Zahra Shokri Varniab, MD, studied medicine at Tehran University of Medicine Sciences, Iran, and earned her medical degree in 2020. Her goal in novel cellular and molecular imaging is to develop novel in vivo imaging approaches to visualize, characterize and quantify molecular and cellular processes involved in developing brain tumors. She intends to utilize non-invasive imaging techniques to assess tumor microenvironment to understand their role in cancer, develop a method for determining tumor profiles, and also using brain MR Imaging to assess treatment response. She hopes cancer to be history.

Honors & Awards

  • Ranked top 1% of Iran’s National University Entrance Examination, Iran (2011)
  • Awarded of the Iranian Book Festival of the Year, Iran (2018)

Professional Education

  • Postdoctoral Research Scholar, Stanford University (2022)
  • Postdoctoral Research Assistant, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2020)
  • Doctor of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2020)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Effect of air pollution on disease burden, mortality, and life expectancy in North Africa and the Middle East: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 LANCET PLANETARY HEALTH Abbasi-Kangevari, M., Malekpour, M., Masinaei, M., Moghaddam, S., Ghamari, S., Abbasi-Kangevari, Z., Rezaei, N., Rezaei, N., Mokdad, A. H., Naghavi, M., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F., Murray, C. L., GBD North Africa Middle East Air 2023; 7 (5): E358-E369
  • Effect of air pollution on disease burden, mortality, and life expectancy in North Africa and the Middle East: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet. Planetary health Abbasi-Kangevari, M., Malekpour, M. R., Masinaei, M., Moghaddam, S. S., Ghamari, S. H., Abbasi-Kangevari, Z., Rezaei, N., Rezaei, N., Mokdad, A. H., Naghavi, M., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F., Murray, C. J. 2023; 7 (5): e358-e369


    Air pollution is the sixth highest risk factor for attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in North Africa and the Middle East, but the relative importance of different subtypes of air pollution and any potential differences in their health effects by population demographics or country-level socioeconomic factors have not been fully explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high ambient particulate matter less than 2·5 μm in size (PM) and ambient ozone air pollution on disease burden, mortality, and life expectancy in 21 countries in the North Africa and the Middle East super-region from 1990 to 2019 using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study estimates.The study data were derived from GBD 2019, examining data from 1999 to 2019 in North Africa and the Middle East. In this study, the types of air pollution investigated included PM pollution and ambient ozone pollution. PM pollution itself was categorised as household air pollution from solid fuels and ambient PM pollution. The burden attributable to each risk factor, directly or indirectly, was incorporated in the population attributable fraction to estimate the total attributable deaths and DALYs. The summary exposure value (SEV) as the relative risk-weighted prevalence of exposure was extracted to compare the distribution of excess risk times the exposure level in a population where everyone is at maximum risk and ranges from zero (no excess risk exists in a population) to 100 (highest risk). The effect of air pollution on life expectancy was estimated via a cause-deleted life table analysis.The age-standardised DALYs rate attributable to air pollution declined by 44·5%, from 4884·2 (95% uncertainty interval 4381·5-5555·4) to 2710·4 (2317·3-3125·6) per 100 000 from 1990 to 2019. Afghanistan (6992·3, 5627·7-8482·7), Yemen (4212·4, 3241·3-5418·1), and Egypt (4034·8, 3027·7-5138·6) had the highest age-standardised DALYs rates attributable to air pollution in 2019 per 100 000, whereas Türkiye (1329·2, 1033·7-1654·7), Jordan (1447·3, 1154·2-1758·5), and Iran (1603·0, 1404·7-1813·8) had the lowest rates. During the study period, the age-standardised SEV of air pollution (PM and ambient ozone in total) decreased by 10·9% (5·8-17·7%) in the super-region, whereas the SEV of ambient ozone pollution alone increased by 7·7% (0·7-14·3%). Among the components of PM pollution, the SEV of ambient PM pollution increased by 40·1% (25·2-63·7%); however, the SEV of household air pollution from solid fuels decreased by 70·6% (64·1-77·0%). Among the investigated types of air pollution, 98·9% of the DALYs from air pollution in the super-region were attributable to PM pollution. If air pollution had been lowered to the theoretical minimum risk exposure levels for 2019, then the average life expectancy would have been 1·6 years higher.The burden attributable to air pollution substantially decreased in the study period across the super-region as a whole. Most of the burden from air pollution is attributed to PM pollution, the exposure to which has substantially increased in the past three decades. Interventions and policies that reduce population exposure to PM pollution could potentially increase the average life expectancy in the super-region. This finding calls for concerted efforts from governments and public health authorities in the super-region to tackle air pollution as an important threat to population health.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2542-5196(23)00053-0

