Bio


Dr. Russell is an Associate Professor of Pediatrics in the Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine and a board-certified academic pediatric hospitalist at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital. His clinical responsibilities include caring for children hospitalized for a variety of illnesses. His research focuses on developing evidence-based care for hospitalized children with medical complexity, including acute respiratory infections (such as pneumonia and bacterial tracheitis). His research efforts have been recognized through receipt of the University of Southern California’s Clinical and Translational Science Institute’s KL2 Mentored Research Career Development Award (2014-16), the Academic Pediatric Association’s Young Investigator Award (2015-16), the NIH Loan Repayment Program (2017-2021) and a large grant from the Gerber Foundation (2020-2022). In August 2021, he received a five-year R01 award from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to study bacterial respiratory infections in child with tracheostomy. Outside of his clinical and research responsibilities, Dr. Russell focuses on research mentorship of medical students, pediatric residents, and pediatric hospital medicine fellows as well as improving representation of underrepresented minorities in medicine throughout the continuum of physician training. Dr. Russell is the chair of the Academic Pediatric Association’s Membership, Diversity, and Inclusion Committee and is on the Executive Committee for the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings research network. Dr. Russell is active in the AAP and currently serves as an Associate Editor for the journal Hospital Pediatrics.

Clinical Focus


  • Pediatrics
  • Pediatric Hospital Medicine
  • Children with Medical Complexity
  • Pneumonia
  • Tracheostomy

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • WOW Award, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Office of Graduate Medical Education (2020)
  • Loan Repayment Program Award Recipient, NIH/NHLBI (2017-2021)
  • Pediatric Hospital Medicine Fellowship Mentorship Award, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (2015, 2017, 2018, 2020)
  • Young Investigator Award, Academic Pediatric Association (2015)
  • KL2 Mentored Research Career Development Award, University of Southern California CTSI (2014-2016)
  • Research Scholars Program, Academic Pediatric Association (2013-2016)
  • Barbara M. Korsch Award for Research in Medical Education, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (2012)
  • Presidential Scholars Public Service Initiative Award, Harvard Medical School (2007)
  • Certificate of Distinction in Teaching, Harvard University (2006, 2007)
  • Norfolk District Medical Society Education Fund Scholarship, Massachusetts Medical Society (2005)
  • Virginia A. Linnane Scholarship, Harvard Medical School (2003-2006)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Associate Editor, Hospital Pediatrics (2023 - Present)
  • Standing Member, Healthcare Safety and Quality Research Study Section, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2023 - Present)
  • Chair, Membership, Diversity & Inclusion, Academic Pediatric Association (2022 - Present)
  • Executive Committee, Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (2021 - Present)
  • Assistant Editor, Hospital Pediatrics (2021 - 2023)
  • Elected Member, Society for Pediatric Research (2019 - Present)
  • Member, American Thoracic Society (2017 - Present)
  • Member, Academic Pediatric Association (2011 - Present)
  • Fellow, American Academy of Pediatrics (2010 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification, American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hospital Medicine (2019)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2010)
  • Residency: UCSF Pediatric Residency (2010) CA
  • Master of Science, University of Southern California, Clinical, Biomedical and Translational Investigations (2017)
  • Medical Education: Harvard Medical School (2007) MA

All Publications


  • Factors associated with tracheostomy-associated infection treatment: A multicenter observational study. Pediatric pulmonology Morrison, J. M., Kono, N., Rush, M., Hahn, A., Forster, C. S., Cogen, J. D., Thomson, J., DeYoung, S. H., Bashiri, S., Mack, W. J., Neely, M. N., Simon, T. D., Russell, C. J. 2024

    Abstract

    To characterize factors that influence the decision to treat suspected pediatric bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory infections (bTRAINs; e.g., pneumonia, tracheitis).We conducted a multicenter, prospective cohort study of children with pre-existing tracheostomy hospitalized at six children's hospitals for a suspected bTRAIN (receipt of respiratory culture plus ≥1 doses of an antibiotic within 48 h). The primary predictor was respiratory culture growth categorized as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa + ≥1 other bacterium, other bacteria alone, or normal flora/no growth. Our primary outcome was bTRAIN treatment with a complete course of antibiotics as documented by the discharge team. We used logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to identify the association between our primary predictor and outcome and to identify demographic, clinical, and diagnostic testing factors associated with treatment.Of the 440 admissions among 289 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 307 (69.8%) had positive respiratory culture growth. Overall, 237 (53.9%) of admissions resulted in bTRAIN treatment. Relative to a negative culture, a culture positive for P. aeruginosa plus ≥1 other organism (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-5.0)] or ≥1 other organism alone (aOR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4-5.6)] was associated with treatment. Several clinical and diagnostic testing (respiratory Gram-stain and chest radiograph) findings were also associated with treatment. Positive respiratory viral testing was associated with reduced odds of treatment (aOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9).Positive respiratory cultures as well as clinical indicators of acute illness and nonculture test results were associated with bTRAIN treatment. Clinicians may be more comfortable withholding antibiotics when a virus is identified during testing.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.27117

    View details for PubMedID 38860585

  • Diagnosis, management, and outcomes of pediatric tracheostomy-associated infections: A scoping review PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Morrison, J. M., Hassan, A., Kysh, L., Dudas, R. A., Russell, C. J. 2022; 57 (5): 1145-1156

    Abstract

    Children with tracheostomy are frequently admitted to the hospital for tracheostomy-associated respiratory infections (TRAINs). However, there remains a paucity of evidence to direct the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of TRAINs. An important first step to addressing this knowledge gap is to synthesize existing data regarding TRAINs to inform current practice and facilitate innovation.We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Web of Science from inception to October 2020. Original research articles and published abstracts including children and young adults 0-21 years of age with tracheostomy were included. Included studies assessed the clinical definitions of and risk factors for TRAINs, microbiologic epidemiology and colonization of tracheostomies, and treatment and outcomes of TRAINs.Out of 5755 studies identified in the search, 78 full-text studies were included in the final review. A substantial number of studies focused on the detection of specific pathogens in respiratory cultures including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Several different definitions of TRAIN including clinical, microbiologic, and laboratory testing results were utilized; however, no uniform set of criteria were identified. The few studies focused on treatment and prevention of TRAIN emphasized the role of empiric antimicrobial therapy and the use of inhaled antibiotics.Despite a growing number of research articles studying TRAINs, there is a paucity of prospective interventional trials to guide the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of respiratory disease in this vulnerable population. Future research should include studies of interventions designed to improve short- and long-term respiratory-related outcomes of children with tracheostomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.25873

    View details for Web of Science ID 000766218500001

    View details for PubMedID 35229491

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9313552

  • Early Use of Anti-influenza Medications in Hospitalized Children With Tracheostomy PEDIATRICS Miyakawa, R., Barreto, N. B., Kato, R. M., Neely, M. N., Russell, C. J. 2019; 143 (3)

    Abstract

    Early administration of anti-influenza medications is recommended for all children hospitalized with influenza. We investigated whether early use of anti-influenza medications is associated with improved outcomes in children with tracheostomy hospitalized with influenza.We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study through the Pediatric Health Information System database for patients aged 30 days to 19 years who were discharged between October 1, 2007, and September 30, 2015 with diagnostic codes for both influenza and tracheostomy. Our primary predictor was receipt of anti-influenza medications on hospital day 0 or 1. We used propensity score matching to adjust for confounding by indication. Primary outcomes were length of stay (LOS) and 30-day all-cause revisit rate (emergency department visit or hospital admission).Of 1436 discharges screened, 899 met inclusion criteria. The median admission age was 5 years (interquartile range: 2-10). The majority had multiple complex chronic conditions (median 3; interquartile range: 3-4) and technology dependence, such as gastrostomy tube (73.6%). After matching 772 unique admissions by propensity score, LOS was shorter for the cohort receiving early anti-influenza medications (6.4 vs 7.5 days; P = .01) without increase in revisit rate (27.5% vs 24.1%; P = .28). More than 80% in both cohorts received empirical antibiotics, and the duration of antibiotic therapy was similar (5.0 vs 5.6 days; P = .11).Early use of anti-influenza medications in children with tracheostomy hospitalized with influenza is associated with shorter LOS, but these children continue to receive antibiotics despite identification and treatment of their viral infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2018-2608

    View details for Web of Science ID 000459796900019

    View details for PubMedID 30814271

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6398370

  • Risk factors for hospitalizations due to bacterial respiratory tract infections after tracheotomy PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Russell, C. J., Thurm, C., Hall, M., Simon, T. D., Neely, M. N., Berry, J. G. 2018; 53 (3): 349-357

