Bio


As an anesthesiologist, pain medicine specialist, and clinical epidemiologist, my research interests span development of novel psychotherapeutic interventions at the intersection of pain, prescription opioid addiction, and psychology. As an NIH-funded researcher I am working to develop novel interventions (behavioral, medical technology, medical device) to prevent continued pain and opioid use after surgery. My clinical interests include treatment of chronic pelvic pain conditions including painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis, endometriosis, pelvic floor myofascial pain, pudendal neuralgia, peripheral nerve entrapments, pelvic adhesions, vulvodynia, and chronic constipation.

Clinical Focus


  • Pelvic Pain
  • Interstitial Cystitis
  • Painful Bladder Syndrome
  • Perioperative Pain Management
  • Anesthesiology
  • Pain Medicine Ultrasonography

Academic Appointments


  • Assistant Professor - Med Center Line, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine

Professional Education


  • Board Certification, American Board of Preventive Medicine, Addiction Medicine (2020)
  • Residency: Stanford University Anesthesiology Residency (2009) CA
  • Residency: Cleveland Clinic Foundation Heart Center (2007) OH
  • Internship: Cleveland Clinic Foundation Heart Center (2007) OH
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology (2010)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Hospital - Pain Medicine (2010) CA
  • M.S., Stanford University, Epidemiology (2013)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine (2011)
  • Medical Education: Northeastern Ohio Universities (2005) OH

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Perioperative Recovery of Opioids Mood and Pain Trial

Clinical Trials


  • Perioperative Recovery of Moods, Opioids, and Pain Trial (PROMPT) Recruiting

    The investigators aim to characterize the relationship between changes in emotional distress, opioid use, and pain throughout surgery and recovery. Additionally, the investigators aim to compare the effectiveness of post-surgical motivational interviewing and physician-guided opioid weaning vs. usual care on reducing persistent opioid use. Overall, the proposed research will advance knowledge regarding the role of psychological factors contributing to persistent opioid use after surgery.

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  • Surgical Tapering of Opioids Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the relationship between preoperative depression symptoms and opioid use/misuse after surgery using a perioperative learning healthcare system. We are also interested in evaluating the relative efficacy of enhanced usual care versus motivational interviewing and gradual opioid weaning to promote opioid cessation after surgery. Finally, we are interested in characterizing interactions between treatment and selected participant attributes in predicting treatment, engagement, opioid use, and misuse.

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  • Low-dose Naltrexone for Bladder Pain Syndrome Not Recruiting

    Interstitial cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/PBS) is a constellation of symptoms of pelvic discomfort that includes both bladder-related pain as well as urinary frequency, urgency, and nocturia in the absence of an identifiable etiology that affects likely more than 5.4 million patients in the United States. There is a significant overlap in patients with IC/PBS and those with fibromyalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate if LDN improves pain scores and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with IC/PBS. A secondary aim is to show that it has a low adverse event profile.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Gabrielle Hettie, 650-724-2091.

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All Publications


  • Opioid Prescription and Persistent Opioid Use After Ectopic Pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology Wall-Wieler, E., Shover, C. L., Hah, J. M., Carmichael, S. L., Butwick, A. J. 2020

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outpatient opioid dispensing and the incidence of persistent opioid use after ectopic pregnancy.METHODS: This cohort study used U.S. employer-based claims data to identify opioid-naive individuals experiencing ectopic pregnancy from November 1, 2008, to September 30, 2015. Treatment was categorized as surgical, medical (using methotrexate), or unknown. New opioid prescriptions were defined as prescriptions filled from 1 week before to 1 week after an ectopic pregnancy treatment. For those who filled a new opioid prescription, we calculated the incidence and risk factors for persistent opioid use, defined as having filled at least one opioid prescription both from 8 to 90 days after treatment and from 91 to 365 days after treatment.RESULTS: Of the 15,338 individuals in our study, 7,047 (45.9%, 95% CI 45.2-46.7%) filled an opioid prescription at the time of treatment, of whom 4.1% (95% CI 3.6-4.6%) developed persistent opioid use. The risk of persistent opioid use was lower among those who had surgical compared with medical treatment (3.7% and 6.8%, respectively; relative risk [RR] 0.54, 95% CI 0.38-0.77). Variables most strongly associated with persistent opioid use were a history of benzodiazepine use (RR 1.99; 95% CI 1.43-2.78; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.22), antidepressant use (RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.45-2.53; aRR 1.53, 95% CI 1.08-2.18), and a pre-existing pain disorder (RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.26-1.99; aRR 1.47, 95% CI 1.16-1.85) in the year before treatment.CONCLUSION: New opioid use is common after an ectopic pregnancy; approximately 4% of those with new opioid use develop persistent opioid use, with the rate higher in those treated medically. New pain-management guidelines need to be developed to prevent persistent opioid use after ectopic pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004015