    View details for PubMedID 37164512

  • A novel endoscopic approach for management of hutch diverticulum concomitant vesicoureteral reflux with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection. Journal of pediatric urology Pourabhari Langroudi, A., Shokri Varniab, Z., Nabavizadeh, B., Neishabouri, A., Kajbafzadeh, A. M. 2023


    There are various treatment options for symptomatic bladder diverticulum, including robotic-assisted laparoscopic bladder diverticulectomy, open and endoscopic techniques. But, to date, the optimal surgical technique remains unclear.To present the preliminary long-term follow-up results of a novel technique of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) plus autologous blood injection for correction of hutch diverticulum in patients with concomitant vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).We retrospectively reviewed four patients who had hutch diverticulum with concomitant VUR and had undergone submucosal Deflux following autologous blood injection. Patients with neurogenic bladder, posterior urethral valve, or voiding dysfunction were excluded from the study. Success was defined as the resolution of the diverticulum, hydronephrosis, and hydroureter on ultrasonography at a 3-month follow-up and long-term symptom-free period.Four patients with hutch diverticula were included. The median age at the time of surgery was 6.1 (range 3-8) years. Three of them had unilateral VUR, and one had bilateral VUR. During the procedure, a mean of 0.625 ml Deflux plus a mean of 1.25 ml autologous blood were injected submucosally for correction of VUR. Additionally, a mean of 1.62 ml Deflux plus a mean of 1.75 ml autologous blood were injected submucosally to occlude the diverticulum. The median follow-up was 4.6 (range 4-8) years. This method had excellent success in all patients in the current study with no postoperative complications such as febrile urinary tract infection, or diverticulum, hydroureter, or hydronephrosis in follow-up ultrasounds.Submucosal injection of Deflux plus autologous blood injection can be a successful endoscopic intervention for treatments of hutch diverticulum in patients with concomitant VUR. Deflux injection can be a simple and cost-effective technique.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpurol.2023.02.017

    View details for PubMedID 36934033

  • Burden of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer in North Africa and Middle East countries, 1990 to 2019: Results from the GBD study 2019 FRONTIERS IN ONCOLOGY Khanmohammadi, S., Moghaddam, S., Azadnajafabad, S., Rezaei, N., Esfahani, Z., Rezaei, N., Naghavi, M., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F., Gbd 2019 Name Tracheal Bronchus 2023; 12: 1098218


    To provide estimates on the regional and national burden of tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer and its attributable risk factors from 1990 to 2019 in the North Africa and Middle East (NAME) region.The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 data were used. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), death, incidence, and prevalence rates were categorized by sex and age groups in the NAME region, in 21 countries, from 1990 to 2019. Decomposition analysis was performed to calculate the proportion of responsible factors in the emergence of new cases. Data are presented as point estimates with their 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).In the NAME region, TBL cancer caused 15,396 and 57,114 deaths in women and men, respectively, in 2019. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) increased by 0.7% (95% UI -20.6 to 24.1) and reached 16.8 per 100,000 (14.9 to 19.0) in 2019. All the age-standardized indices had a decreasing trend in men and an increasing trend in women from 1990 to 2019. Turkey (34.9 per 100,000 [27.6 to 43.5]) and Sudan (8.0 per 100,000 [5.2 to 12.5]) had the highest and lowest age-standardized prevalence rates (ASPRs) in 2019, respectively. The highest and lowest absolute slopes of change in ASPR, from 1990 to 2019, were seen in Bahrain (-50.0% (-63.6 to -31.7)) and the United Arab Emirates (-1.2% (-34.1 to 53.8)), respectively. The number of deaths attributable to risk factors was 58,816 (51,709 to 67,323) in 2019 and increased by 136.5%. Decomposition analysis showed that population growth and age structure change positively contributed to new incident cases. More than 80% of DALYs could be decreased by controlling risk factors, particularly tobacco use.The incidence, prevalence, and DALY rates of TBL cancer increased, and the death rate remained unchanged from 1990 to 2019. All the indices and contribution of risk factors decreased in men but increased in women. Tobacco is still the leading risk factor. Early diagnosis and tobacco cessation policies should be improved.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fonc.2022.1098218