    Abstract

    Identify characteristics associated with hospital readmission due to bacterial respiratory tract infections (bRTI) after tracheotomy.Retrospective study of 8009 children 0-17 years undergoing tracheotomy from 2007 to 2013 at 48 children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database. The primary outcome was first hospital admission after tracheotomy for bRTI (ie, primary diagnosis of bRTI or a primary diagnosis of bRTI symptom and secondary diagnosis of bRTI). We used Cox-proportional hazard modeling to assess associations between patient demographic and clinical characteristics and bRTI hospital readmission.Median age at tracheotomy admission was 5 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-50 months). Thirty-six percent (n = 2899) had at least one bRTI admission. Median time-to-readmission for bRTI was 275 days (IQR: 141-530). Factors independently associated with increased risk for bRTI readmission were younger age (eg, age < 30 days vs 13-17 years [aHR 1.32; 95%CI: 1.11-1.58]), Hispanic race/ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic White; aHR: 1.34; 95%CI: 1.20-1.50), government insurance (vs private; aHR 1.21; 95%CI: 1.10-1.33), >2 complex chronic conditions (vs zero; aHR 1.96; 95%CI: 1.34-2.86) and discharge to home (vs post-acute care setting; aHR 1.19; 95%CI: 1.08-1.32). Trauma diagnosis at tracheotomy (aHR 0.83; 95%CI: 0.69-1) and ventilator dependency (aHR 0.88; 95%CI: 0.81-0.97) were associated with decreased risk.Young, Hispanic children with multiple complex chronic conditions who use Medicaid insurance and are not discharged to post-acute care are at the highest risk for hospital readmission for bRTI post-tracheotomy. Future research should investigate strategies to mitigate this risk for these children.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.23938

    View details for Web of Science ID 000425450000015

    View details for PubMedID 29314789

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5815950

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa and post-tracheotomy bacterial respiratory tract infection readmissions PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Russell, C. J., Simon, T. D., Mamey, M. R., Newth, C. L., Neely, M. N. 2017; 52 (9): 1212-1218

    Abstract

    Identify risk factors for readmission due to a bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory tract infection (bTARTI) within 12 months of discharge after tracheotomy.We performed a retrospective cohort study of 240 children who underwent tracheotomy and were discharged with tracheotsomy in place between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2013. Children with prolonged total or post-tracheotomy length of stay (LOS), less than 12 months of follow-up, or who died during the index hospitalization were excluded. Readmission for a bTARTI (eg, pneumonia, tracheitis) treated with antibiotics, as ascertained by manual chart review, was the outcome variable. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify the independent association between risk factors and hospital readmission for bTARTI within 12 months.At index hospitalizations for tracheotomy, the median admission age was 5 months (interquartile range [IQR] 2-43 months) and median LOS was 73 days (IQR 43-121 days). Most patients were of Hispanic ethnicity (n = 162, 68%) and were publicly insured (n = 213, 89%). Nearly half (n = 112, 47%) were discharged on positive pressure mechanical ventilation. Many (n = 103, 43%) were admitted for bTARTI within 12 months of discharge. Only Hispanic ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.9; P = 0.03) and acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa between tracheotomy and discharge from index hospitalization (AOR 3.2; 95%CI: 1.2-8.3; P = 0.02) were independently associated with increased odds of bTARTI readmission, while discharge on gastrointestinal pro-motility agents was associated with decreased risk (AOR = 0.4; 95%CI: 0.2-0.8; P = 0.01).Hispanic ethnicity and post-tracheotomy acquisition of P. aeruginosa during initial hospitalization are associated with bTARTI readmission.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.23716

    View details for Web of Science ID 000407830200017

    View details for PubMedID 28440922

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5561001

  • Care Variations and Outcomes for Children Hospitalized With Bacterial Tracheostomy-Associated Respiratory Infections. Hospital pediatrics Russell, C. J., Mack, W. J., Schrager, S. M., Wu, S. 2017; 7 (1): 16-23

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Identify hospital-level care variations and association with length of stay (LOS) and hospital revisit in children with tracheostomies hospitalized for bacterial respiratory tract infections (bRTIs).METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study that used the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients with tracheostomies aged ≤18 years with a primary diagnosis of bRTI (eg, tracheitis) or a primary diagnosis of a bRTI symptom (eg, cough) and a secondary diagnosis of bRTI. Primary outcomes were LOS and 30-day all-cause revisit rates. Secondary outcomes included hospital-level diagnostic testing and anti-Pseudomonas antibiotic use. We used mixed-effects negative binomial (for LOS) and logistic (for revisit) regression to explore the relationship between hospital-level diagnostic test utilization and the outcomes.RESULTS: Data representing 4137 unique patients with a median age of 3 years (interquartile range: 1-9 years) were included. Median LOS was 4 days (interquartile range: 3-8 days), and the 30-day revisit rate was 24.9%. Use of diagnostic testing and empirical anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics varied significantly among hospitals (all P values <.001). After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, compared with low test utilization hospitals, there were no differences in 30-day all-cause revisit rates in moderate (adjusted odds ratio: 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-1.52) or high (adjusted odds ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.82-1.39) utilization hospitals. LOS in hospitals with moderate (% difference: -0.8%; 95% CI: -14.4-14.9%) or high (% difference: 13.9%; 95% CI: -0.7-30.6%) test utilization was not significantly longer.CONCLUSIONS: Given that care variations were not associated with outcomes, future research should focus on standardizing diagnosis and treatment of bRTIs and readmission prevention in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2016-0104

    View details for PubMedID 27998905

  • Prioritization of Randomized Clinical Trial Questions for Children Hospitalized With Common Conditions: A Consensus Statement. JAMA network open Coon, E. R., McDaniel, C. E., Paciorkowski, N., Grimshaw, M., Frakes, E., Ambroggio, L., Auger, K. A., Cohen, E., Garber, M., Gill, P. J., Jennings, R., Joshi, N. S., Leyenaar, J. K., McCulloh, R., Pantell, M. S., Sauers-Ford, H. S., Schroeder, A. R., Srivastava, R., Wang, M. E., Wilson, K. M., Kaiser, S. V., RCT conference series group, Kemper, A. R., Heath, A., Fromme, H. B., Jennings, B. N., Wainscott, C. E., Russell, C. J., McCulloch, C. E., Snow, C. H., Alvarez, F. J., Percelay, J. M., Nicholson, K. S., Morton, K. M., Dias, M., Marek, R. L., Wilcox, R. A., Hyde, S. A., Mahant, S., Edwards, Y. R. 2024; 7 (5): e2411259

    Abstract

    Importance: There is a lack of randomized clinical trial (RCT) data to guide many routine decisions in the care of children hospitalized for common conditions. A first step in addressing the shortage of RCTs for this population is to identify the most pressing RCT questions for children hospitalized with common conditions.Objective: To identify the most important and feasible RCT questions for children hospitalized with common conditions.Design, Setting, and Participants: For this consensus statement, a 3-stage modified Delphi process was used in a virtual conference series spanning January 1 to September 29, 2022. Forty-six individuals from 30 different institutions participated in the process. Stage 1 involved construction of RCT questions for the 10 most common pediatric conditions leading to hospitalization. Participants used condition-specific guidelines and reviews from a structured literature search to inform their development of RCT questions. During stage 2, RCT questions were refined and scored according to importance. Stage 3 incorporated public comment and feasibility with the prioritization of RCT questions.Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was RCT questions framed in a PICO (population, intervention, control, and outcome) format and ranked according to importance and feasibility; score choices ranged from 1 to 9, with higher scores indicating greater importance and feasibility.Results: Forty-six individuals (38 who shared demographic data; 24 women [63%]) from 30 different institutions participated in our modified Delphi process. Participants included children's hospital (n=14) and community hospital (n=13) pediatricians, parents of hospitalized children (n=4), other clinicians (n=2), biostatisticians (n=2), and other researchers (n=11). The process yielded 62 unique RCT questions, most of which are pragmatic, comparing interventions in widespread use for which definitive effectiveness data are lacking. Overall scores for importance and feasibility of the RCT questions ranged from 1 to 9, with a median of 5 (IQR, 4-7). Six of the top 10 selected questions focused on determining optimal antibiotic regimens for 3 common infections (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and cellulitis).Conclusions and Relevance: This consensus statementhas identified the most important and feasible RCT questions for children hospitalized with common conditions. This list of RCT questions can guide investigators and funders in conducting impactful trials to improve care and outcomes for hospitalized children.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.11259

    View details for PubMedID 38748429

  • Children's Mental Health and Hospitalization, a Crisis of Our Generation. Hospital pediatrics Loyal, J., Brady, P. W., Russell, C. 2024

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2024-007826

    View details for PubMedID 38563062

  • Advancing the Science of Mentorship: Future Directions for Sustainable Implementation and Evaluation of Mentorship Education for the Clinical and Translational Science Workforce JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE Asquith, P., McDaniels, M., Baez, A., Corsino, L., Fillingim, R., Rubio, D., Russell, C., Sorkness, C., Thompson, W., Pfund, C. 2024; 8 (1): e54

    Abstract

    The Advancing the Science of Mentorship: Future Directions for Sustainable Implementation and Evaluation of Mentorship Education for the Clinical and Translational Science Workforce conference was held in Madison, Wisconsin, in April 2023. The conference provided an engaging and scholarly forum for clinical and translational researchers from diverse backgrounds and career stages (including leaders at Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) hubs and affiliated institutions) with a professional interest and commitment to improving and diversifying workforce development and fostering a climate of inclusive excellence through best practices in mentorship. Outcomes from the conference include an online resource and a new Community of Practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/cts.2024.497

    View details for Web of Science ID 001191133600001

    View details for PubMedID 38577552

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10993062

  • The impact of COVID-19 on racial and ethnic disparities in presentation with perforated appendicitis in children: A retrospective cohort study. Surgery open science Odegard, M. N., Ourshalimian, S. A., Chen, S. Y., Russell, C. J., Obinelo, A. U., Kaplan, C. M., Kelley-Quon, L. I. 2024; 18: 53-60