    View details for PubMedID 32769649

  • Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Occipital Neuralgia. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.) Salmasi, V., Olatoye, O. O., Terkawi, A. S., Hah, J. M., Ottestad, E., Pingree, M. 2020; 21 (Supplement_1): S13–S17

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Chronic headaches are the second most prevalent disease and second most common cause for years lived with disability worldwide. Occipital neuralgia can cause headaches or be present in addition to other more prevalent causes of headache. If these headaches fail to respond to conservative and pharmacological therapy, physicians proceed to more invasive treatments, starting with infiltration of the greater occipital nerve with local anesthetic with or without corticosteroids, followed by nerve ablation or stimulation. Occipital nerve stimulation gained more popularity as the technology improved and more pain physicians received training on interventional procedures.METHODS: In this manuscript, we are presenting our experience with ultrasound-guided implant of occipital nerve stimulators using peripheral nerve stimulator systems. After confirming appropriateness of treatment by a successful occipital nerve block (i.e., resulting in >50% relief in patients' pain intensity), we implanted five stimulator systems in three patients (two bilateral).RESULTS: We followed these patients for an average of eight months, and the average pain reduction was 50%. We did not observe any adverse events during or immediately after surgery. One patient developed an adverse reaction to the adhesive of the battery transmitter, but it was not severe enough to stop her from using the stimulator.CONCLUSIONS: Considering the ease of implant and minimal side effects, implant of peripheral nerve stimulators to stimulate the occipital nerve is a promising treatment modality for patients with chronic headache who present with features of occipital neuralgia. However, wider use of this treatment modality is subject to further studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/pm/pnaa083

    View details for PubMedID 32804226

  • Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Pudendal Neuralgia: A Technical Note. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.) Gregory, N. S., Terkawi, A. S., Prabhakar, N. K., Tran, J. V., Salmasi, V., Hah, J. M. 2020; 21 (Supplement_1): S51–S55

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Pudendal neuropathy is a chronic, disabling form of perineal pain that involves the pudendal nerve, a mixed somatic and autonomic nerve that originates from sacral nerve roots. Peripheral nerve stimulation of the pudendal nerve can be useful to decrease symptom burden in patients who have failed initial conservative treatment modalities.METHODS: In this manuscript, we describe an approach to the placement of a peripheral nerve stimulator for the treatment of pudendal neuralgia. We present a case of complex pelvic neuropathy and review the factors that lead to successful placement. Technical aspects of stimulator placement and ultrasound landmarks are reviewed.RESULTS: A lateral to medial approach with ultrasound guidance at the level of the ischial spine is likely to facilitate proper lead placement along the course of the pudendal nerve. Aftercare and adherence to postimplant activity restrictions-particularly avoiding use of the extremes of hip flexion and extension for four weeks-lead to the absence of lead migration.CONCLUSIONS: Pudendal nerve stimulation is an emerging technique for neuromodulation of refractory pudendal neuralgia. Ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve stimulation is a viable technique for neuromodulation of pudendal neuralgia. Optimization of patient selection, ultrasound guidance, and proper adherence to postimplant activity restrictions may be helpful for long-term therapeutic success.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/pm/pnaa171

    View details for PubMedID 32804222

  • Association of State Policies Allowing Medical Cannabis for Opioid Use Disorder With Dispensary Marketing for This Indication. JAMA network open Shover, C. L., Vest, N. A., Chen, D., Stueber, A., Falasinnu, T. O., Hah, J. M., Kim, J., Mackey, I., Weber, K. A., Ziadni, M., Humphreys, K. 2020; 3 (7): e2010001

    Abstract

    Importance: Misinformation about cannabis and opioid use disorder (OUD) may increase morbidity and mortality if it leads individuals with OUD to forego evidence-based treatment. It has not been systematically evaluated whether officially designating OUD as a qualifying condition for medical cannabis is associated with cannabis dispensaries suggesting cannabis as a treatment for OUD.Objective: To examine whether state-level policies designating OUD a qualifying condition for medical cannabis are associated with more dispensaries claiming cannabis can treat OUD.Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of 208 medical dispensary brands was conducted in 2019 using the brands' online content. The study included dispensaries operating in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, where OUD is a qualifying condition for medical cannabis, and in Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia, where this policy does not exist.Exposures: Presence of OUD on the list of qualifying conditions for a state's medical cannabis program.Main Outcomes and Measures: Binary indicators of whether online content from the brand said cannabis can treat OUD, can replace US Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for OUD, can be an adjunctive therapy to Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for OUD, or can be used as a substitute for opioids to treat other conditions (eg, chronic pain).Results: After excluding duplicates, listings for nonexistent dispensaries, and those without online content, 167 brands across 7 states were included in the analysis (44 [26.3%] in states where OUD was a qualifying condition and 123 [73.7%] in adjacent states). A dispensary listed in a directory for West Virginia was not operational; therefore, comparison states were Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, and Ohio. In policy-exposed states, 39% (95% CI, 23%-55%) more dispensaries claimed cannabis could treat OUD compared with unexposed states (P<.001). For replacing medications for OUD and being an adjunctive therapy, the differences were 14% (95% CI, 2%-26%; P=.002) and 28% (95% CI, 14%-42%; P<.001), respectively. The suggestion that cannabis could substitute for opioids (eg, to treat chronic pain) was made by 25% (95% CI, 9%-41%) more brands in policy-exposed states than adjacent states (P=.002).Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, state-level policies designating OUD as a qualifying condition for medical cannabis were associated with more dispensaries claiming cannabis can treat OUD. In the current policy environment, in which medical claims by cannabis dispensaries are largely unregulated, these advertisements could harm patients. Future research linking these policies to patient outcomes is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.10001