    View details for Web of Science ID 000937853200001

    View details for PubMedID 36844919

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9951096

  • Endocan in prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes-related complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetol Metab Syndr Khalaji, A., Behnoush, A., Saeedian, B., Khanmohammadi, S., Shokri Varniab, Z., Peiman, S. 2023
  • Burden of autism spectrum disorders in North Africa and Middle East from 1990 to 2019: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 Brain Behavior Ebrahimi Meimand, S. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1002/brb3.3067

  • Abdominal Imaging Findings in Patients with COVID-19 Part 2: Solid Organs Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseaes Shokri Varniab, Z., Pourabhari Langroudi, A., Amouei, M., Pak, N., Khosravi, B., Radmard, A. 2023
  • Regional and national burden of leukemia and its attributable burden to risk factors in 21 countries and territories of North Africa and Middle East, 1990-2019: results from the GBD study 2019. Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology Heidari-Foroozan, M., Saeedi Moghaddam, S., Keykhaei, M., Shobeiri, P., Azadnajafabad, S., Esfahani, Z., Rezaei, N., Nasserinejad, M., Rezaei, N., Rayzan, E., Shokri Varniab, Z., Golestani, A., Haghshenas, R., Kompani, F., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F. 2022


    Regional and national data on leukemia's burden provide a better comprehension of leukemia's trends and are vital for policy-makers for better allocation of the resources. This study reports the burden of leukemia, and the attributed burden to its risk factors in 21 countries and territories of the North Africa and Middle East.Data from cancer registration, scientific literature, survey, and reports were the input to estimate the burden of leukemia. In addition, the burden of attributable risk factors with evidence of causation with leukemia was calculated using the comparative risk assessment framework. All measures are reported as counts and rates divided by sex and specific age groups.In 2019, there were 39,297 (95% uncertainty interval: 32,617-45,056) incident cases of leukemia with an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 7.8 (6.5-8.8) per 100,000 in the region. There were also 25,143 (21,109-28,826) deaths and 1,011,555 (822,537-1,173,621) DALYs attributed to Leukemia with an ASR of 5.4 (4.6-6.1) per 100,000 and 183.4 (150.7-211.2) per 100,000, respectively. Years of life lost (YLLs) (179.4 [147.2-206.7]) were accountable for the major part of DALYs. All count measures increased, while all the ASRs decreased during 1990-2019. The Syrian Arab Republic, Qatar, and Afghanistan had the highest ASR incidence, mortality, and DALYs rate in 2019. Incidence, DALYs, and prevalence rates were higher in males of all age groups except under five, and the highest rates were observed in +75 age group. Four major risk factors for leukemia were smoking, high body mass index, occupational exposure to benzene, and formaldehyde.Despite the reduction in age-standardized rates of incidence and mortality, the burden of leukemia has increased steadily, due to population growth and aging. Notable variations exist between age-standardized rates in region's countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00432-022-04293-7

    View details for PubMedID 36048271

  • Estimates of incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years of lung cancer in Iran, 1990-2019: A systematic analysis from the global burden of disease study 2019 CANCER MEDICINE Varniab, Z., Tehrani, Y., Langroudi, A., Azadnajafabad, S., Rezaei, N., Rashidi, M., Esfahani, Z., Malekpour, M., Ghasemi, E., Ghamari, A., Dilmaghani-Marand, A., Fateh, S., Shabestari, A., Larijani, B., Farzadfar, F. 2022


    Lung cancer is one of the leading cancers, with a high burden worldwide. As a developing country, Iran is facing with population growth, widespread tobacco use, demographic and epidemiologic changes, and environmental exposures, which lead to cancers becoming a severe concern of public health in Iran. We aimed to examine the burden of lung cancer and its risk factors in Iran.We utilized the Global Burden of Disease 2019 data and analyzed the total burden of the lung cancer and seven related risk factors by sex, age at national and sub-national levels from 1990 to 2019.The lung cancer age-standardized death rate increased from 11.8 (95% Uncertainty Interval: 9.7-14.4) to 12.9 (11.9-13.9) per 100,000 between 1990 and 2019. This increase was among women from 5 (4.2-7.1) to 8 (7.2-8.8) per 100,000; in contrast, there was a decline among men from 18.5 (14.8-22.6) to 17.8 (16.2-19.4) per 100,000. The burden of lung cancer is concentrated in the advanced age groups. Smoking with 53.5% of total attributable deaths (51.0%-55.9%) was the leading risk factor. At the provincial level, there was a wide range between the lowest and highest, from 8.3 (7.0-10.0) to 19.1 (16.4-22.0) per 100,000 population in the incidence rate and from 8.7 (7.3-10.3) to 20.6 (17.7-24.0) per 100,000 population in mortality rate, respectively in Tehran and West Azerbaijan provinces in 2019.The increasing trend of lung cancer burden among the entire Iranian population, the inter-provincial disparities, and the significant rise in burden of this cancer in women necessitate the urgent implementation and development of policies to prevent and manage lung cancer burden and strategies to reduce exposure to risk factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cam4.4792