    Abstract

    Background: Children from racial and ethnic minority groups have higher prevalence of perforated appendicitis, and the COVID-19 pandemic worsened racial and ethnic health-related disparities. We hypothesized that the incidence of perforated appendicitis worsened for children from racial and ethnic minorities during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of the Pediatric Health Information System for children ages 2-18y undergoing appendectomy pre-pandemic (3/19/2019-3/18/2020) and intra-pandemic (3/19/2020-3/30/2021). The primary outcome was presentation with perforated appendicitis. Multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects estimated the likelihood of presentation with perforated appendicitis. Covariates included race, ethnicity, pandemic status, Child Opportunity Index, gender, insurance, age, and hospital region.Results: Overall, 33,727 children underwent appendectomy: 16,048 (47.6%) were Non-Hispanic White, 12,709 (37.7%) were Hispanic, 2261 (6.7%) were Non-Hispanic Black, 960 (2.8%) were Asian, and 1749 (5.2%) Other. Overall perforated appendicitis rates were unchanged during the pandemic (37.4% intra-pandemic, 36.4% pre-pandemic, p=0.06). Hispanic children were more likely to present with perforated appendicitis intra-pandemic versus pre-pandemic (OR 1.18, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.13). Hispanic children had higher odds of perforated appendicitis versus Non-Hispanic White children pre-pandemic (OR 1.10, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.20) which increased intra-pandemic (OR 1.19, 95%CI: 1.09, 1.30). Publicly-insured children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis intra-pandemic versus pre-pandemic (OR 1.14, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.25), and had increased odds of perforated appendicitis versus privately-insured children (intra-pandemic OR 1.26, 95%CI: 1.16, 1.36; pre-pandemic OR 1.12, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.22).Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Hispanic and publicly-insured children were more likely to present with perforated appendicitis, suggesting that the pandemic exacerbated existing disparities in healthcare for children with appendicitis.Key message: We found that Hispanic children and children with public insurance were more likely to present with perforated appendicitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health efforts aimed at ameliorating racial and ethnic disparities created during the COVID-19 pandemic should consider increasing healthcare access for Hispanic children to address bias, racism, and systemic barriers that may prevent families from seeking care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.sopen.2024.01.012

    View details for PubMedID 38322023

  • Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion, Child Health, and the Pediatric Subspecialty Workforce. Pediatrics Orr, C. J., Leslie, L. K., Schaechter, J., Williams, X. J., Montez, K. G., Deen, J. F., Evans, Y. N., Russell, C. J., Webb, J., Gaona, A. R., Mendoza, F. S. 2024; 153 (Suppl 2)

    Abstract

    Using multiple metrics, the diversity of the pediatric population in the United States is increasing. However, recent data suggest significant disparities in both the prevalence and management of child health conditions cared for by pediatric subspecialists. These inequities occur across multiple dimensions of diversity, including race and ethnicity, country of origin, socioeconomic status, sex and gender, and disability. Research also suggests that attending to diversity, equity, and inclusion in the medical workforce may positively affect health outcomes. High-quality pediatric subspecialty care thus requires knowledge of these data, attention to the effects of social drivers, including racism and discrimination, on health and wellbeing, and interventions to improve pediatric health equity through educational, practice, policy, and research innovations. In this article, we review data on the diversity of the pediatric population and pediatric subspecialty workforce, suggest potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of current diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives in academic pediatrics, and provide recommendations across 4 domains: education and training, practice, policy, and future research. The ultimate goal of pediatrics is to improve health equity for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults cared for in the United States by pediatric subspecialists.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2023-063678S

    View details for PubMedID 38300010

  • Respiratory culture growth and 3-years lung health outcomes in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and tracheostomies PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Steuart, R., Pan, A. Y., Woolums, A., Benscoter, D., Russell, C. J., Henningfeld, J., Thomson, J. 2023

    Abstract

    While bacteria identification on respiratory cultures is associated with poor short-term outcomes in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and tracheostomies, the influence on longer-term respiratory support needs remains unknown.To determine if respiratory culture growth of pathogenic organisms is associated with ongoing need for respiratory support, decannulation, and death at 3 years posttracheostomy placement in children with BPD and tracheostomies.This single center, retrospective cohort study included infants and children with BPD and tracheostomies placed 2010-2018 and ≥1 respiratory culture obtained in 36 months posttracheostomy. Primary predictor was any pathogen identified on respiratory culture. Additional predictors were any Pseudomonas aeruginosa and chronic P. aeruginosa identification. Outcomes included continued use of respiratory support (e.g., oxygen, positive pressure), decannulation, and death at 3 years posttracheostomy. We used Poisson regression models to examine the relationship between respiratory organisms and outcomes, controlling for patient-level covariates and within-patient clustering.Among 170 children, 59.4% had a pathogen identified, 28.8% ever had P. aeruginosa, and 3.5% had chronic P. aeruginosa. At 3 years, 33.1% of alive children required ongoing respiratory support and 24.8% achieved decannulation; 18.9% were deceased. In adjusted analysis, any pathogen and P. aeruginosa were not associated with ongoing respiratory support or mortality. However, P. aeruginosa was associated with decreased decannulation probability (adjusted risk ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.98). Chronic P. aeruginosa was associated with lower survival probability.Our findings suggest that respiratory pathogens including P. aeruginosa may not promote long-term respiratory dysfunction, but identification of P. aeruginosa may delay decannulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.26746

    View details for Web of Science ID 001101229500001

    View details for PubMedID 37937895

  • Gabapentin is Associated With Decreased Postoperative Opioid Use and Length of Stay After Appendectomy in Children With Perforated Appendicitis: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis. Journal of pediatric surgery Lascano, D., Zamora, A. K., Mahdi, E., Ourshalimian, S., Russell, C. J., Kim, E., Kelley-Quon, L. I. 2023

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Gabapentin is increasingly used as an off-label, opioid-sparing pain medication in children. We investigated perioperative gabapentin administration and postoperative opioid use in children who underwent appendectomy for perforated appendicitis.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of healthy children ages 2-18 years undergoing appendectomy for perforated appendicitis from 2014 to 2019 was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System. Propensity score matched (PSM) analysis was conducted with 1:1 matching based on patient and hospital characteristics. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to evaluate an association between gabapentin, postoperative opioid use, and postoperative length of stay.RESULTS: Of 29,467 children with perforated appendicitis who underwent appendectomy, 236 (0.8%) received gabapentin. In 2014, <10 children received gabapentin, but by 2019, 110 children received gabapentin. On univariate analysis of the PSM cohort, children receiving gabapentin had decreased total postoperative opiate use (2.3 SD±2.3 versus 3.0 SD±2.5 days, p<0.001). On adjusted analysis, children receiving gabapentin had 0.65 fewer days of postoperative total opioid use (95% CI:-1.09,-0.21) and spent 0.69 fewer days in the hospital after surgery (95% CI:-1.30,-0.08).CONCLUSION: While overall use is infrequent, gabapentin is increasingly administered to children with perforated appendicitis who undergo an appendectomy and is associated with decreased postoperative opioid use and reduced postoperative length of stay. Multimodal pain management strategies incorporating gabapentin may reduce postoperative opioid consumption, but further studies of drug safety are needed for this off-label use in children undergoing surgery.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2023.03.009

    View details for PubMedID 37029026

  • Respiratory culture organism isolation and test characteristics in children with tracheostomies with and without acute respiratory infection PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Steuart, R., Ale, G. B., Woolums, A., Xia, N., Benscoter, D., Russell, C. J., Shah, S. S., Thomson, J. 2023; 58 (5): 1481-1491

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.26349

    View details for Web of Science ID 000932270300001

  • Variation in Inhaled Medication Use for Infants With Congenital Heart Disease and Bronchiolitis. Hospital pediatrics Ahuja, N., Richardson, T., Brady, P., Foster, B. A., Godown, J., Lu, E., Madsen, N., Shah, S. S., Wagner, T., Wu, S., Russell, C., Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) Network 2023; 13 (8): 710-717

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current viral bronchiolitis guidelines exclude infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). Variations in the use of common therapeutics in this population and their associations with clinical outcomes are unknown. Our objective was to evaluate variations in (1) the use of beta-2-agonists and hypertonic saline across hospitals among infants with CHD hospitalized with bronchiolitis, and (2) hospital-level associations between medication use and outcomes.METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study using administrative data from 52 hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System. We included infants ≤12 months old hospitalized from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2019 for bronchiolitis with a secondary diagnosis of CHD. Primary exposures were the hospital-level proportion of days that patients received beta-2-agonists or hypertonic saline. Linear regression models assessed the association between the primary exposure and length of stay, 7-day readmission, mechanical ventilation use, and ICU utilization, adjusting for patient covariates and accounting for clustering by center.RESULTS: We identified 6846 index hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in infants with CHD. Overall, 43% received a beta-2-agonist, and 23% received hypertonic saline. The proportion of days with the use of beta-2-agonists (3.6% to 57.4%) and hypertonic saline (0.0% to 65.8%) varied widely across hospitals in our adjusted model. For both exposures, adjusted models revealed no association between days of use and patient outcomes.CONCLUSIONS: For children with CHD hospitalized with bronchiolitis, hospital-level use of beta-2-agonists and hypertonic saline varied widely, and their use was not associated with clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2022-006888

