Dr. Zhao received her B.S. in Life Science from Beijing Normal University in China. She completed her Ph.D. in Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology at University of California, Riverside in the laboratory of Wendy Saltzman in 2018. Following her Ph.D., she moved to Stanford for her postdoctoral work in the lab of Katrin J Svensson, studying endocrinology in mammalian energy metabolism.
Honors & Awards
Best Poster Award, Annual Frontiers in Diabetes Research Symposium, Stanford (2022)
Postdoctoral Fellowship, American Heart Association (AHA) (2022)
Best Poster Award, Pathology Basic Research Retreat, Stanford (2021)
Charlotte Mangum Student Support, the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (2018)
Dissertation Year Program Fellowship, Graduate Division, UC Riverside (2018)
GradFest Best Student Talk, Department of Biology, UC Riverside (2018)
Vaughan H. Shoemaker Graduate Fellowship, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, UC Riverside (2017)
Dean's Distinguished Fellowship Award, Department of Biology, UC Riverside (2013)
Bachelor of Science, Beijing Normal University (2013)
Doctor of Philosophy, University of California Riverside (2018)
Katrin Svensson, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Protocol for invivo measurement of basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse tissues.
2023; 4 (2): 102179
Here, we present an invivo protocol for measuring basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in tissues from mice. We describe steps for administering 2-deoxy-D-[1,2-3H]glucose in the presence or absence of insulin via intraperitoneal injections. We then detail tissue collection, tissue processing to measure 3H counts on a scintillation counter, and data interpretation. This protocol can be applied to other glucoregulatory hormones, genetic mouse models, and other species. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Jiang etal. (2021).1.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xpro.2023.102179
View details for PubMedID 36933224
Mapping transcriptional heterogeneity and metabolic networks in fatty livers at single-cell resolution.
2023; 26 (1): 105802
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a heterogeneous disease with unclear underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of hepatocytes and hepatic non-parenchymal cells to map the lipid signatures in mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We uncover previously unidentified clusters of hepatocytes characterized by either high or low srebp1 expression. Surprisingly, the canonical lipid synthesis driver Srebp1 is not predictive of hepatic lipid accumulation, suggestive of other drivers of lipid metabolism. By combining transcriptional data at single-cell resolution with computational network analyses, we find that NAFLD is associated with high constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) expression. Mechanistically, CAR interacts with four functional modules: cholesterol homeostasis, bile acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and estrogen response. Nuclear expression of CAR positively correlates with steatohepatitis in human livers. These findings demonstrate significant cellular differences in lipid signatures and identify functional networks linked to hepatic steatosis in mice and humans.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.isci.2022.105802
View details for PubMedID 36636354
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9830221
A human TRPV1 genetic variant within the channel gating domain regulates pain sensitivity in rodents.
The Journal of clinical investigation
Pain signals are relayed to the brain via a nociceptive system, and in rare situations, this nociceptive system contains genetic variants that can limit pain response. Here we questioned whether a human transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) missense variant causes a resistance to noxious stimuli and further if we can target this region by a cell-permeable peptide as a pain therapeutic. Initially using a computational approach, we identified a human K710N TRPV1 missense variant in an otherwise highly conserved region of mammalian TRPV1. After generating a TRPV1K710N knock-in mouse using CRISPR/Cas9, we discovered the K710N variant reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The TRPV1K710N rodents also had less acute behavioral response to chemical noxious stimuli and less hypersensitivity to nerve injury-induced pain, while leaving the response to noxious heat intact. Furthermore, blocking this K710 region in wild-type rodents by a cell-penetrating peptide limited acute behavioral responses to noxious stimuli and rescued pain hypersensitivity induced by nerve injury back to baseline. These findings identify K710 TRPV1 as a discrete site crucial for the control of nociception and provides new insights into how to leverage rare genetic variants in humans to uncover fresh strategies for developing pain therapeutics.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI163735
View details for PubMedID 36472910
New players of the adipose secretome: Therapeutic opportunities and challenges.
Current opinion in pharmacology
2022; 67: 102302
Adipose tissue is a functional endocrine organ comprised of adipocytes and other cell types that are known to secrete a multiplicity of adipose-derived factors, including lipids and proteins. It is well established that adipose tissue and its secretome can impact systemic energy homeostasis. The endocrine and paracrine effects of adipose-derived factors have been widely studied over the last several decades. Owing to technological advances in genomics and proteomics, several additional adipose-derived protein factors have recently been identified. By learning from previous efforts, the next challenge will be to leverage these discoveries for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we discuss recently discovered adipose-derived proteins secreted from white or brown adipose tissue and the opportunities and challenges of translating these biological findings into disease therapeutics.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coph.2022.102302
View details for PubMedID 36195010
Phosphoproteomic mapping reveals distinct signaling actions and activation of muscle protein synthesis by Isthmin-1.
