptomatic bladder diverticulum, including robotic-assisted laparoscopic bladder diverticulectomy, open and endoscopic techniques. But, to date, the optimal surgical technique remains unclear.To present the preliminary long-term follow-up results of a novel technique of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) plus autologous blood injection for correction of hutch diverticulum in patients with concomitant vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).We retrospectively reviewed four patients who had hutch diverticulum with concomitant VUR and had undergone submucosal Deflux following autologous blood injection. Patients with neurogenic bladder, posterior urethral valve, or voiding dysfunction were excluded from the study. Success was defined as the resolution of the diverticulum, hydronephrosis, and hydroureter on ultrasonography at a 3-month follow-up and long-term symptom-free period.Four patients with hutch diverticula were included. The median age at the time of surgery was 6.1 (range 3-8) years. Three of them had unilateral VUR, and one had bilateral VUR. During the procedure, a mean of 0.625 ml Deflux plus a mean of 1.25 ml autologous blood were injected submucosally for correction of VUR. Additionally, a mean of 1.62 ml Deflux plus a mean of 1.75 ml autologous blood were injected submucosally to occlude the diverticulum. The median follow-up was 4.6 (range 4-8) years. This method had excellent success in all patients in the current study with no postoperative complications such as febrile urinary tract infection, or diverticulum, hydroureter, or hydronephrosis in follow-up ultrasounds.Submucosal injection of Deflux plus autologous blood injection can be a successful endoscopic intervention for treatments of hutch diverticulum in patients with concomitant VUR. Deflux injection can be a simple and cost-effective technique.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpurol.2023.02.017

    View details for PubMedID 36934033

  • Burden of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer in North Africa and Middle East countries, 1990 to 2019: Results from the GBD study 2019 FRONTIERS IN ONCOLOGY Khanmohammadi, S., Moghaddam, S., Azadnajafabad, S., Rezaei, N., Esfahani, Z., Rezaei, N., Naghavi, M., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F., Gbd 2019 Name Tracheal Bronchus 2023; 12: 1098218


    To provide estimates on the regional and national burden of tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer and its attributable risk factors from 1990 to 2019 in the North Africa and Middle East (NAME) region.The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 data were used. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), death, incidence, and prevalence rates were categorized by sex and age groups in the NAME region, in 21 countries, from 1990 to 2019. Decomposition analysis was performed to calculate the proportion of responsible factors in the emergence of new cases. Data are presented as point estimates with their 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).In the NAME region, TBL cancer caused 15,396 and 57,114 deaths in women and men, respectively, in 2019. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) increased by 0.7% (95% UI -20.6 to 24.1) and reached 16.8 per 100,000 (14.9 to 19.0) in 2019. All the age-standardized indices had a decreasing trend in men and an increasing trend in women from 1990 to 2019. Turkey (34.9 per 100,000 [27.6 to 43.5]) and Sudan (8.0 per 100,000 [5.2 to 12.5]) had the highest and lowest age-standardized prevalence rates (ASPRs) in 2019, respectively. The highest and lowest absolute slopes of change in ASPR, from 1990 to 2019, were seen in Bahrain (-50.0% (-63.6 to -31.7)) and the United Arab Emirates (-1.2% (-34.1 to 53.8)), respectively. The number of deaths attributable to risk factors was 58,816 (51,709 to 67,323) in 2019 and increased by 136.5%. Decomposition analysis showed that population growth and age structure change positively contributed to new incident cases. More than 80% of DALYs could be decreased by controlling risk factors, particularly tobacco use.The incidence, prevalence, and DALY rates of TBL cancer increased, and the death rate remained unchanged from 1990 to 2019. All the indices and contribution of risk factors decreased in men but increased in women. Tobacco is still the leading risk factor. Early diagnosis and tobacco cessation policies should be improved.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fonc.2022.1098218

    View details for Web of Science ID 000937853200001

    View details for PubMedID 36844919

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9951096

  • Abdominal Imaging Findings in Patients with COVID-19 Part 2: Solid Organs Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseaes Shokri Varniab, Z., Pourabhari Langroudi, A., Amouei, M., Pak, N., Khosravi, B., Radmard, A. 2023
  • Global and regional quality of care index (QCI) by gender and age in oesophageal cancer: A systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2019. PloS one Iezadi, S., Ebrahimi, N., Ghamari, S., Esfahani, Z., Rezaei, N., Ghasemi, E., Moghaddam, S. S., Azadnajafabad, S., Abdi, Z., Varniab, Z. S., Golestani, A., Langroudi, A. P., Dilmaghani-Marand, A., Farzi, Y., Pourasghari, H. 2023; 18 (10): e0292348