    View details for PubMedID 32662844

  • ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PAIN CATASTROPHIZING AND FREQUENT CRAVING FOR PRESCRIPTION OPIOIDS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN You, D. S., Ziadni, M., Hah, J., Darnall, B. D., Mackey, S. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2020: S89
  • Clinical Profiles of Concurrent Cannabis Use in Chronic Pain: A CHOIR Study. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.) Sturgeon, J. A., Khan, J., Hah, J. M., Hilmoe, H., Hong, J., Ware, M. A., Mackey, S. C. 2020

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: Despite evidence of the analgesic benefits of cannabis, there remains a relative scarcity of research on the short- and long-term effects of cannabis use in individuals with chronic pain.DESIGN: The current study is a secondary analysis of clinical data from the Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry (CHOIR).SETTING: Data were drawn from a cohort of patients of a multidisciplinary tertiary care pain clinic.SUBJECTS: The study sample consisted of data from 7,026 new patient visits from CHOIR; of these, 1,668 patients with a follow-up time point within 180days were included in a longitudinal analysis.METHODS: Clinical data were analyzed to characterize cross-sectional differences in pain and indicators of psychological and physical function according to self-reported, concurrent cannabis use. Additionally, a propensity score-weighted longitudinal analysis was conducted, examining cannabis use as a predictor of changes in clinical variables across time.RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses suggested significantly poorer sleep and significantly higher intensities of pain, emotional distress, and physical and social dysfunction in patients reporting ongoing cannabis use; however, these differences were relatively small in magnitude. However, no differences between cannabis users and nonusers in terms of longitudinal changes in clinical variables were noted.DISCUSSION: Our results are among the first to examine concurrent cannabis use as a prognostic variable regarding trajectories of pain-related variables in tertiary care. Future studies may benefit from examining the effect of cannabis initiation, concurrent medication use, and specific aspects of cannabis use (dose, duration of use, or cannabis type) on clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/pm/pnaa060

    View details for PubMedID 32232476

  • Associations between stopping prescriptions for opioids, length of opioid treatment, and overdose or suicide deaths in US veterans: observational evaluation. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) Oliva, E. M., Bowe, T., Manhapra, A., Kertesz, S., Hah, J. M., Henderson, P., Robinson, A., Paik, M., Sandbrink, F., Gordon, A. J., Trafton, J. A. 2020; 368: m283

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between stopping treatment with opioids, length of treatment, and death from overdose or suicide in the Veterans Health Administration.DESIGN: Observational evaluation.SETTING: Veterans Health Administration.PARTICIPANTS: 1394102 patients in the Veterans Health Administration with an outpatient prescription for an opioid analgesic from fiscal year 2013 to the end of fiscal year 2014 (1 October 2012 to 30 September 2014).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A multivariable Cox non-proportional hazards regression model examined death from overdose or suicide, with the interaction of time varying opioid cessation by length of treatment (≤30, 31-90, 91-400, and >400 days) as the main covariates. Stopping treatment with opioids was measured as the time when a patient was estimated to have no prescription for opioids, up to the end of the next fiscal year (2014) or the patient's death.RESULTS: 2887 deaths from overdose or suicide were found. The incidence of stopping opioid treatment was 57.4% (n=799668) overall, and based on length of opioid treatment was 32.0% (≤30 days), 8.7% (31-90 days), 22.7% (91-400 days), and 36.6% (>400 days). The interaction between stopping treatment with opioids and length of treatment was significant (P<0.001); stopping treatment was associated with an increased risk of death from overdose or suicide regardless of the length of treatment, with the risk increasing the longer patients were treated. Hazard ratios for patients who stopped opioid treatment (with reference values for all other covariates) were 1.67 (≤30 days), 2.80 (31-90 days), 3.95 (91-400 days), and 6.77 (>400 days). Descriptive life table data suggested that death rates for overdose or suicide increased immediately after starting or stopping treatment with opioids, with the incidence decreasing over about three to 12 months.CONCLUSIONS: Patients were at greater risk of death from overdose or suicide after stopping opioid treatment, with an increase in the risk the longer patients had been treated before stopping. Descriptive data suggested that starting treatment with opioids was also a risk period. Strategies to mitigate the risk in these periods are not currently a focus of guidelines for long term use of opioids. The associations observed cannot be assumed to be causal; the context in which opioid prescriptions were started and stopped might contribute to risk and was not investigated. Safer prescribing of opioids should take a broader view on patient safety and mitigate the risk from the patient's perspective. Factors to address are those that place patients at risk for overdose or suicide after beginning and stopping opioid treatment, especially in the first three months.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.m283