    View details for PubMedID 37403632

  • Tramadol Use in Pediatric Surgery: Trends After the Food and Drug Administration Black-Box Warning JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Chen, S. Y., Ourshalimian, S., Kim, E., Russell, C. J., Kelley-Quon, L. I. 2022; 280: 10-18

    Abstract

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a black-box warning in 2017 contraindicating tramadol in children <12 y. Longitudinal trends and factors associated with perioperative tramadol use in children remain unclear.A retrospective, multi-institutional cohort study utilizing the Pediatric Health Information System database was performed for children 2-18 y who underwent one of ten common surgeries from 1/2009-2/2020. Temporal trends correlated with the FDA tramadol contraindication were evaluated. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with tramadol use.Of 477,153 children undergoing surgery, 5857(1.2%) received tramadol during hospitalization. Tramadol use occurred in 942 (16.1%) children after the black-box warning, 390 of whom were <12 y. For children <12 y, annual tramadol use peaked at 1.87% (2016) and decreased to 0.66% (2019). Female sex (odds ratio OR 1.32; 95% confidence interval CI:1.24,1.40), age ≥12 y (OR 2.79; 95%CI: 2.62,2.97), and Midwest location (OR 4.07; 95% CI:1.64,10.11) increased likelihood of receiving tramadol. Tramadol use was more likely after cholecystectomy (OR 1.17; 95% CI:1.04,1.32) and in children with gastrointestinal (OR 2.39; 95% CI: 2.19,2.60), metabolic (OR 1.39; 95% CI:1.26,1.53) or transplant-related (OR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.57,2.10) comorbidities. Children of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity and those with public insurance had decreased likelihood of receiving tramadol. Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, children <12 y were less likely to receive tramadol following the black-box warning (OR 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59,0.70).Despite the FDA contraindication, tramadol prescribing continues among children <12 y undergoing surgery, with use varying by patient and institutional factors. Interventions are required to reduce perioperative tramadol use in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2022.07.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000892040700002

    View details for PubMedID 35944445

  • Ketorolac use and risk of bleeding after appendectomy in children with perforated appendicitis JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY Kingston, P., Lascano, D., Ourshalimian, S., Russell, C. J., Kim, E., Kelley-Quon, L. 2022; 57 (8): 1487-1493

    Abstract

    Ketorolac is an opioid sparing agent commonly used in children. However, ketorolac may be avoided in children with peritonitis owing to a possible increased risk of bleeding.A retrospective cohort study of healthy children 2-18 years who underwent appendectomy for perforated appendicitis was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System (2009-2019). Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between perioperative ketorolac use and postoperative blood transfusions within 30 days of surgery, adjusting for patient and hospital level factors. An interaction between ketorolac and ibuprofen was evaluated to identify synergistic effects.Overall, 55,603 children with perforated appendicitis underwent appendectomy and 82.3% (N = 45,769) received ketorolac. Of those, 32% (N = 14,864) also received ibuprofen. Receipt of a blood transfusion was infrequent (N = 189, 0.3%). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, perioperative ketorolac administration was associated with decreased odds of a blood transfusion (OR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79). However, children receiving ketorolac and ibuprofen were more likely to require a blood transfusion (OR 1.99, 95% CI: 1.42-2.79). In a subset of children receiving ketorolac, each additional day of ketorolac was associated with an increase odds of blood transfusion (OR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.30-1.49).Perioperative ketorolac alone is not associated with an increased risk of significant bleeding in children undergoing appendectomy for perforated appendicitis. However, use of both ketorolac and ibuprofen during hospitalization was associated with increased risk of bleeding, although precise timing of administration of these medications was unable to be determined. Extended ketorolac use was also associated with increased risk of bleeding requiring blood transfusion.Level III.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.11.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000853223000008

    View details for PubMedID 34893309

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9133265

  • Enoxaparin Thromboprophylaxis in Children Hospitalized for COVID-19: A Phase 2 Trial PEDIATRICS Sochet, A. A., Morrison, J. M., Jaffray, J., Godiwala, N., Wilson, H. P., Thornburg, C. D., Bhat, R., Zia, A., Lawrence, C., Kudchadkar, S. R., Hamblin, F., Russell, C. J., Streiff, M. B., Spyropoulos, A. C., Amankwah, E. K., Goldenberg, N. A., COVID-19 Anticoagulation Children 2022; 150 (1)

    Abstract

    Evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis among pediatric patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. We sought to evaluate safety, dose-finding, and preliminary efficacy of twice-daily enoxaparin as primary thromboprophylaxis among children hospitalized for symptomatic COVID-19, including primary respiratory infection and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MISC).We performed a phase 2, multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-arm clinical trial of twice-daily enoxaparin (initial dose: 0.5mg/kg per dose; max: 60mg; target anti-Xa activity: 0.20-0.49IU/mL) as primary thromboprophylaxis for children <18 years of age hospitalized for symptomatic COVID-19. Study endpoints included: cumulative incidence of International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis-defined clinically relevant bleeding; enoxaparin dose-requirements; and cumulative incidence of venous thromboembolism within 30-days of hospital discharge. Descriptive statistics summarized endpoint estimates that were further evaluated by participant age (±12 years) and clinical presentation.Forty children were enrolled and 38 met analyses criteria. None experienced clinically relevant bleeding. Median (interquartile range) dose to achieve target anti-Xa levels was 0.5 mg/kg (0.48-0.54). Dose-requirement did not differ by age (0.5 [0.46-0.52] mg/kg for age ≥12 years versus 0.52 [0.49-0.55] mg/kg for age <12 years, P = .51) but was greater for participants with MISC (0.52 [0.5-0.61] mg/kg) as compared with primary COVID-19 (0.48 [0.39-0.51] mg/kg, P = .010). Two children (5.3%) developed central-venous catheter-related venous thromboembolism. No serious adverse events were related to trial intervention.Among children hospitalized for COVID-19, thromboprophylaxis with twice-daily enoxaparin appears safe and warrants further investigation to assess efficacy.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2022-056726

    View details for Web of Science ID 000918236400037

    View details for PubMedID 35484817

  • Changing Who Has a Seat and Voice at the Table: How the Academic Pediatric Association is Responding to Systemic Racism ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS Cohen, A., Montez, K., Orr, C., Konrath, J., Oddiri, U., Russell, C. J., Gambill, L., Nesiama, J., Chung, P. J., McNeal-Trice, K. 2022; 22 (3): 352-355

    Abstract

    The Academic Pediatrics Association has taken multiple steps over the last 2 years to incorporate the lenses of anti-racism and social justice into our mission and work. In this commentary, we discuss the creation and work of the Anti-Racism and Diversity Task Force, which was charged by the Academic Pediatrics Association's Board of Directors with identifying strategies to promote anti-racism and advance the diversity, equity and inclusion agenda.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000793713800002

    View details for PubMedID 35032709

  • Impact of racial microaggressions in the clinical learning environment and review of best practices to support learners CURRENT PROBLEMS IN PEDIATRIC AND ADOLESCENT HEALTH CARE Gilliam, C., Russell, C. J. 2021; 51 (10): 101090

    Abstract

    Microaggressions are brief, commonplace, and daily verbal, behavioral, and environmental slights towards marginalized groups. Underrepresented in medicine (UiM) learners experience a barrage of microaggressions in the pediatric clinical learning environment. Literature demonstrates that microaggressions are detrimental to the mental and physical well-being of the recipient. There is an urgent need to bring greater awareness and understanding of how microaggressions operate in the clinical learning environment, the impact they have on UiM learners and the educational and institutional strategies needed to best support learners. Several databases were searched using combinations of subject headings and keywords as described. While "microaggressions" is not yet an official medical subject heading (Mesh term) for the National Library of Medicine's databases, nonetheless there are numerous studies using the term microaggressions in the research literature about health care, medical education and learning environments. Items were limited to English language publications from the past 10 years. Microaggressions are rooted in power differentials and indirect assertion of power. The clinical learning environment contains learners at all levels along with patients and families. The impact of microaggressions leads to (1) othering (2) stunted professional identity formation and (3) racial battle fatigue. Both educational initiatives targeted at recognizing and responding to microaggressions and institutional anonymous reporting systems and policies are best practices to combat the negative impact of microaggressions. Institutions-at-large and graduate medical education need to create safe spaces for anonymous reporting, robust policies for addressing bias and educational initiatives for responding to microaggressions. Together these will begin to create safe spaces for our UiM learners in a system that so often perpetuates they do not belong.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cppeds.2021.101090

    View details for Web of Science ID 000731433900004

    View details for PubMedID 34740488

  • Identifying Practices to Promote Inpatient Adolescent and Influenza Vaccine Delivery. Hospital pediatrics Mihalek, A. J., Hall, M., Russell, C. J., Wu, S. 2021