    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the quality of care by age and gender in oesophageal cancer using Global Burden of Disease (GBD) database.METHODS: Patients aged 20 and over with oesophageal cancer were included in this longitudinal study using GBD 1990-2019 data. We used the Socio-Demographic Index (SDI) to classify the regions. We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method to calculate the Quality of Care Index (QCI). The QCI was rescaled into a 0-100 single index, demonstrating that the higher the score, the better the QC.RESULTS: The age-standardized QCI for oesophageal cancer dramatically increased from 23.5 in 1990 to 41.1 in 2019 for both sexes, globally. The high SDI regions showed higher QCI than the rest of the regions (45.1 in 1990 and 65.7 in 2019) whereas the low SDI regions had the lowest QCI, which showed a 4.5% decrease through the years (from 13.3 in 1990 to 12.7 in 2019). Globally, in 2019, the QCI showed the highest scores for patients aged 80-84, reported 48.2, and the lowest score for patients aged 25-29 reported 31.5, for both sexes. Globally, in 2019, age-standardized Gender Disparity Ratio (GDR) was 1.2, showing higher QCI in females than males.CONCLUSION: There were fundamental differences in the QCI both globally and regionally between different age groups as well as between males and females. To achieve the goal of providing high-quality services equally to people in need in all over the world, health systems need to invest in effective diagnostic services, treatments, facilities, and equipment and to plan for screening and surveillance of high-risk individuals.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0292348

    View details for PubMedID 37788249

  • Burden of autism spectrum disorders in North Africa and Middle East from 1990 to 2019: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 Brain Behavior Ebrahimi Meimand, S. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1002/brb3.3067

  • Endocan in prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes-related complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetol Metab Syndr Khalaji, A., Behnoush, A., Saeedian, B., Khanmohammadi, S., Shokri Varniab, Z., Peiman, S. 2023
  • Regional and national burden of leukemia and its attributable burden to risk factors in 21 countries and territories of North Africa and Middle East, 1990-2019: results from the GBD study 2019. Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology Heidari-Foroozan, M., Saeedi Moghaddam, S., Keykhaei, M., Shobeiri, P., Azadnajafabad, S., Esfahani, Z., Rezaei, N., Nasserinejad, M., Rezaei, N., Rayzan, E., Shokri Varniab, Z., Golestani, A., Haghshenas, R., Kompani, F., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F. 2022


    Regional and national data on leukemia's burden provide a better comprehension of leukemia's trends and are vital for policy-makers for better allocation of the resources. This study reports the burden of leukemia, and the attributed burden to its risk factors in 21 countries and territories of the North Africa and Middle East.Data from cancer registration, scientific literature, survey, and reports were the input to estimate the burden of leukemia. In addition, the burden of attributable risk factors with evidence of causation with leukemia was calculated using the comparative risk assessment framework. All measures are reported as counts and rates divided by sex and specific age groups.In 2019, there were 39,297 (95% uncertainty interval: 32,617-45,056) incident cases of leukemia with an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 7.8 (6.5-8.8) per 100,000 in the region. There were also 25,143 (21,109-28,826) deaths and 1,011,555 (822,537-1,173,621) DALYs attributed to Leukemia with an ASR of 5.4 (4.6-6.1) per 100,000 and 183.4 (150.7-211.2) per 100,000, respectively. Years of life lost (YLLs) (179.4 [147.2-206.7]) were accountable for the major part of DALYs. All count measures increased, while all the ASRs decreased during 1990-2019. The Syrian Arab Republic, Qatar, and Afghanistan had the highest ASR incidence, mortality, and DALYs rate in 2019. Incidence, DALYs, and prevalence rates were higher in males of all age groups except under five, and the highest rates were observed in +75 age group. Four major risk factors for leukemia were smoking, high body mass index, occupational exposure to benzene, and formaldehyde.Despite the reduction in age-standardized rates of incidence and mortality, the burden of leukemia has increased steadily, due to population growth and aging. Notable variations exist between age-standardized rates in region's countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00432-022-04293-7