    View details for PubMedID 32131996

  • Evaluation of the Preliminary Validity of Misuse of Prescription Pain Medication Items from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)(R) PAIN MEDICINE You, D., Hah, J. M., Collins, S., Ziadni, M. S., Domingue, B. W., Cook, K. F., Mackey, S. C. 2019; 20 (10): 1925–33

    View details for DOI 10.1093/pm/pnz001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000498052000007

  • Evaluation of Somatic Pain Distribution Using Body Maps for Patients With Chronic Abdominal Pain Syndromes Aivaliotis, V. I., Hah, J. M., Pirrotta, L., Nguyen, L. A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019: S281–S282
  • American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Perioperative Opioid Minimization in Opioid-Naive Patients ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Wu, C. L., King, A. B., Geiger, T. M., Grant, M. C., Grocott, M. W., Gupta, R., Hah, J. M., Miller, T. E., Shaw, A. D., Gan, T. J., Thacker, J. M., Mythen, M. G., McEvoy, M. D., Fourth Perioperative Quality 2019; 129 (2): 567–77
  • American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative-4 Joint Consensus Statement on Persistent Postoperative Opioid Use: Definition, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Health Care System Initiatives ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Kent, M. L., Hurley, R. W., Oderda, G. M., Gordon, D. B., Sun, E., Mythen, M., Miller, T. E., Shaw, A. D., Gan, T. J., Thacker, J. M., McEvoy, M. D., POQI-4 Working Grp 2019; 129 (2): 543–52
  • American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative-4 Joint Consensus Statement on Persistent Postoperative Opioid Use: Definition, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Health Care System Initiatives. Anesthesia and analgesia Kent, M. L., Hurley, R. W., Oderda, G. M., Gordon, D. B., Sun, E., Mythen, M., Miller, T. E., Shaw, A. D., Gan, T. J., Thacker, J. K., McEvoy, M. D., POQI-4 Working Group 2019

    Abstract

    Persistent postoperative opioid use is thought to contribute to the ongoing opioid epidemic in the United States. However, efforts to study and address the issue have been stymied by the lack of a standard definition, which has also hampered efforts to measure the incidence of and risk factors for persistent postoperative opioid use. The objective of this systematic review is to (1) determine a clinically relevant definition of persistent postoperative opioid use, and (2) characterize its incidence and risk factors for several common surgeries. Our approach leveraged a group of international experts from the Perioperative Quality Initiative-4, a consensus-building conference that included representation from anesthesiology, surgery, and nursing. A search of the medical literature yielded 46 articles addressing persistent postoperative opioid use in adults after arthroplasty, abdominopelvic surgery, spine surgery, thoracic surgery, mastectomy, and thoracic surgery. In opioid-naive patients, the overall incidence ranged from 2% to 6% based on moderate-level evidence. However, patients who use opioids preoperatively had an incidence of >30%. Preoperative opioid use, depression, factors associated with the diagnosis of substance use disorder, preoperative pain, and tobacco use were reported risk factors. In addition, while anxiety, sex, and psychotropic prescription are associated with persistent postoperative opioid use, these reports are based on lower level evidence. While few articles addressed the health policy or prescriber characteristics that influence persistent postoperative opioid use, efforts to modify prescriber behaviors and health system characteristics are likely to have success in reducing persistent postoperative opioid use.

    View details for PubMedID 30897590

  • Evaluation of the Preliminary Validity of Misuse of Prescription Pain Medication Items from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.) You, D. S., Hah, J. M., Collins, S., Ziadni, M. S., Domingue, B. W., Cook, K. F., Mackey, S. C. 2019

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: The National Institutes of Health's Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) includes an item bank for measuring misuse of prescription pain medication (PROMIS-Rx Misuse). The bank was developed and its validity evaluated in samples of community-dwelling adults and patients in addiction treatment programs. The goal of the current study was to investigate the validity of the item bank among patients with mixed-etiology chronic pain conditions.METHOD: A consecutive sample of 288 patients who presented for initial medical evaluations at a tertiary pain clinic completed questionnaires using the open-source Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry. Participants were predominantly middle-aged (M [SD]=51.6 [15.5] years), female (62.2%), and white/non-Hispanic (51.7%). Validity was evaluated by estimating the association between PROMIS-Rx Misuse scores and scores on other measures and testing the ability of scores to distinguish among risk factor subgroups expected to have different levels of prescription pain medicine misuse (known groups analyses).RESULTS: Overall, score associations with other measures were as expected and scores effectively distinguished among patients with and without relevant risk factors.CONCLUSION: The study results supported the preliminary validity of PROMIS-Rx Misuse item bank scores for the assessment of prescription opioid misuse in patients visiting an outpatient pain clinic.