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Many hospitalized children are underimmunized. We assessed the association between hospital immunization practices and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and influenza vaccine delivery.METHODS: An electronic survey regarding hospital vaccine delivery practices was distributed via the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) and Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings networks to PHIS hospitals. Number of vaccines delivered and total discharges in 2018 were obtained from the PHIS database to determine hospital vaccine delivery rates; patients 11 to 18 years old (adolescent vaccines) and 6 months to 18 years old (influenza vaccine) were included. Vaccine delivery rates were risk adjusted by using generalized linear mixed-effects modeling and compared with survey responses to determine associations between the number or presence of specific practices and vaccine delivery. Adjusted HPV and meningococcal vaccine delivery rates could not be calculated because of low delivery.RESULTS: Twenty-nine hospitals completed a survey (57%). 152499 and 423046 patient encounters were included for the adolescent and influenza vaccines, respectively. Unadjusted inpatient vaccine delivery rates varied. After adjustment, the number of practices was associated only with influenza vaccine delivery (P = .02). Visual prompts (P = .02), nurse or pharmacist ordering (P = .003), and quality improvement projects (P = .048) were associated with increased influenza vaccine delivery; nurse or pharmacist ordering had the greatest impact. No practices were associated with Tdap vaccine delivery.CONCLUSIONS: The number and presence of specific hospital practices may impact influenza vaccine delivery. Further research is needed to identify strategies to augment inpatient adolescent immunization.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2021-005924

    View details for PubMedID 34807982

  • Evaluation of an Educational Outreach and Audit and Feedback Program to Reduce Continuous Pulse Oximetry Use in Hospitalized Infants With Stable Bronchiolitis A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial JAMA NETWORK OPEN Schondelmeyer, A. C., Bettencourt, A. P., Xiao, R., Beidas, R. S., Wolk, C., Landrigan, C. P., Brady, P. W., Brent, C. R., Parthasarathy, P., Kern-Goldberger, A. S., Sergay, N., Lee, V., Russell, C. J., Prasto, J., Zaman, S., McQuistion, K., Lucey, K., Solomon, C., Garcia, M., Bonafide, C. P., Pediat Res Inpatient Settings PRIS 2021; 4 (9): e2122826

    Abstract

    National guidelines recommend against continuous pulse oximetry use for hospitalized children with bronchiolitis who are not receiving supplemental oxygen, yet guideline-discordant use remains high.To evaluate deimplementation outcomes of educational outreach and audit and feedback strategies aiming to reduce guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis who are not receiving supplemental oxygen.A nonrandomized clinical single-group deimplementation trial was conducted in 14 non-intensive care units in 5 freestanding children's hospitals and 1 community hospital from December 1, 2019, through March 14, 2020, among 847 nurses and physicians caring for hospitalized children with bronchiolitis who were not receiving supplemental oxygen.Educational outreach focused on communicating details of the existing guidelines and evidence. Audit and feedback strategies included 2 formats: (1) weekly aggregate data feedback to multidisciplinary teams with review of unit-level and hospital-level use of continuous pulse oximetry, and (2) real-time 1:1 feedback to clinicians when guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use was discovered during in-person data audits.Clinician ratings of acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility, and perceived safety were assessed using a questionnaire. Guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use in hospitalized children was measured using direct observation of a convenience sample of patients with bronchiolitis who were not receiving supplemental oxygen.A total of 847 of 1193 eligible clinicians (695 women [82.1%]) responded to a Likert scale-based questionnaire (71% response rate). Most respondents rated the deimplementation strategies of education and audit and feedback as acceptable (education, 435 of 474 [92%]; audit and feedback, 615 of 664 [93%]), appropriate (education, 457 of 474 [96%]; audit and feedback, 622 of 664 [94%]), feasible (education, 424 of 474 [89%]; audit and feedback, 557 of 664 [84%]), and safe (803 of 847 [95%]). Sites collected 1051 audit observations (range, 47-403 per site) on 709 unique patient admissions (range, 31-251 per site) during a 3.5-month period of continuous pulse oximetry use in children with bronchiolitis not receiving supplemental oxygen, which were compared with 579 observations (range, 57-154 per site) from the same hospitals during the baseline 4-month period (prior season) to determine whether the strategies were associated with a reduction in use. Sites conducted 148 in-person educational outreach and aggregate data feedback sessions and provided real-time 1:1 feedback 171 of 236 times (72% of the time when guideline-discordant monitoring was identified). Adjusted for age, gestational age, time since weaning from supplemental oxygen, and other characteristics, guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use decreased from 53% (95% CI, 49%-57%) to 23% (95% CI, 20%-25%) (P < .001) during the intervention period. There were no adverse events attributable to reduced monitoring.In this nonrandomized clinical trial, educational outreach and audit and feedback deimplementation strategies for guideline-discordant continuous pulse oximetry use among hospitalized children with bronchiolitis who were not receiving supplemental oxygen were positively associated with clinician perceptions of feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and safety. Evaluating the sustainability of deimplementation beyond the intervention period is an essential next step.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04178941.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.22826

    View details for Web of Science ID 000692203900005

    View details for PubMedID 34473258

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8414187

  • The impact of intravenous acetaminophen pricing on opioid utilization and outcomes for children with appendicitis Mahdi, E. M., Ourshalimian, S., Darcy, D., Russell, C. J., Kelley-Quon, L. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: 932-938

    Abstract

    In 2014, the price of intravenous acetaminophen more than doubled. This study determined whether increased intravenous acetaminophen cost was associated with decreased utilization and increased opioid use for children undergoing appendectomy.A multicenter retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2011 and 2017 was performed. Healthy children 2 to 18 years undergoing appendectomy at 46 children's hospitals in the United States were identified. Intravenous acetaminophen use, opioid use, and pharmacy costs were assessed. Multivariable mixed-effects modeling was used to determine the association between postoperative opioid use, intravenous acetaminophen use, and postoperative length-of-stay.Overall, 110,019 children undergoing appendectomy were identified, with 22.5% (N = 24,777) receiving intravenous acetaminophen. Despite the 2014 price increase, intravenous acetaminophen use increased from 3% in 2011 to 40.1% in 2017 (P < .001), but at a significantly reduced rate. After 2014, adjusted median pharmacy charges decreased from $3,326.5 (interquartile range: $1,717.5-$6,710.8) to $3,264.1 (interquartile range: $1,782.8-$5,934.7, P < .001) for children who received intravenous acetaminophen. In 94,745 children staying ≥1 day after surgery, postoperative opioid use decreased from 73.6% in 2011 to 58.6% in 2017 (P < .001). Use of intravenous acetaminophen alone compared to opioids alone after surgery resulted in similar predicted mean postoperative length-of-stay.In children undergoing appendectomy, intravenous acetaminophen use continued to rise, but at a slower rate after a price increase. Furthermore, adjusted pharmacy charges were lower for children receiving intravenous acetaminophen, possibly secondary to a concurrent decrease in postoperative opioid use. These findings suggest intravenous acetaminophen may be more broadly used regardless of perceived costs to minimize opioid use after surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.04.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000690434400042

    View details for PubMedID 33985768

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8405541

  • Trends in Race/Ethnicity of Pediatric Residents and Fellows: 2007-2019. Pediatrics Montez, K., Omoruyi, E. A., McNeal-Trice, K., Mack, W. J., Yemane, L., Darden, A. R., Russell, C. J. 2021

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A diverse pediatric workforce reflecting the racial/ethnic representation of the US population is an important factor in eliminating health inequities. Studies reveal minimal improvements over time in the proportions of underrepresented in medicine (URiM) physicians; however, studies assessing trends in pediatric URiM trainee representation are limited. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal trends in racial/ethnic representation among a cross-section of US pediatric trainees and to compare it to the US population.METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional study of graduate medical education census data on self-reported race/ethnicity of pediatric residents and subspecialty fellows from 2007 to 2019. To evaluate trends in URiM proportions over time , the Cochran-Armitage test was performed. Data on self-reported race/ethnicity of trainees were compared with the general population data over time by using US Census Bureau data.RESULTS: Trends in URiM proportions were unchanged in residents (16% in 2007 to 16.5% in 2019; P = .98) and, overall, decreased for fellows (14.2% in 2007 to 13.5% in 2019; P = .002). URiM fellow trends significantly decreased over time in neonatal-perinatal medicine (P < .001), infectious diseases (P < .001), and critical care (P = .006) but significantly increased in endocrinology (P = .002) and pulmonology (P = .009). Over time, the percentage of URiM pediatric trainee representation was considerably lower compared to the US population.CONCLUSIONS: The continued underrepresentation of URiM pediatric trainees may perpetuate persistent health inequities for minority pediatric populations. There is a critical need to recruit and retain pediatric URiM residents and subspecialty fellows.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2020-026666

    View details for PubMedID 34131043

  • Acute respiratory infections in hospitalised infants with congenital heart disease CARDIOLOGY IN THE YOUNG Ahuja, N., Mack, W. J., Wu, S., Wood, J. C., Russell, C. J. 2021; 31 (4): 547-555