    View details for Web of Science ID 000810267400001

    View details for PubMedID 35698451

  • Meatal stenosis following three types of circumcision with frenular artery preservation (FAP), the Plastibell device (PD), and frenular artery ligation (FAL): a long-term follow-up IRISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Varniab, Z., Langroudi, A., Neishabouri, A., Torabinavid, P., Arbab, M., Heidari, F., Milani, S., Eftekharzadeh, S., Sabetkish, S., Kajbafzadeh, A. 2022


    Despite the simplicity of male circumcision, complications occur frequently. Post-circumcision meatal stenosis is a concerning complication that might require several interventions.This study aims to evaluate the incidence of meatal stenosis in long-term follow-up, following three common circumcision methods: frenular artery preservation, frenular ligation, and the Plastibell device.This study is the continuation of the previous randomized clinical trial, the preliminary abstract of which has been accepted in the annual meeting of the American Urological Association in 2011. However, in this paper, we only included the patients with results of long-term follow-up. Patients were followed for a median of 11 years (range, 7-17). Follow-ups were recorded by evaluation of meatus and signs and symptoms of meatal stenosis.Two hundred six boys (80 neonates and 126 non-neonates) at the time of procedure were included in this study. The circumcision was conducted on 23.3% (48/206) of boys with the Plastibell device (PD) and 39.3% (81/206) of cases with frenular artery preservation (FAP) and 37.4% (77/206) of cases with frenular artery ligation (FAL). Meatal stenosis presented in 13 children during follow-up. Considering the three methods of circumcision, a significant difference in the incidence of meatal stenosis among the types of circumcisions was observed (6.3% in PD and 1.2% in FAP, 11.7% in FAL, P = 0.026).The present study revealed that the technique preserving the frenular artery is associated with a significantly lower incidence of meatal stenosis. Hence, the FAP is the recommended technique for circumcision as compared to two other methods.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11845-022-03040-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000805732300003