    View details for PubMedID 30856659

  • Factors Associated With Acute Pain Estimation, Postoperative Pain Resolution, Opioid Cessation, and Recovery Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA NETWORK OPEN Hah, J. M., Cramer, E., Hilmoe, H., Schmidt, P., McCue, R., Trafton, J., Clay, D., Sharifzadeh, Y., Ruchelli, G., Goodman, S., Huddleston, J., Maloney, W. J., Dirbas, F. M., Shrager, J., Costouros, J. G., Curtin, C., Mackey, S. C., Carroll, I. 2019; 2 (3)
  • Factors Associated With Acute Pain Estimation, Postoperative Pain Resolution, Opioid Cessation, and Recovery: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA network open Hah, J. M., Cramer, E., Hilmoe, H., Schmidt, P., McCue, R., Trafton, J., Clay, D., Sharifzadeh, Y., Ruchelli, G., Goodman, S., Huddleston, J., Maloney, W. J., Dirbas, F. M., Shrager, J., Costouros, J. G., Curtin, C., Mackey, S. C., Carroll, I. 2019; 2 (3): e190168

    Abstract

    Importance: Acute postoperative pain is associated with the development of persistent postsurgical pain, but it is unclear which aspect is most estimable.Objective: To identify patient clusters based on acute pain trajectories, preoperative psychosocial characteristics associated with the high-risk cluster, and the best acute pain predictor of remote outcomes.Design, Setting, and Participants: A secondary analysis of the Stanford Accelerated Recovery Trial randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted at a single-center, tertiary, referral teaching hospital. A total of 422 participants scheduled for thoracotomy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, total hip replacement, total knee replacement, mastectomy, breast lumpectomy, hand surgery, carpal tunnel surgery, knee arthroscopy, shoulder arthroplasty, or shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled between May 25, 2010, and July 25, 2014. Data analysis was performed from January 1 to August 1, 2018.Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive gabapentin (1200 mg, preoperatively, and 600 mg, 3 times a day postoperatively) or active placebo (lorazepam, 0.5 mg preoperatively, inactive placebo postoperatively) for 72 hours.Main Outcomes and Measures: A modified Brief Pain Inventory prospectively captured 3 surgical site pain outcomes: average pain and worst pain intensity over the past 24 hours, and current pain intensity. Within each category, acute pain trajectories (first 10 postoperative pain scores) were compared using a k-means clustering algorithm. Fifteen descriptors of acute pain were compared as predictors of remote postoperative pain resolution, opioid cessation, and full recovery.Results: Of the 422 patients enrolled, 371 patients (≤10% missing pain scores) were included in the analysis. Of these, 146 (39.4%) were men; mean (SD) age was 56.67 (11.70) years. Two clusters were identified within each trajectory category. The high pain cluster of the average pain trajectory significantly predicted prolonged pain (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50-0.80; P<.001) and delayed opioid cessation (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.41-0.67; P<.001) but was not a predictor of time to recovery in Cox proportional hazards regression (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.14; P=.89). Preoperative risk factors for categorization to the high average pain cluster included female sex (adjusted relative risk [ARR], 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.70; P=.008), elevated preoperative pain (ARR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07-1.15; P<.001), a history of alcohol or drug abuse treatment (ARR,1.90; 95% CI, 1.42-2.53; P<.001), and receiving active placebo (ARR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.03-1.56; P=.03). Worst pain reported on postoperative day 10 was the best predictor of time to pain resolution (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.78-0.87; P<.001), opioid cessation (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.89; P<.001), and complete surgical recovery (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.86-0.96; P<.001).Conclusions and Relevance: This study has shown a possible uniform predictor of remote postoperative pain, opioid use, and recovery that can be easily assessed. Future work is needed to replicate these findings.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01067144.

    View details for PubMedID 30821824

  • Effects of smoking on patients with chronic pain: a propensity-weighted analysis on the Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry. Pain Khan, J. S., Hah, J. M., Mackey, S. C. 2019

    Abstract

    Tobacco smoking is associated with adverse health effects and its relationship to pain is complex. The longitudinal effect of smoking on patients attending a tertiary pain management center is not wellestablished. Using the Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry (CHOIR) of patients attending the Stanford Pain Management Center from 2013-2017, we conducted a propensity-weighted analysis to determine independent effects of smoking on chronic pain patients. We adjusted for covariates including age, gender, body mass index, depression and anxiety history, ethnicity, alcohol use, marital status, disability, and education. We compared smokers and non-smokers on pain intensity, physical function, sleep, and psychological and mood variables using self-reported NIH PROMIS outcomes. We also conducted a linear mixed-model analysis to determine effect of smoking over time. 12,368 patients completed the CHOIR questionnaire of which 8,584 patients had complete data for propensity analysis. Smokers at time of pain consultation reported significantly worse pain intensities, pain interference, pain behaviors, physical functioning, fatigue, sleep-related impairment, sleep disturbance, anger, emotional support, depression, and anxiety symptoms than non-smokers (all p<0.001). In mixed model analysis, smokers tended to have worse pain interference, fatigue, sleeprelated impairment, anger, emotional support, and depression over time compared to non-smokers. Patients with chronic pain who smoke have worse pain, functional, sleep, and psychological and mood outcomes compared to non-smokers. Smoking also has prognostic importance for poor recovery and improvement over time. Further research is needed on tailored therapies to assist people with chronic pain who smoke and to determine an optimal strategy to facilitate smoking cessation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001631