    Abstract

    To assess the overall burden and outcomes of acute respiratory infections in paediatric inpatients with congenital heart disease (CHD).This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of non-neonates <1 year with CHD in the Kid's Inpatient Database from 2012. We compared demographics, clinical characteristics, cost, length of stay, and mortality rate for those with and without respiratory infections. We also compared those with respiratory infections who had critical CHD versus non-critical CHD. Multi-variable regression analyses were done to look for associations between respiratory infections and mortality, length of stay, and cost.Of the 28,696 infants with CHD in our sample, 26% had respiratory infections. Respiratory infection-associated hospitalisations accounted for $440 million in costs (32%) for all CHD patients. After adjusting for confounders including severity, mortality was higher for those with respiratory infections (OR 1.5, p = 0.003), estimated mean length of stay was longer (14.7 versus 12.2 days, p < 0.001), and estimated mean costs were higher ($53,760 versus $46,526, p < 0.001). Compared to infants with respiratory infections and non-critical CHD, infants with respiratory infections and critical CHD had higher mortality (4.5 versus 2.3%, p < 0.001), longer mean length of stay (20.1 versus 15.5 days, p < 0.001), and higher mean costs ($94,284 versus $52,585, p < 0.001).Acute respiratory infections are a significant burden on infant inpatients with CHD and are associated with higher mortality, costs, and longer length of stay; particularly in those with critical CHD. Future interventions should focus on reducing the burden of respiratory infections in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1047951120004333

    View details for Web of Science ID 000673638100005

    View details for PubMedID 33308367

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8058167

  • National Inpatient Immunization Patterns: Variation in Practice and Policy Between Vaccine Types. Hospital pediatrics Mihalek, A. J., Russell, C. J., Hassan, A., Yeh, M. Y., Wu, S., Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) Network 2021; 11 (5): 462-471

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Many hospitalized children are underimmunized, yet little is known about current systems supporting inpatient vaccination. We aim to describe national pediatric inpatient immunization practices and determine if variation exists among adolescent, childhood, and influenza vaccines.METHODS: An electronic survey regarding hospital vaccination practices was sent to physician, nurse, and pharmacy leaders via the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network in spring 2019. Hospitals reported the presence of various practices to support inpatient vaccination stratified by vaccine type: tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis, meningococcal, human papillomavirus, childhood series, and influenza. One-way analysis of variance testing compared differences in numbers of practices and chi2 tests compared proportions of sites reporting each practice between vaccine types. Qualitative responses were evaluated via content analysis.RESULTS: Fifty-one of 103 eligible hospitals completed the survey (50%). Standardized policies existed in 92% of hospitals for influenza, 41% for childhood, and 29% for adolescent vaccines. Hospitals identified an average of 5.1 practices to deliver influenza vaccines, compared with 1.5 for childhood; 0.9 for tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis; 0.7 for meningococcal; and 0.6 for human papillomavirus vaccines (P < .001). Standardized screening tools, visual prompts, standing orders, nurse- or pharmacy-driven screening or ordering, staff education, and quality improvement projects were reported more often for influenza vaccines than other vaccine types (P < .01 for all comparisons). Common barriers to delivery included communication difficulties, lack of systems optimization, and parent and provider discomfort with inpatient immunization.CONCLUSIONS: Existing hospital infrastructure supports influenza vaccine delivery over other vaccine types, potentially creating missed inpatient vaccination opportunities.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2020-002634

    View details for PubMedID 33820809

  • Fewer postoperative opioids are associated with decreased duration of stay for children with perforated appendicitis Mahdi, E. M., Ourshalimian, S., Russell, C. J., Zamora, A. K., Kelley-Quon, L. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2020: 942-947

    Abstract

    The impact of postoperative opioid use on outcomes for children with perforated appendicitis is unknown.A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System database from 2005 to 2015. Children 2 to 18 years with perforated appendicitis who underwent an appendectomy were identified. Postoperative day analgesic use was categorized as nonopioid analgesia alone, opioids (with or without nonopioid analgesia), or no analgesics. The impact of postoperative opioid use on postoperative duration of stay and 30-day readmission was evaluated using multivariable mixed-effects regression analysis.Overall, 47,726 children with perforated appendicitis were identified. On postoperative day 1, 17.7% received nonopioid analgesia alone, 77.6% received opioids, and 4.7% received no analgesics. On adjusted analysis, postoperative day 1 opioid use was associated with a 0.75-day (95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.96) increased postoperative duration of stay. Starting opioids after postoperative day 1 was associated with 2.21 days (95% confidence interval: 1.90-2.51) longer postoperative duration of stay. Among children who received opioids on postoperative day 1, continued use of opioids after postoperative day 1 was associated with a 1.88 day (95% confidence interval: 1.77-1.98) longer postoperative duration of stay. Postoperative day 1 opioid use did not significantly affect 30-day readmission.Early and continued postoperative opioid use is associated with prolonged postoperative duration of stay in children undergoing appendectomy for perforated appendicitis. Minimizing opioid use, even on postoperative day 2, may result in a decreased postoperative duration of stay.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2020.04.060

    View details for Web of Science ID 000580560500031

    View details for PubMedID 32654858

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7606624

  • Top Articles in Pediatric Hospital Medicine: July 2019 to June 2020. Hospital pediatrics McDaniel, C. E., Russell, C. J. 2020; 10 (10): 906-912

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2020-001651

    View details for PubMedID 32703814

  • Variations in Care for Breastfed Infants Admitted to US Children's Hospitals: A Multicenter Survey of Inpatient Providers. Hospital pediatrics Bochner, R. E., Kuroki, R., Lui, K., Russell, C. J., Rackovsky, E., Piper, L., Ban, K., Yang, K., Mandal, P., Mackintosh, L., Mirzaian, C. B., Gross, E. 2020; 10 (1): 70-75

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed an association between hospitalization of breastfed infants and weaning posthospitalization. It is unknown what steps inpatient providers at children's hospitals are currently taking to support breastfeeding mothers of hospitalized infants, their comfort providing breastfeeding counseling, and what training they receive.METHODS: We conducted a multicenter survey study of pediatric providers who care for infants hospitalized at 3 urban, tertiary-care children's hospitals over a 12-month period. A convenience sample of nurses, residents, and attending physicians agreed to participate. Participants completed a 24-question questionnaire addressing provider practices, comfort with breastfeeding counseling, and previous breastfeeding education. Data were summarized as medians (interquartile ranges) and frequencies (percentages). Kruskal-Wallis and chi2 tests were used to compare between provider types.RESULTS: A total of 361 out of 1097 (33%) eligible providers completed the survey: 133 (21%) nurses, 166 (45%) residents, and 62 (63%) attending physicians. Provider practices varied by provider type. We observed a general trend that providers do not routinely review breastfeeding techniques, directly observe feeds, or use standardized breastfeeding assessment tools. Residents and attending physicians were more likely than nurses to feel comfortable with breastfeeding counseling (P = .02). Residents were more likely than nurses and attending physicians to have received breastfeeding education in the last 3 years (P < .001).CONCLUSIONS: Practices, comfort, and previous education varied by provider type. There was a general pattern that providers do not routinely perform certain practices. Further studies are needed to determine if inpatient provider practices affect weaning posthospitalization and if inpatient quality improvement initiatives will help mothers continue breastfeeding posthospitalization.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2019-0199

    View details for PubMedID 31826917

  • Technology-Dependent Pediatric Inpatients at Children's Versus Nonchildren's Hospitals. Hospital pediatrics Ahuja, N., Mack, W. J., Russell, C. J. 2020; 10 (6): 481-488

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Technology-dependent children (TDC) are admitted to both children's hospitals (CHs) and nonchildren's hospitals (NCHs), where there may be fewer pediatric-specific specialists or resources. Our objective was to compare the characteristics of TDC admitted to CHs versus NCHs.METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective study using the 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database. We included patients aged 0 to 18 years with a tracheostomy, gastrostomy, and/or ventricular shunt. We excluded those who died, were transferred into or out of the hospital, had a length of stay (LOS) that was an extreme outlier, or had missing data for key variables. We compared patient and hospital characteristics across CH versus NCH using chi2 tests and LOS and cost using generalized linear models.RESULTS: In the final sample of 64521 discharges, 55% of discharges of TDC were from NCHs. A larger proportion of those from CHs had higher disease severity (55% vs 49%; P < .001) and a major surgical procedure during hospitalization (28% vs 24%; P < .001). In an adjusted generalized linear model, the mean LOS was 4 days at both hospital types, but discharge from a CH was associated with a higher adjusted mean cost ($16754 vs $12023; P < .001).CONCLUSIONS: Because the majority of TDC are hospitalized at NCHs, future research on TDC should incorporate NCH settings. Further studies should investigate if some may benefit from regionalization of care or earlier transfer to a CH.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2019-0236

    View details for PubMedID 32457052

  • Aspiring to Treat Wisely: Challenges in Diagnosing and Optimizing Antibiotic Therapy for Aspiration Pneumonia. Journal of hospital medicine Russell, C. J., White, A. A. 2020; 15 (7): 445-446

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3375

    View details for PubMedID 32897854

  • Development of Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Positive Respiratory Cultures in Children with Tracheostomy LUNG Russell, C. J., Simon, T. D., Neely, M. N. 2019; 197 (6): 811-817