    View details for PubMedID 36048271

  • Estimates of incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years of lung cancer in Iran, 1990-2019: A systematic analysis from the global burden of disease study 2019 CANCER MEDICINE Varniab, Z., Tehrani, Y., Langroudi, A., Azadnajafabad, S., Rezaei, N., Rashidi, M., Esfahani, Z., Malekpour, M., Ghasemi, E., Ghamari, A., Dilmaghani-Marand, A., Fateh, S., Shabestari, A., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F. 2022


    Lung cancer is one of the leading cancers, with a high burden worldwide. As a developing country, Iran is facing with population growth, widespread tobacco use, demographic and epidemiologic changes, and environmental exposures, which lead to cancers becoming a severe concern of public health in Iran. We aimed to examine the burden of lung cancer and its risk factors in Iran.We utilized the Global Burden of Disease 2019 data and analyzed the total burden of the lung cancer and seven related risk factors by sex, age at national and sub-national levels from 1990 to 2019.The lung cancer age-standardized death rate increased from 11.8 (95% Uncertainty Interval: 9.7-14.4) to 12.9 (11.9-13.9) per 100,000 between 1990 and 2019. This increase was among women from 5 (4.2-7.1) to 8 (7.2-8.8) per 100,000; in contrast, there was a decline among men from 18.5 (14.8-22.6) to 17.8 (16.2-19.4) per 100,000. The burden of lung cancer is concentrated in the advanced age groups. Smoking with 53.5% of total attributable deaths (51.0%-55.9%) was the leading risk factor. At the provincial level, there was a wide range between the lowest and highest, from 8.3 (7.0-10.0) to 19.1 (16.4-22.0) per 100,000 population in the incidence rate and from 8.7 (7.3-10.3) to 20.6 (17.7-24.0) per 100,000 population in mortality rate, respectively in Tehran and West Azerbaijan provinces in 2019.The increasing trend of lung cancer burden among the entire Iranian population, the inter-provincial disparities, and the significant rise in burden of this cancer in women necessitate the urgent implementation and development of policies to prevent and manage lung cancer burden and strategies to reduce exposure to risk factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cam4.4792

    View details for Web of Science ID 000810267400001

    View details for PubMedID 35698451

  • Meatal stenosis following three types of circumcision with frenular artery preservation (FAP), the Plastibell device (PD), and frenular artery ligation (FAL): a long-term follow-up IRISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Varniab, Z., Langroudi, A., Neishabouri, A., Torabinavid, P., Arbab, M., Heidari, F., Milani, S., Eftekharzadeh, S., Sabetkish, S., Kajbafzadeh, A. 2022


    Despite the simplicity of male circumcision, complications occur frequently. Post-circumcision meatal stenosis is a concerning complication that might require several interventions.This study aims to evaluate the incidence of meatal stenosis in long-term follow-up, following three common circumcision methods: frenular artery preservation, frenular ligation, and the Plastibell device.This study is the continuation of the previous randomized clinical trial, the preliminary abstract of which has been accepted in the annual meeting of the American Urological Association in 2011. However, in this paper, we only included the patients with results of long-term follow-up. Patients were followed for a median of 11 years (range, 7-17). Follow-ups were recorded by evaluation of meatus and signs and symptoms of meatal stenosis.Two hundred six boys (80 neonates and 126 non-neonates) at the time of procedure were included in this study. The circumcision was conducted on 23.3% (48/206) of boys with the Plastibell device (PD) and 39.3% (81/206) of cases with frenular artery preservation (FAP) and 37.4% (77/206) of cases with frenular artery ligation (FAL). Meatal stenosis presented in 13 children during follow-up. Considering the three methods of circumcision, a significant difference in the incidence of meatal stenosis among the types of circumcisions was observed (6.3% in PD and 1.2% in FAP, 11.7% in FAL, P = 0.026).The present study revealed that the technique preserving the frenular artery is associated with a significantly lower incidence of meatal stenosis. Hence, the FAP is the recommended technique for circumcision as compared to two other methods.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11845-022-03040-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000805732300003

    View details for PubMedID 35657540

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    BACKGROUND: Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally.METHODS: The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented.FINDINGS: Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01-4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3-48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1-45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60-3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8-54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36-1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5-41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6-28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8-25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9-42·8] and 33·3% [25·8-42·0]).INTERPRETATION: The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden.FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01438-6

    View details for PubMedID 35988567