    View details for PubMedID 31149975

  • American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Perioperative Opioid Minimization in Opioid-Naive Patients. Anesthesia and analgesia Wu, C. L., King, A. B., Geiger, T. M., Grant, M. C., Grocott, M. P., Gupta, R., Hah, J. M., Miller, T. E., Shaw, A. D., Gan, T. J., Thacker, J. K., Mythen, M. G., McEvoy, M. D., Argoff, C., Edwards, D. A., Gordon, D. B., Gulur, P., Hedrick, T. L., Holubar, S. D., Hurley, R. W., Jayaram, J., Kent, M. L., Oderda, G. M., Sun, E. 2019

    Abstract

    Surgical care episodes place opioid-naive patients at risk for transitioning to new persistent postoperative opioid use. With one of the central principles being the application of multimodal pain interventions to reduce the reliance on opioid-based medications, enhanced recovery pathways provide a framework that decreases perioperative opioid use. The fourth Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together a group of international experts representing anesthesiology, surgery, and nursing with the objective of providing consensus recommendations on this important topic. Fourth Perioperative Quality Initiative was a consensus-building conference designed around a modified Delphi process in which the group alternately convened for plenary discussion sessions in between small group discussions. The process included several iterative steps including a literature review of the topics, building consensus around the important questions related to the topic, and sequential steps of content building and refinement until agreement was achieved and a consensus document was produced. During the fourth Perioperative Quality Initiative conference and thereafter as a writing group, reference applicability to the topic was discussed in any area where there was disagreement. For this manuscript, the questions answered included (1) What are the potential strategies for preventing persistent postoperative opioid use? (2) Is opioid-free anesthesia and analgesia feasible and appropriate for routine operations? and (3) Is opioid-free (intraoperative) anesthesia associated with equivalent or superior outcomes compared to an opioid minimization in the perioperative period? We will discuss the relevant literature for each questions, emphasize what we do not know, and prioritize the areas for future research.

    View details for PubMedID 31082966

  • Striving for Evidence-Based Postoperative Opioid Prescribing While Optimizing Perioperative Pain Management-Shifting to Conservative Prescribing. JAMA network open Hah, J. M. 2018; 1 (8): e185432

    View details for PubMedID 30646271

  • Predictors of Daily Pain Medication Use in Individuals with Recurrent Back Pain INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Sturgeon, J. A., Hah, J. M., Sharifzadeh, Y., Middleton, S. K., Rico, T., Johnson, K. A., Mackey, S. C. 2018; 25 (2): 252–58

    Abstract

    A key component to chronic pain management regimens is the use of analgesic medications. Psychological factors, such as mood states, may also affect the use of pain medications for individuals with chronic pain, but few observational studies have examined how these factors may predict pain medication use at the daily level.Daily assessments from 104 individuals with back pain were used to examine fluctuations in daily pain intensity, mood, sleep quality, and physical activity as predictors of the likelihood of pain medication (opioid and non-opioid) use and levels of medication use on the same day.Pain intensity and mood ratings significantly predicted whether participants used pain medication on the same day, while only pain intensity predicted whether participants used more medication than usual. Further, current opioid users were more likely to increase the amount of their medication use on days of higher pain.This article identifies fluctuations in daily pain intensity and mood as salient predictors of daily pain medication use in individuals with recurrent back pain. The current study is among the first to highlight both pain and mood states as predictors of daily pain medication use in individuals with back pain, though future studies may expand on these findings through the use of higher-resolution daily medication use variables.

    View details for PubMedID 28875436

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5837935

  • Defining Postoperative Opioid Needs Among Preoperative Opioid Users. JAMA surgery Hah, J., Hernandez-Boussard, T. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 29590286

  • Factors associated with prescription opioid misuse in a cross-sectional cohort of patients with chronic non-cancer pain JOURNAL OF PAIN RESEARCH Hah, J. M., Sturgeon, J. A., Zocca, J., Sharifzadeh, Y., Mackey, S. C. 2017; 10: 979-987