The secreted protein Isthmin-1 (Ism1) mitigates diabetes by increasing adipocyte and skeletal muscle glucose uptake by activating the PI3K-Akt pathway. However, while both Ism1 and insulin converge on these common targets, Ism1 has distinct cellular actions suggesting divergence in downstream intracellular signaling pathways. To understand the biological complexity of Ism1 signaling, we performed phosphoproteomic analysis after acute exposure, revealing overlapping and distinct pathways of Ism1 and insulin. We identify a 53 % overlap between Ism1 and insulin signaling and Ism1-mediated phosphoproteome-wide alterations in ~ 450 proteins that are not shared with insulin. Interestingly, we find several unknown phosphorylation sites on proteins related to protein translation, mTOR pathway and, unexpectedly, muscle function in the Ism1 signaling network. Physiologically, Ism1 ablation in mice results in altered proteostasis, including lower muscle protein levels under fed and fasted conditions, reduced amino acid incorporation into proteins, and reduced phosphorylation of the key protein synthesis effectors Akt and downstream mTORC1 targets. As metabolic disorders such as diabetes are associated with accelerated loss of skeletal muscle protein content, these studies define a non-canonical mechanism by which this anti-diabetic circulating protein controls muscle biology.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.80014
View details for PubMedID 36169399
G protein-coupled receptor 151 regulates glucose metabolism and hepatic gluconeogenesis
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-022-35069-9
Effects of early-life exposure to Western diet and voluntary exercise on adult activity levels, exercise physiology, and associated traits in selectively bred High Runner mice
PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR
2021; 234: 113389
Exercise behavior is under partial genetic control, but it is also affected by numerous environmental factors, potentially including early-life experiences whose effects persist into adulthood. We studied genetic and early-life environmental effects on wheel-running behavior in a mouse model that includes four replicate high runner (HR) lines selectively bred for increased voluntary wheel running as young adults and four non-selected control (C) lines. In a full factorial design, mice from each line were granted wheel access or not and administered either standard or Western diet (WD) from weaning (3 weeks old) to 6 weeks of age (sexual maturity). In addition to acute effects, after a washout period of 8 weeks (∼6 human years) in which all mice had standard diet and no wheel access, we found both beneficial and detrimental effects of these early-life exposures. During the first week of treatments, WD increased distance run by 29% in C mice and 48% in HR mice (significant Diet × Linetype interaction), but diet effects disappeared by the third week. Across the three weeks of juvenile treatment, WD significantly increased fat mass (with lean mass as a covariate). Tested as adults, early-life exercise increased wheel running of C mice but not HR mice in the first week. Early-life exercise also reduced adult anxiety-like behavior and increased adult fasted blood glucose levels, triceps surae mass, subdermal fat pad mass, and brain mass, but decreased heart ventricle mass. Using fat mass as a covariate, early-life exercise treatment increased adult leptin concentration. In contrast, early-life WD increased adult wheel running of HR mice but not C mice. Early-life WD also increased adult lean mass and adult preference for Western diet in all groups. Surprisingly, early-life treatment had no significant effect on adult body fat or maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). No previous study has tested for combined or interactive effects of early-life WD and exercise. Our results demonstrate that both factors can have long-lasting effects on adult voluntary exercise and related phenotypes, and that these effects are modulated by genetic background. Overall, the long-lasting effects of early-life exercise were more pervasive than those of WD, suggesting critical opportunities for health intervention in childhood habits, as well as possible threats from modern challenges. These results may be relevant for understanding potential effects of activity reductions and dietary changes associated with the obesity epidemic and COVID-19 pandemic.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113389
View details for Web of Science ID 000640186900015
View details for PubMedID 33741375
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8106885
Isthmin-1 is an adipokine that promotes glucose uptake and improves glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis.
With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease, there is still an unmet need to better treat hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Here, we identify isthmin-1 (Ism1) as an adipokine and one that has a dual role in increasing adipose glucose uptake while suppressing hepatic lipid synthesis. Ism1 ablation results in impaired glucose tolerance, reduced adipose glucose uptake, and reduced insulin sensitivity, demonstrating an endogenous function for Ism1 in glucose regulation. Mechanistically, Ism1 activates a PI3K-AKT signaling pathway independently of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors. Notably, while the glucoregulatory function is shared with insulin, Ism1 counteracts lipid accumulation in the liver by switching hepatocytes from a lipogenic to a protein synthesis state. Furthermore, therapeutic dosing of recombinant Ism1 improves diabetes in diet-induced obese mice and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in a diet-induced fatty liver mouse model. These findings uncover an unexpected, bioactive protein hormone that might have simultaneous therapeutic potential for diabetes and fatty liver disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2021.07.010
View details for PubMedID 34348115
Isolation, culture, and functional analysis of hepatocytes from mice with fatty liver disease.