    View details for PubMedID 35657540

  • The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet (London, England) GBD 2019 Cancer Risk Factors Collaborators, Tran, K. B., Lang, J. J., Compton, K., Xu, R., Acheson, A. R., Henrikson, H. J., Kocarnik, J. M., Penberthy, L., Aali, A., Abbas, Q., Abbasi, B., Abbasi-Kangevari, M., Abbasi-Kangevari, Z., Abbastabar, H., Abdelmasseh, M., Abd-Elsalam, S., Abdelwahab, A. A., Abdoli, G., Abdulkadir, H. A., Abedi, A., Abegaz, K. H., Abidi, H., Aboagye, R. G., Abolhassani, H., Absalan, A., Abtew, Y. D., Abubaker Ali, H., Abu-Gharbieh, E., Achappa, B., Acuna, J. M., Addison, D., Addo, I. Y., Adegboye, O. A., Adesina, M. A., Adnan, M., Adnani, Q. E., Advani, S. M., Afrin, S., Afzal, M. S., Aggarwal, M., Ahinkorah, B. O., Ahmad, A. R., Ahmad, R., Ahmad, S., Ahmad, S., Ahmadi, S., Ahmed, H., Ahmed, L. A., Ahmed, M. B., Ahmed Rashid, T., Aiman, W., Ajami, M., Akalu, G. T., Akbarzadeh-Khiavi, M., Aklilu, A., Akonde, M., Akunna, C. J., Al Hamad, H., Alahdab, F., Alanezi, F. M., Alanzi, T. M., Alessy, S. A., Algammal, A. M., Al-Hanawi, M. K., Alhassan, R. K., Ali, B. A., Ali, L., Ali, S. S., Alimohamadi, Y., Alipour, V., Aljunid, S. M., Alkhayyat, M., Al-Maweri, S. A., Almustanyir, S., Alonso, N., Alqalyoobi, S., Al-Raddadi, R. M., Al-Rifai, R. H., Al-Sabah, S. K., Al-Tammemi, A. B., Altawalah, H., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amare, F., Ameyaw, E. K., Aminian Dehkordi, J. J., Amirzade-Iranaq, M. H., Amu, H., Amusa, G. A., Ancuceanu, R., Anderson, J. A., Animut, Y. A., Anoushiravani, A., Anoushirvani, A. A., Ansari-Moghaddam, A., Ansha, M. G., Antony, B., Antwi, M. H., Anwar, S. L., Anwer, R., Anyasodor, A. E., Arabloo, J., Arab-Zozani, M., Aremu, O., Argaw, A. M., Ariffin, H., Aripov, T., Arshad, M., Artaman, A., Arulappan, J., Aruleba, R. T., Aryannejad, A., Asaad, M., Asemahagn, M. A., Asemi, Z., Asghari-Jafarabadi, M., Ashraf, T., Assadi, R., Athar, M., Athari, S. S., Atout, M. M., Attia, S., Aujayeb, A., Ausloos, M., Avila-Burgos, L., Awedew, A. F., Awoke, M. A., Awoke, T., Ayala Quintanilla, B. P., Ayana, T. M., Ayen, S. S., Azadi, D., Azadnajafabad, S., Azami-Aghdash, S., Azanaw, M. M., Azangou-Khyavy, M., Azari Jafari, A., Azizi, H., Azzam, A. Y., Babajani, A., Badar, M., Badiye, A. D., Baghcheghi, N., Bagheri, N., Bagherieh, S., Bahadory, S., Baig, A. A., Baker, J. L., Bakhtiari, A., Bakshi, R. K., Banach, M., Banerjee, I., Bardhan, M., Barone-Adesi, F., Barra, F., Barrow, A., Bashir, N. Z., Bashiri, A., Basu, S., Batiha, A. M., Begum, A., Bekele, A. B., Belay, A. S., Belete, M. A., Belgaumi, U. I., Bell, A. W., Belo, L., Benzian, H., Berhie, A. Y., Bermudez, A. N., Bernabe, E., Bhagavathula, A. S., Bhala, N., Bhandari, B. B., Bhardwaj, N., Bhardwaj, P., Bhattacharyya, K., Bhojaraja, V. S., Bhuyan, S. S., Bibi, S., Bilchut, A. H., Bintoro, B. S., Biondi, A., Birega, M. G., Birhan, H. E., Bjorge, T., Blyuss, O., Bodicha, B. B., Bolla, S. R., Boloor, A., Bosetti, C., Braithwaite, D., Brauer, M., Brenner, H., Briko, A. N., Briko, N. I., Buchanan, C. M., Bulamu, N. B., Bustamante-Teixeira, M. T., Butt, M. H., Butt, N. S., Butt, Z. A., Caetano Dos Santos, F. L., Camera, L. A., Cao, C., Cao, Y., Carreras, G., Carvalho, M., Cembranel, F., Cerin, E., Chakraborty, P. A., Charalampous, P., Chattu, V. K., Chimed-Ochir, O., Chirinos-Caceres, J. L., Cho, D. Y., Cho, W. C., Christopher, D. J., Chu, D., Chukwu, I. S., Cohen, A. J., Conde, J., Cortes, S., Costa, V. M., Cruz-Martins, N., Culbreth, G. T., Dadras, O., Dagnaw, F. T., Dahlawi, S. M., Dai, X., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Daneshpajouhnejad, P., Danielewicz, A., Dao, A. T., Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R., Darwesh, A. M., Das, S., Davitoiu, D. V., Davtalab Esmaeili, E., De la Hoz, F. P., Debela, S. A., Dehghan, A., Demisse, B., Demisse, F. W., Denova-Gutierrez, E., Derakhshani, A., Derbew