    Abstract

    To examine demographic features, psychosocial characteristics, pain-specific behavioral factors, substance abuse history, sleep, and indicators of overall physical function as predictors of opioid misuse in patients presenting for new patient evaluation at a tertiary pain clinic.Overall, 625 patients with chronic non-cancer pain prospectively completed the Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry, assessing pain catastrophizing, National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System standardized measures (pain intensity, pain behavior, pain interference, physical function, sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, anger, depression, anxiety, and fatigue), and substance use history. Additional information regarding current opioid prescriptions and opioid misuse was examined through retrospective chart review.In all, 41 (6.6%) patients presented with some indication of prescription opioid misuse. In the final multivariable logistic regression model, those with a history of illicit drug use (odds ratio [OR] 5.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.48-11.98, p<0.0001) and a current opioid prescription (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.62-10.18, p=0.003) were at elevated risk for opioid misuse. Conversely, every 1-h increase in average hours of nightly sleep decreased the risk of opioid misuse by 20% (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.97, p=0.02).These findings indicate the importance of considering substance use history, current opioid prescriptions, and sleep in universal screening of patients with chronic non-cancer pain for opioid misuse. Future work should target longitudinal studies to verify the causal relationships between these variables and subsequent opioid misuse.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/JPR.S131979

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400675500001

    View details for PubMedID 28496354

  • Chronic Opioid Use After Surgery: Implications for Perioperative Management in the Face of the Opioid Epidemic. Anesthesia and analgesia Hah, J. M., Bateman, B. T., Ratliff, J., Curtin, C., Sun, E. 2017; 125 (5): 1733–40

    Abstract

    Physicians, policymakers, and researchers are increasingly focused on finding ways to decrease opioid use and overdose in the United States both of which have sharply increased over the past decade. While many efforts are focused on the management of chronic pain, the use of opioids in surgical patients presents a particularly challenging problem requiring clinicians to balance 2 competing interests: managing acute pain in the immediate postoperative period and minimizing the risks of persistent opioid use after the surgery. Finding ways to minimize this risk is particularly salient in light of a growing literature suggesting that postsurgical patients are at increased risk for chronic opioid use. The perioperative care team, including surgeons and anesthesiologists, is poised to develop clinical- and systems-based interventions aimed at providing pain relief in the immediate postoperative period while also reducing the risks of opioid use longer term. In this paper, we discuss the consequences of chronic opioid use after surgery and present an analysis of the extent to which surgery has been associated with chronic opioid use. We follow with a discussion of the risk factors that are associated with chronic opioid use after surgery and proceed with an analysis of the extent to which opioid-sparing perioperative interventions (eg, nerve blockade) have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic opioid use after surgery. We then conclude with a discussion of future research directions.

    View details for PubMedID 29049117

  • Effect of Perioperative Gabapentin on Postoperative Pain Resolution and Opioid Cessation in a Mixed Surgical Cohort: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA surgery Hah, J., Mackey, S. C., Schmidt, P., McCue, R., Humphreys, K., Trafton, J., Efron, B., Clay, D., Sharifzadeh, Y., Ruchelli, G., Goodman, S., Huddleston, J., Maloney, W. J., Dirbas, F. M., Shrager, J., Costouros, J., Curtin, C., Carroll, I. 2017

    Abstract

    Guidelines recommend using gabapentin to decrease postoperative pain and opioid use, but significant variation exists in clinical practice.To determine the effect of perioperative gabapentin on remote postoperative time to pain resolution and opioid cessation.A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of perioperative gabapentin was conducted at a single-center, tertiary referral teaching hospital. A total of 1805 patients aged 18 to 75 years scheduled for surgery (thoracotomy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, total hip replacement, total knee replacement, mastectomy, breast lumpectomy, hand surgery, carpal tunnel surgery, knee arthroscopy, shoulder arthroplasty, and shoulder arthroscopy) were screened. Participants were enrolled from May 25, 2010, to July 25, 2014, and followed up for 2 years postoperatively. Intention-to-treat analysis was used in evaluation of the findings.Gabapentin, 1200 mg, preoperatively and 600 mg, 3 times a day postoperatively or active placebo (lorazepam, 0.5 mg) preoperatively followed by inactive placebo postoperatively for 72 hours.Primary outcome was time to pain resolution (5 consecutive reports of 0 of 10 possible levels of average pain at the surgical site on the numeric rating scale of pain). Secondary outcomes were time to opioid cessation (5 consecutive reports of no opioid use) and the proportion of participants with continued pain or opioid use at 6 months and 1 year.Of 1805 patients screened for enrollment, 1383 were excluded, including 926 who did not meet inclusion criteria and 273 who declined to participate. Overall, 8% of patients randomized were lost to follow-up. A total of 202 patients were randomized to active placebo and 208 patients were randomized to gabapentin in the intention-to-treat analysis (mean [SD] age, 56.7 [11.7] years; 256 (62.4%) women and 154 (37.6%) men). Baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. Perioperative gabapentin did not affect time to pain cessation (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.82-1.33; P = .73) in the intention-to-treat analysis. However, participants receiving gabapentin had a 24% increase in the rate of opioid cessation after surgery (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.54; P = .05). No significant differences were noted in the number of adverse events as well as the rate of medication discontinuation due to sedation or dizziness (placebo, 42 of 202 [20.8%]; gabapentin, 52 of 208 [25.0%]).Perioperative administration of gabapentin had no effect on postoperative pain resolution, but it had a modest effect on promoting opioid cessation after surgery. The routine use of perioperative gabapentin may be warranted to promote opioid cessation and prevent chronic opioid use. Optimal dosing and timing of perioperative gabapentin in the context of specific operations to decrease opioid use should be addressed in further research.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01067144.