    Abstract

    Up to 90% of children develop Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa)-positive respiratory cultures after tracheotomy.To identify the factors associated with chronic Pa-positive respiratory cultures in the first 2 years after tracheotomy.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 210 children ≤ 18 years old who underwent tracheotomy at a single freestanding children's hospital that had two or more years of respiratory cultures post-tracheotomy available for analysis. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to test the association between demographic and clinical factors to our primary outcome of chronic Pa infection, defined as > 75% of respiratory cultures positive for Pa in the first 2 years after tracheotomy.Of the primarily male (61%), Hispanic (68%), and publicly insured (88%) cohort, 18% (n = 37) developed chronic Pa-positive respiratory cultures in the first 2 years. On multivariable logistic regression, pre-tracheotomy Pa-positive respiratory culture (aOR 11.3; 95% CI 4-1.5) and discharge on beta agonist (aOR 6.3; 95% CI 1.1-36.8) were independently associated with chronic Pa-positive respiratory cultures, while discharge on chronic mechanical ventilation was associated with decreased odds (aOR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.7). On sensitivity analysis examining those without a pre-tracheotomy Pa-positive respiratory culture, discharge on MV continued to be associated with decreased odds of chronic Pa (aOR 0.1; 95% CI 0.02-0.4) and three other variables (male gender, chronic lung disease, and discharge on inhaled corticosteroids) were associated with increased odds of chronic Pa.Because pre-tracheotomy Pa growth on respiratory culture is associated with post-tracheotomy chronic Pa-positive respiratory cultures, future research should examine pre-tracheotomy Pa eradication or suppression protocols.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00408-019-00285-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000493494400001

    View details for PubMedID 31673781

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6934374

  • Complication Versus Consequence: Defining Device-Related Outcomes in Children With Medical Complexity. Hospital pediatrics Russell, C. J. 2019; 9 (1): 70-71

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2018-0230

    View details for PubMedID 30530804

  • Factors Associated With Length of Stay and 30-Day Revisits in Pediatric Acute Pancreatitis JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION Gay, A. C., Barreto, N. B., Schrager, S. M., Russell, C. J. 2018; 67 (2): E30-E35

    Abstract

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with length of stay (LOS) and 30-day hospital revisit for patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis (AP).Multicenter, retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Multilevel linear and logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with the primary outcome variables of LOS and 30-day hospital revisit in children aged 1 and 18 years discharged with a primary discharge diagnosis of AP from participating hospitals between 2008 and 2013.For the 7693 discharges, median LOS was 4 days (interquartile range 3-7 days) and 30-day revisit rate 17.6% (n = 1356). Discharges were primarily girls (55%), Caucasian (46%), and 6 years old or older (85%). On multilevel regression, factors independently associated with both longer LOS and higher revisit odds included malignant and gastrointestinal complex chronic conditions (CCCs) and total parenteral nutrition use while hospitalized. Male gender was associated with both lower LOS (adjusted length of stay = -0.6 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.8 to -0.4) and decreased revisit odds (aOR 0.85; 95% CI = 0.74 to 0.97). Hispanic ethnicity was associated with increased LOS (adjusted length of stay = +0.8 days, 95% CI = +0.5 to +1.1), but no change in revisit odds.Certain demographic and clinical factors, including gender, ethnicity, and type of CCC, were independently associated with LOS and risk of 30-day hospital revisit for pediatric AP. Children with malignant and gastrointestinal CCCs who require total parenteral nutrition are at highest risk for both longer LOS and hospital revisit when admitted with AP. These patient populations may benefit from intensive care coordination when hospitalized for AP.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002033

    View details for Web of Science ID 000442250800003

    View details for PubMedID 29851759

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6059980

  • Length of Stay and Hospital Revisit After Bacterial Tracheostomy-Associated Respiratory Tract Infection Hospitalizations. Hospital pediatrics Russell, C. J., Mamey, M. R., Koh, J. Y., Schrager, S. M., Neely, M. N., Wu, S. 2018

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with longer length of stay (LOS) and higher 30-day hospital revisit rates for children hospitalized with bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory tract infections (bTARTIs).METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using administrative data from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients 30 days to 17 years old with a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI or a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI symptoms with a secondary diagnosis of bTARTI. Primary outcomes of LOS (in days) and 30-day all-cause revisit rates (inpatient, observation, or emergency department visit) were analyzed by using a 3-level hierarchical regression model (discharges within patients within hospital).RESULTS: We included 3715 unique patients and 7355 discharges. The median LOS was 4 days (interquartile range: 3-8 days), and the 30-day revisit rate was 30.5%. Compared with children 1 to 4 years old, children aged 30 days to 12 months had both longer LOS (adjusted length of stay [aLOS] = +0.9 days; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6 to 1.3) and increased hospital revisit risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.7). Other factors associated with longer LOS included public insurance (aLOS = +0.5 days; 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.8), 3 or more complex chronic conditions (CCCs), mechanical ventilation (acute or chronic), and empirical anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotics (aLOS = +0.6 days; 95% CI: 0.3 to 0.9). Other factors associated with 30-day revisit included 4 or more CCCs (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.6) and chronic ventilator dependency (aOR = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.3).CONCLUSIONS: Ventilator-dependent patients <12 months old with at least 4 CCCs are at highest risk for both longer LOS and 30-day revisit after discharge for bTARTIs. They may benefit from bTARTI prevention strategies and intensive care coordination while hospitalized.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2017-0106

    View details for PubMedID 29339536

  • Factors associated with 30-day all-cause hospital readmission after tracheotomy in pediatric patients INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY Yu, H., Mamey, M., Russell, C. J. 2017; 103: 137-141

    Abstract

    To determine factors associated with post-tracheotomy hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge.Children 18 years and younger who underwent tracheotomy at Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) between 1/1/2005 and 12/31/2013 with at least 30 days of follow-up at CHLA were identified through ICD-9 procedure codes. Patient characteristics and covariates were obtained by linking manual chart review and administrative data. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify the independent association between risk factors and the primary outcome of 30-day all-cause same-hospital readmission.Of the 273 patients included, the median age at admission was 6 months [interquartile range (IQR): 1-51 months]. Among this primarily male (60.8%) and Hispanic (66.3%) cohort with a high proportion of discharge on positive pressure ventilation (47.1%), the 30-day readmission rate was 22% (n = 60). Of the readmissions, 92% (n = 55) were unplanned and 64% (n = 35) were associated with acute respiratory illnesses. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that, among patients ≤12 months, discharge on positive pressure ventilation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-6.97] was associated with increased odds of readmission, while gastrostomy tube placement during the tracheotomy hospitalization (aOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.19-0.96) and prematurity (aOR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.15-0.83) were associated with decreased odds of readmission. In patients >1 year of age, increased length of hospitalization (aOR = 1.01 per hospital day, 95% CI = 1-1.02) and presence of comorbid malignancy (aOR = 6.03, 95% CI = 1.25-29.16) were associated with increased odds of readmission.Over one-fifth of children undergoing tracheotomy had an unplanned hospital readmission within 30 days after discharge. Because the majority of readmissions were unplanned and due to acute respiratory illnesses, future research should investigate how discharge procedures and improved care coordination may lower readmission rates in high-risk patients (e.g., patients discharged on positive pressure ventilation).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.10.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000423640200029

    View details for PubMedID 29224755

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5728177

  • Risk factors for overnight respiratory events following sedation for magnetic resonance imaging in children with sleep apnea SLEEP AND BREATHING Trost, M. J., Cowell, M., Cannon, J., Mitchell, K., Waloff, K., Avila, H., Chand, S., Russell, C. J. 2017; 21 (1): 137-141

    Abstract

    Children with sleep apnea may be at increased risk for overnight respiratory events (ORE) following anesthesia. We sought to identify ORE risk factors in sleep apnea patients sedated for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).One thousand four hundred seven hospitalizations for children with sleep apnea (by ICD-9 code) occurred at our institution from 5/1/2011 to 2/1/2015. One hundred twenty-seven (9 %) encounters were solely for post-MRI observation representing 96 unique patients. The first post-MRI admission for each patient underwent chart review. ORE was defined as sustained oxygen saturation <90 % with need for increased oxygen or adjustment of respiratory support after release from recovery. Characteristics of patients with and without ORE were compared by chi-squared analysis or independent samples t test. Logistic regression identified associations with ORE.Ten out of 96 (10.4 %) patients had ORE. The average time following sedation to ORE was 10.25 h. ORE patients were hospitalized longer (median 2 vs. 1 day, p < 0.001). Overall, patients were 55 % male, 60 % Hispanic, with median age of 5 years [IQR 2-10] and median body mass index (BMI) of 17.9 [IQR 15.2-24]. On logistic regression, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; OR 1.007 [95 % CI 1.002-1.011]), anesthesia complication (OR 1.13 [95 % CI 1.01-1.28]), and home non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV; OR 6.08 [95 % CI 1.57-26.17]) were associated with ORE.Ninety percent of children with sleep apnea admitted for overnight observation following sedated MRI did not have an ORE. AHI, anesthesia complications, and NIV use may help target higher-risk patients and avoid unnecessary hospitalizations.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11325-016-1410-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396157600020

    View details for PubMedID 27683261

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6984635

  • Hot topics, urgent priorities, and ensuring success for racial/ethnic minority young investigators in academic pediatrics INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR EQUITY IN HEALTH Flores, G., Mendoza, F. S., Fuentes-Afflick, E., Mendoza, J. A., Pachter, L., Espinoza, J., Fernandez, C. R., Arnold, D. D., Brown, N. M., Gonzalez, K. M., Lopez, C., Owen, M. C., Parks, K. M., Reynolds, K. L., Russell, C. J. 2016; 15