2020; 1 (3): 100222
We present a protocol for isolating hepatocytes from mice with established non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This protocol consists of liver perfusion using a peristaltic pump, followed by a modified 25% and 90% Percoll gradient centrifugation protocol to capture lipid-laden hepatocytes that are usually lost using traditional isolation protocols. This protocol enables simultaneous isolation of normal and lipid-filled hepatocytes. Lipid-filled hepatocytes can be used in cell culture systems to study drug metabolism, hepatotoxicity, or glucose and lipid metabolism. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Sharabi etal. (2017) and Kegel etal. (2016).
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xpro.2020.100222
View details for PubMedID 33377114
Effects of sex and age on parental motivation in adult virgin California mice
2020; 178: 104185
Female mammals often demonstrate a rapid initiation of maternal responsiveness immediately after giving birth, as a result of neuroendocrine changes that occur during pregnancy and parturition. However, fathers and virgins of some species may display infant care similar to that performed by mothers but without experiencing these physiological events. In biparental species, in which both mothers and fathers care for their offspring, both sex and age may affect parental motivation, even in adult virgins. We examined the effects of sex and age on parental motivation in the California mouse, a monogamous, biparental rodent. We compared parental motivation of male and female virgins in both mid- and old adulthood using two new tests - a T-maze test and a rain test - as well as in standard parental-behavior tests. Adult virgin males were more parentally motivated than adult virgin females in both the T-maze test and the parental-behavior test, but parental motivation did not differ markedly between middle-aged and older adults of either sex. These findings suggest that sex differences in parental motivation in adult virgins are similar to those observed in other biparental rodents, and indicate that the T-maze test may be useful for evaluating parental motivation in this species.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.beproc.2020.104185
View details for Web of Science ID 000555776300013
View details for PubMedID 32603677
Regulation of Energy Metabolism by Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ligands.
Frontiers in physiology
2020; 11: 354
Metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and fatty liver disease, have now reached epidemic proportions. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of cell surface receptors responding to growth factors, hormones, and cytokines to mediate a diverse set of fundamental cellular and metabolic signaling pathways. These ligands signal by endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine means in peripheral organs and in the central nervous system to control cellular and tissue-specific metabolic processes. Interestingly, the expression of many RTKs and their ligands are controlled by changes in metabolic demand, for example, during starvation, feeding, or obesity. In addition, studies of RTKs and their ligands in regulating energy homeostasis have revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanisms of action and their specific metabolic functions. Our current understanding of the molecular, biochemical and genetic control of energy homeostasis by the endocrine RTK ligands insulin, FGF21 and FGF19 are now relatively well understood. In addition to these classical endocrine signals, non-endocrine ligands can govern local energy regulation, and the intriguing crosstalk between the RTK family and the TGFβ receptor family demonstrates a signaling network that diversifies metabolic process between tissues. Thus, there is a need to increase our molecular and mechanistic understanding of signal diversification of RTK actions in metabolic disease. Here we review the known and emerging molecular mechanisms of RTK signaling that regulate systemic glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as highlighting unexpected roles of non-classical RTK ligands that crosstalk with other receptor pathways.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fphys.2020.00354
View details for PubMedID 32372975
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7186430
Long-Term Effects of Fatherhood on Morphology, Energetics, and Exercise Performance in California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY
2020; 93 (1): 75–86
In male mammals that provide care for their offspring, fatherhood can lead to changes in behavioral, morphological, and physiological traits, some of which might constitute trade-offs. However, relatively little is known about these changes, especially across multiple reproductive bouts, which are expected to magnify differences between fathers and nonreproductive males. We evaluated consequences of fatherhood in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromsycus californicus) across seven consecutive reproductive bouts. We compared breeding adult males (housed with sham-ovariectomized females) with two control groups: nonbreeding males (housed with ovariectomized females treated with estrogen and progesterone to induce estrous behavior) and virgin males (housed with untreated ovariectomized females). At five time points (before pairing, early postpartum of the first litter, late postpartum of the second litter, early postpartum of the sixth litter, and late postpartum of the seventh litter or comparable time points for nonbreeding and virgin males), we measured males' body composition, hematocrit, predatory aggression, resting metabolic rate, maximal oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 max ), grip strength, and sprint speed. We also weighed organs at the final time point. We predicted that fathers would have lower relative body fat and lower performance abilities compared with control groups and that these effects would become more pronounced with increasing parity. Contrary to predictions, breeding and control males differed in surprisingly few measures, and the number and magnitude of differences did not increase with parity. Thus, our expectations regarding trade-offs were not met. As reported in studies of single reproductive events, these results suggest that fatherhood has few costs in this species when housed under standard laboratory conditions, even across multiple reproductive bouts.
