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  • Vancomycin-Loaded Nanoparticles Enhance Sporicidal and Antibacterial Efficacy for Clostridium difficile Infection FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY Chen, Y., Li, T., Tsai, B., Chen, L., Lai, Y., Li, M., Tsai, C., Tsai, P., Shieh, D. 2019; 10: 1141


    Current antibiotic treatments fail to eliminate the Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) spores and induce dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation via off-target effect, which causes refractory C. difficile infection raise an unmet need for a spore-specific antimicrobial treatment. We developed a sporicidal and antimicrobial vancomycin-loaded spore-targeting iron oxide nanoparticle (van-IONP) that selectively binds to C. difficile spores. Cryo-electron microscopy showed that vancomycin-loaded nanoparticles can target and completely cover spore surfaces. They not only successfully delayed the germination of the spores but also inhibited ∼50% of vegetative cell outgrowth after 48 h of incubation. The van-IONPs also inhibited the interaction of spores with HT-29 intestinal mucosal cells in vitro. In a murine model of C. difficile infection, the van-IONP significantly protected the mice from infected by C. difficile infection, reducing intestinal inflammation, and facilitated superior mucosal viability compared with equal doses of free vancomycin. This dual-function targeted delivery therapy showed advantages over traditional therapeutics in treating C. difficile infection.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000468913100001

    View details for PubMedID 31178844

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6543869