    Abstract

    The number of racial/ethnic minority children will exceed the number of white children in the USA by 2018. Although 38% of Americans are minorities, only 12% of pediatricians, 5% of medical-school faculty, and 3% of medical-school professors are minorities. Furthermore, only 5% of all R01 applications for National Institutes of Health grants are from African-American, Latino, and American Indian investigators. Prompted by the persistent lack of diversity in the pediatric and biomedical research workforces, the Academic Pediatric Association Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) was initiated in 2012. RAPID targets applicants who are members of an underrepresented minority group (URM), disabled, or from a socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged background. The program, which consists of both a research project and career and leadership development activities, includes an annual career-development and leadership conference which is open to any resident, fellow, or junior faculty member from an URM, disabled, or disadvantaged background who is interested in a career in academic general pediatrics.As part of the annual RAPID conference, a Hot Topic Session is held in which the young investigators spend several hours developing a list of hot topics on the most useful faculty and career-development issues. These hot topics are then posed in the form of six "burning questions" to the RAPID National Advisory Committee (comprised of accomplished, nationally recognized senior investigators who are seasoned mentors), the RAPID Director and Co-Director, and the keynote speaker.The six compelling questions posed by the 10 young investigators-along with the responses of the senior conference leadership-provide a unique resource and "survival guide" for ensuring the academic success and optimal career development of young investigators in academic pediatrics from diverse backgrounds. A rich conversation ensued on the topics addressed, consisting of negotiating for protected research time, career trajectories as academic institutions move away from an emphasis on tenure-track positions, how "non-academic" products fit into career development, racism and discrimination in academic medicine and how to address them, coping with isolation as a minority faculty member, and how best to mentor the next generation of academic physicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12939-016-0494-6

    View details for PubMedID 27938389

  • The use of inhaled antibiotic therapy in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia and tracheobronchitis: a systematic review BMC PULMONARY MEDICINE Russell, C. J., Shiroishi, M. S., Siantz, E., Wu, B. W., Patino, C. M. 2016; 16: 40

    Abstract

    Ventilator-associated respiratory infections (tracheobronchitis, pneumonia) contribute significant morbidity and mortality to adults receiving care in intensive care units (ICU). Administration of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, the current standard of care, may have systemic adverse effects. The efficacy of aerosolized antibiotics for treatment of ventilator-associated respiratory infections remains unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the efficacy of aerosolized antibiotics in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and tracheobronchitis (VAT), using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines.We conducted a search of three databases (PubMed, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Collaboration) for randomized, controlled trials studying the use of nebulized antibiotics in VAP and VAT that measured clinical cure (e.g., change in Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score) as an outcome measurement. We augmented the electronic searches with hand searches of the references for any narrative review articles as well as any article included in the systematic review. Included studies were examined for risk of bias using the Cochrane Handbook's "Risk of Bias" assessment tool.Six studies met full inclusion criteria. For the systemic review's primary outcome (clinical cure), two studies found clinically and statistically significant improvements in measures of VAP cure while four found no statistically significant difference in measurements of cure. No studies found inferiority of aerosolized antibiotics. The included studies had various degrees of biases, particularly in the performance and detection bias domains. Given that outcome measures of clinical cure were not uniform, we were unable to conduct a meta-analysis.There is insufficient evidence for the use of inhaled antibiotic therapy as primary or adjuvant treatment of VAP or VAT. Additional, better-powered randomized-controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of inhaled antibiotic therapy for VAP and VAT.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12890-016-0202-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371978300002

    View details for PubMedID 26956371

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4784295

  • Factors Associated With the Prophylactic Prescription of a Bowel Regimen to Prevent Opioid-Induced Constipation. Hospital pediatrics Chen, N. Y., Nguyen, E., Schrager, S. M., Russell, C. J. 2016; 6 (11): 677-683

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: Identify factors associated with the prophylactic prescription of a bowel regimen with an inpatient opioid prescription.METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from June 1, 2013, to October 31, 2014 of pediatric inpatients prescribed an oral or intravenous opioid on the general medical/surgical floors. We identified patients with or without a prophylactic prescription of a bowel regimen. We obtained patient demographics, prescriber training level and service and used multivariate logistic regression to analyze the factors associated with prophylactic bowel regimen and opioid prescription.RESULTS: Of the 6682 encounters that met study criteria, only 966 (14.5%) encounters had prophylactic prescriptions. Patient factors associated with prophylactic prescription include increasing age (per year; odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.07) and sickle cell diagnosis (OR = 3.19, 95% CI 2.08-4.91). Medication factors associated with prophylactic prescription include a scheduled opioid prescription (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.46-2.1) and a prescription for oxycodone (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 2.57-5.00) or morphine (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.39-2.44), compared with acetaminophen-hydrocodone. Compared with medical providers, surgeons were less likely (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.35-0.53) and pain service providers were more likely to prescribe a prophylactic bowel regimen (OR = 4.12, 95% CI 3.13-5.43).CONCLUSIONS: More than 85% of inpatient opioid prescriptions did not receive a prophylactic bowel regimen. Future research should examine factors (eg, clinical decision support tools) to increase prophylactic prescription of bowel regimens with opioids for populations found to have lower rates.

    View details for PubMedID 27803072

  • Urine-based asymptomatic urethral gonorrhea and chlamydia screening and sexual risk-taking behavior in men who have sex with men in greater Boston AIDS PATIENT CARE AND STDS Russell, C. J., Golub, S. A., Cohen, D. E., Mayer, K. H. 2007; 21 (3): 205-211

    Abstract

    To assess the prevalence of asymptomatic urethral gonorrhea and chlamydia men who have sex with men (MSM) living in greater Boston, 206 men attending routine medical appointments consented to urine-based chlamydia and gonorrhea screening using urine LCR amplification. Of those screened, 201 patients also completed a seven-question survey to assess sexual risk behaviors associated with urethral sexually transmitted infections. Less than 1% of the asymptomatic patients screened tested positive for urethral chlamydia; none tested positive for urethral gonorrhea. Forty-eight percent reported multiple sexual partners in the 30 days prior to screening, with HIV-infected patients reporting fewer partners and less unprotected insertive anal sex than HIV-uninfected patients. Almost 25% of patients screened used the Internet in the 30 days prior to screening to find a sexual partner. Internet use was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners in the 30 days prior to screening. Findings suggest that asymptomatic urethral chlamydia and gonorrhea may be uncommon in MSM living in the greater Boston area and that the recent rise in the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections may not be due to untreated asymptomatic infections. Increased awareness of STD symptoms among patients and medical providers is critical to timely diagnosis and treatment of STDs in MSM.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/apc.2006.0051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245651100007

    View details for PubMedID 17428188

  • Giant villous adenoma and the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome Wang, V. S., Russell, C. J., Saltzman, J. R. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2006: S266-S267
  • Differences in the expressed HLA class I alleles effect the differential clustering of HIV type 1-specific T cell responses in infected Chinese and Caucasians AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES Yu, X. G., Addo, M. M., Perkins, B. A., Wej, F. L., Rathod, A., Geer, S. C., Parta, M., Cohen, D., Stone, D. R., Russell, C. J., Tanzi, G., Mei, S., Wurcel, A. G., Frahm, N., Lichterfeld, M., Heath, L., Mullins, J. I., Marincola, F., Goulder, P. J., Brander, C., Allen, T., Cao, Y. Z., Walker, B. D., Altfeld, M. 2004; 20 (5): 557-564

    Abstract

    China is a region of the world with a rapidly spreading HIV-1 epidemic. Studies providing insights into HIV-1 pathogenesis in infected Chinese are urgently needed to support the design and testing of an effective HIV-1 vaccine for this population. HIV-1-specific T cell responses were characterized in 32 HIV-1-infected individuals of Chinese origin and compared to 34 infected caucasians using 410 overlapping peptides spanning the entire HIV-1 clade B consensus sequence in an IFN-gamma ELISpot assay. All HIV-1 proteins were targeted with similar frequency in both populations and all study subjects recognized at least one overlapping peptide. HIV-1-specific T cell responses clustered in seven different regions of the HIV-1 genome in the Chinese cohort and in nine different regions in the caucasian cohort. The dominant HLA class I alleles expressed in the two populations differed significantly, and differences in epitope clustering pattern were shown to be influenced by differences in class I alleles that restrict immunodominant epitopes. These studies demonstrate that the clustering of HIV-1-specific T cell responses is influenced by the genetic HLA class I background in the study populations. The design and testing of candidate vaccines to fight the rapidly growing HIV-1 epidemic must therefore take the HLA genetics of the population into account as specific regions of the virus can be expected to be differentially targeted in ethnically diverse populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/088922204323087813

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221763500013

    View details for PubMedID 15186531

  • Homosexuality as a specific risk factor for eating disorders in men INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Russell, C. J., Keel, P. K. 2002; 31 (3): 300-306

    Abstract

    The current study examined whether homosexuality is a specific risk factor for disordered eating in men.Men (64 heterosexual and 58 homosexual) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Masculinity and Femininity scales of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI), the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ).Homosexual men had more pathological scores on the BDI, RSE, BULIT-R, EAT-26, and BSQ. Additionally, homosexual men reported greater discomfort with sexual orientation. After controlling for differences in depression, self-esteem, and comfort with sexual orientation, sexual orientation continued to account for significant variance in BULIT-R, EAT-26, and BSQ scores.Future research may benefit from exploring aspects of homosexuality that may contribute specifically to risk for disordered eating in men.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.10036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174576500008

    View details for PubMedID 11920991