View details for DOI 10.1086/706863
View details for Web of Science ID 000501783200002
View details for PubMedID 31808736
- Effects of short- and long-term cold acclimation on morphology, physiology, and exercise performance of California mice (Peromyscus californicus): potential modulation by fatherhood JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY 2019; 189 (3-4): 471–87
Effects of single parenthood on mothers' behavior, morphology, and endocrine function in the biparental California mouse.
Hormones and behavior
2019; 114: 104536
Motherhood is energetically costly for mammals and is associated with pronounced changes in mothers' physiology, morphology and behavior. In ~5% of mammals, fathers assist their mates with rearing offspring and can enhance offspring survival and development. Although these beneficial consequences of paternal care can be mediated by direct effects on offspring, they might also be mediated indirectly, through beneficial effects on mothers. We tested the hypothesis that fathers in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) reduce the burden of parental care on their mates, and therefore, that females rearing offspring with and without assistance from their mates will show differences in endocrinology, morphology and behavior, as well as in the survival and development of their pups. We found that pups' survival and development in the lab did not differ between those raised by a single mother and those reared by both mother and father. Single mothers spent more time in feeding behaviors than paired mothers. Both single and paired mothers had higher lean mass and/or lower fat mass and showed more anxiety-like behavior in open-field tests and tail-suspension tests, compared to non-breeding females. Single mothers had higher body-mass-corrected liver and heart masses, but lower ovarian and uterine masses, than paired mothers and/or non-breeding females. Mass of the gastrointestinal tract did not differ between single and paired mothers, but single mothers had heavier gastrointestinal tract compared to non-breeding females. Single motherhood also induced a flattened diel corticosterone rhythm and a blunted corticosterone response to stress, compared to non-breeding conditions. These findings suggest that the absence of a mate induces morphological and endocrine changes in mothers, which might result from increased energetic demands of pup care and could potentially help maintain normal survival and development of pups.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.05.005
View details for PubMedID 31153926
Behavioral and endocrine consequences of placentophagia in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus)
PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR
2018; 188: 283–90
Ingestion of placenta by mammalian mothers can lead to changes in pain sensitivity, hormone levels, and behavioral responses to newborns. In some biparental mammals, males, in addition to females, ingest placenta when their offspring are born. In the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), males first become attracted to placenta when cohabitating with their pregnant mate, and virgin males administered placenta are less neophobic than males given oil vehicle. In this study, we investigated the effects of placentophagia on pain sensitivity, anxiety-like behavior, behavioral responses to pups, and circulating corticosterone levels of both breeding and nonbreeding male California mice. We orally administered either a conspecific placenta or oil vehicle to male mice from three reproductive conditions (first-time fathers, first-time expectant fathers, and virgin males) and tested their pain sensitivity 1 h later, as well as their exploratory behavior and paternal responsiveness in an open field 4 h post-treatment. We measured plasma corticosterone immediately after the open-field test. We found that placenta-treated males, independent of reproductive condition, traveled significantly longer distances in the open field than males treated with oil, indicative of lower anxiety. Additionally, fathers had shorter latencies to approach and to care for pups (i.e., huddling and licking pups), and spent more time engaging in these behaviors, than did age-matched expectant fathers and virgin males, independent of treatment. We found no effect on plasma corticosterone levels or pain sensitivity as a result of either treatment or reproductive condition. These findings indicate that placenta ingestion decreases anxiety-related behaviors in male California mice, but might not influence pain sensitivity, paternal responsiveness, or plasma corticosterone concentrations.