Molla, M., Dereje, D., Deribe, K. S., Desai, R., Desalegn, M. D., Dessalegn, F. N., Dessalegni, S. A., Dessie, G., Desta, A. A., Dewan, S. M., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dhimal, M., Dianatinasab, M., Diao, N., Diaz, D., Digesa, L. E., Dixit, S. G., Doaei, S., Doan, L. P., Doku, P. N., Dongarwar, D., Dos Santos, W. M., Driscoll, T. R., Dsouza, H. L., Durojaiye, O. C., Edalati, S., Eghbalian, F., Ehsani-Chimeh, E., Eini, E., Ekholuenetale, M., Ekundayo, T. C., Ekwueme, D. U., El Tantawi, M., Elbahnasawy, M. A., Elbarazi, I., Elghazaly, H., Elhadi, M., El-Huneidi, W., Emamian, M. H., Engelbert Bain, L., Enyew, D. B., Erkhembayar, R., Eshetu, T., Eshrati, B., Eskandarieh, S., Espinosa-Montero, J., Etaee, F., Etemadimanesh, A., Eyayu, T., Ezeonwumelu, I. J., Ezzikouri, S., Fagbamigbe, A. F., Fahimi, S., Fakhradiyev, I. R., Faraon, E. J., Fares, J., Farmany, A., Farooque, U., Farrokhpour, H., Fasanmi, A. O., Fatehizadeh, A., Fatima, W., Fattahi, H., Fekadu, G., Feleke, B. E., Ferrari, A. A., Ferrero, S., Ferro Desideri, L., Filip, I., Fischer, F., Foroumadi, R., Foroutan, M., Fukumoto, T., Gaal, P. A., Gad, M. M., Gadanya, M. A., Gaipov, A., Galehdar, N., Gallus, S., Garg, T., Gaspar Fonseca, M., Gebremariam, Y. H., Gebremeskel, T. G., Gebremichael, M. A., Geda, Y. F., Gela, Y. Y., Gemeda, B. N., Getachew, M., Getachew, M. E., Ghaffari, K., Ghafourifard, M., Ghamari, S., Ghasemi Nour, M., Ghassemi, F., Ghimire, A., Ghith, N., Gholamalizadeh, M., Gholizadeh Navashenaq, J., Ghozy, S., Gilani, S. A., Gill, P. S., Ginindza, T. G., Gizaw, A. T., Glasbey, J. C., Godos, J., Goel, A., Golechha, M., Goleij, P., Golinelli, D., Golitaleb, M., Gorini, G., Goulart, B. N., Grosso, G., Guadie, H. A., Gubari, M. I., Gudayu, T. W., Guerra, M. R., Gunawardane, D. A., Gupta, B., Gupta, S., Gupta, V. B., Gupta, V. K., Gurara, M. K., Guta, A., Habibzadeh, P., Haddadi Avval, A., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Hajj Ali, A., Haj-Mirzaian, A., Halboub, E. S., Halimi, A., Halwani, R., Hamadeh, R. R., Hameed, S., Hamidi, S., Hanif, A., Hariri, S., Harlianto, N. I., Haro, J. M., Hartono, R. K., Hasaballah, A. I., Hasan, S. M., Hasani, H., Hashemi, S. M., Hassan, A. M., Hassanipour, S., Hayat, K., Heidari, G., Heidari, M., Heidarymeybodi, Z., Herrera-Serna, B. Y., Herteliu, C., Hezam, K., Hiraike, Y., Hlongwa, M. M., Holla, R., Holm, M., Horita, N., Hoseini, M., Hossain, M. M., Hossain, M. B., Hosseini, M., Hosseinzadeh, A., Hosseinzadeh, M., Hostiuc, M., Hostiuc, S., Househ, M., Huang, J., Hugo, F. N., Humayun, A., Hussain, S., Hussein, N. R., Hwang, B., Ibitoye, S. E., Iftikhar, P. M., Ikuta, K. S., Ilesanmi, O. S., Ilic, I. M., Ilic, M. D., Immurana, M., Innos, K., Iranpour, P., Irham, L. M., Islam, M. S., Islam, R. M., Islami, F., Ismail, N. E., Isola, G., Iwagami, M., J, L. 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    BACKGROUND: Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally.METHODS: The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented.FINDINGS: Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01-4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3-48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1-45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60-3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8-54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36-1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5-41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6-28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8-25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9-42·8] and 33·3% [25·8-42·0]).INTERPRETATION: The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden.FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01438-6

    View details for PubMedID 35988567

  • Findings of Abdominal Imaging in Patients with COVID-19 Part 1: Hollow Organs Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseaes Pourabhari Langroudi, A., Shokri Varniab , Z., Amouei, M., Pak, N., Khosravi, B., Mirsharifi, A., Radmard, A. 2022; 14

    View details for DOI 10.34172/mejdd.2022.284