View details for PubMedID 29452152
Effects of a physical and energetic challenge on male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): modulation by reproductive condition
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY
2018; 221 (1)
Reproduction strongly influences metabolism, morphology and behavior in female mammals. In species in which males provide parental care, reproduction might have similar effects on fathers. We examined effects of an environmental challenge on metabolically important physiological, morphological and behavioral measures, and determined whether these effects differed between reproductive and non-reproductive males in the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Males were paired with an ovary-intact female, an ovariectomized female treated with estrogen and progesterone to induce estrus, or an untreated ovariectomized female. Within each group, half of the animals were housed under standard laboratory conditions and half in cages requiring them to climb wire towers to obtain food and water; these latter animals were also fasted for 24 h every third day. We predicted that few differences would be observed between fathers and non-reproductive males under standard conditions, but that fathers would be in poorer condition than non-reproductive males under challenging conditions. Body and fat mass showed a housing condition×reproductive group interaction: the challenge condition increased body and fat mass in both groups of non-reproductive males, but breeding males were unaffected. Males housed under the physical and energetic challenge had higher blood lipid content, lower maximal aerobic capacity and related traits (hematocrit and relative triceps surae mass), increased pain sensitivity and increased number of fecal boli excreted during tail-suspension tests (a measure of anxiety), compared with controls. Thus, our physical and energetic challenge paradigm altered metabolism, morphology and behavior, but these effects were largely unaffected by reproductive condition.
View details for PubMedID 29170256
Paternal Care in Biparental Rodents: Intra- and Inter-individual Variation
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2017: 589–602
Parental care by fathers, although rare among mmmals, can be essential for the survival and normal development of offspring in biparental species. A growing body of research on biparental rodents has identified several developmental and experiential influences on paternal responsiveness. Some of these factors, such as pubertal maturation, interactions with pups, and cues from a pregnant mate, contribute to pronounced changes in paternal responsiveness across the course of the lifetime in individual males. Others, particularly intrauterine position during gestation and parental care received during postnatal development, can have long-term effects on paternal behavior and contribute to stable differences among individuals within a species. Focusing on five well-studied, biparental rodent species, we review the developmental and experiential factors that have been shown to influence paternal responsiveness, and consider their roles in generating both intra- and inter-individual variation. We also review hormones and neuropeptides that have been shown to modulate paternal care and discuss their potential contributions to behavioral differences within and between males. Finally, we discuss the possibility that vasopressinergic and possibly oxytocinergic signaling within the brain, modulated by gonadal steroid hormones, may represent the "final common pathway" mediating effects of developmental and experiential variables on intra- and inter-individual variation in paternal care.
View details for PubMedID 28641377
Metabolic and and affective consequences of fatherhood in male California mice
PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR
2017; 177: 57–67
Physiological and affective condition can be modulated by the social environment and parental state in mammals. However, in species in which males assist with rearing offspring, the metabolic and affective effects of pair bonding and fatherhood on males have rarely been explored. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fathers, like mothers, experience energetic costs as well as behavioral and affective changes (e.g., depression, anxiety) associated with parenthood. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Food intake, blood glucose and lipid levels, blood insulin and leptin levels, body composition, pain sensitivity, and depression-like behavior were compared in males from three reproductive groups: virgin males (VM, housed with another male), non-breeding males (NB, housed with a tubally ligated female), and breeding males (BM, housed with a female and their first litter). We found statistically significant (P<0.007, when modified for Adaptive False Discovery Rate) or nominally significant (0.007
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.04.010
View details for Web of Science ID 000403993900009
View details for PubMedID 28414073
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5500218
Hormones and the Evolution of Complex Traits: Insights from Artificial Selection on Behavior
INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY
2016; 56 (2): 207–24
Although behavior may often be a fairly direct target of natural or sexual selection, it cannot evolve without changes in subordinate traits that cause or permit its expression. In principle, changes in endocrine function could be a common mechanism underlying behavioral evolution because they are well positioned to mediate integrated responses to behavioral selection. More specifically, hormones can influence both motivational (e.g., brain) and performance (e.g., muscles) components of behavior simultaneously and in a coordinated fashion. If the endocrine system is often "used" as a general mechanism to effect responses to selection, then correlated responses in other aspects of behavior, life history, and organismal performance (e.g., locomotor abilities) should commonly occur because any cell with appropriate receptors could be affected. Ways in which behavior coadapts with other aspects of the phenotype can be studied directly through artificial selection and experimental evolution. Several studies have targeted rodent behavior for selective breeding and reported changes in other aspects of behavior, life history, and lower-level effectors of these organismal traits, including endocrine function. One example involves selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running, one aspect of physical activity, in four replicate High Runner (HR) lines of mice. Circulating levels of several hormones (including insulin, testosterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine) have been characterized, three of which-corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin-differ between HR and control lines, depending on sex, age, and generation. Potential changes in circulating levels of other behaviorally and metabolically relevant hormones, as well as in other components of the endocrine system (e.g., receptors), have yet to be examined. Overall, results to date identify promising avenues for further studies on the endocrine basis of activity levels.
View details for DOI 10.1093/icb/icw040
View details for Web of Science ID 000381279100009
View details for PubMedID 27252193
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5964798