    View details for PubMedID 29238824

  • Opioid Abuse And Poisoning: Trends In Inpatient And Emergency Department Discharges. Health affairs (Project Hope) Tedesco, D., Asch, S. M., Curtin, C., Hah, J., McDonald, K. M., Fantini, M. P., Hernandez-Boussard, T. 2017; 36 (10): 1748–53

    Abstract

    Addressing the opioid epidemic is a national priority. We analyzed national trends in inpatient and emergency department (ED) discharges for opioid abuse, dependence, and poisoning using Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data. Inpatient and ED discharge rates increased overall across the study period, but a decline was observed for prescription opioid-related discharges beginning in 2010, while a sharp increase in heroin-related discharges began in 2008.

    View details for PubMedID 28971919

  • Taking adolescent prescription opioid use in context: risk stratification in early mid-life based on medical and nonmedical use. Pain Hah, J. 2016; 157 (10): 2143-2144

    View details for DOI 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000655

    View details for PubMedID 27380503

  • (139) Risk factors for long-term prescription opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain. journal of pain Hah, J., Zocca, J., Sharifzadeh, Y., Mackey, S. 2016; 17 (4S): S10-S11

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpain.2016.01.042

    View details for PubMedID 28162301

  • Pain Duration and Resolution following Surgery: An Inception Cohort Study PAIN MEDICINE Carroll, I. R., Hah, J. M., Barelka, P. L., Wang, C. K., Wang, B. M., Gillespie, M. J., McCue, R., Younger, J. W., Trafton, J., Humphreys, K., Goodman, S. B., Dirbas, F. M., Mackey, S. C. 2015; 16 (12): 2386-2396

    Abstract

    Preoperative determinants of pain duration following surgery are poorly understood. We identified preoperative predictors of prolonged pain after surgery in a mixed surgical cohort.We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of patients undergoing mastectomy, lumpectomy, thoracotomy, total knee replacement, or total hip replacement. We measured preoperative psychological distress and substance use, and then measured pain and opioid use after surgery until patients reported the cessation of both opioid consumption and pain. The primary endpoint was time to opioid cessation, and those results have been previously reported. Here, we report preoperative determinants of time to pain resolution following surgery in Cox proportional hazards regression.Between January 2007 and April 2009, we enrolled 107 of 134 consecutively approached patients undergoing the aforementioned surgical procedures. In the final multivariate model, preoperative self-perceived risk of addiction predicted more prolonged pain. Unexpectedly, anxiety sensitivity predicted more rapid pain resolution after surgery. Each one-point increase (on a four point scale) of self-perceived risk of addiction was associated with a 38% (95% CI 3-61) reduction in the rate of pain resolution (P = 0.04). Furthermore, higher anxiety sensitivity was associated with an 89% (95% CI 23-190) increased rate of pain resolution (P = 0.004).Greater preoperative self-perceived risk of addiction, and lower anxiety sensitivity predicted a slower rate of pain resolution following surgery. Each of these factors was a better predictor of pain duration than preoperative depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, past substance use, fear of pain, gender, age, preoperative pain, or preoperative opioid use.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pme.12842

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368297000020

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4706803

  • Pain Duration and Resolution following Surgery: An Inception Cohort Study. Pain medicine Carroll, I. R., Hah, J. M., Barelka, P. L., Wang, C. K., Wang, B. M., Gillespie, M. J., McCue, R., Younger, J. W., Trafton, J., Humphreys, K., Goodman, S. B., Dirbas, F. M., Mackey, S. C. 2015; 16 (12): 2386-2396

    Abstract

    Preoperative determinants of pain duration following surgery are poorly understood. We identified preoperative predictors of prolonged pain after surgery in a mixed surgical cohort.We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of patients undergoing mastectomy, lumpectomy, thoracotomy, total knee replacement, or total hip replacement. We measured preoperative psychological distress and substance use, and then measured pain and opioid use after surgery until patients reported the cessation of both opioid consumption and pain. The primary endpoint was time to opioid cessation, and those results have been previously reported. Here, we report preoperative determinants of time to pain resolution following surgery in Cox proportional hazards regression.Between January 2007 and April 2009, we enrolled 107 of 134 consecutively approached patients undergoing the aforementioned surgical procedures. In the final multivariate model, preoperative self-perceived risk of addiction predicted more prolonged pain. Unexpectedly, anxiety sensitivity predicted more rapid pain resolution after surgery. Each one-point increase (on a four point scale) of self-perceived risk of addiction was associated with a 38% (95% CI 3-61) reduction in the rate of pain resolution (P = 0.04). Furthermore, higher anxiety sensitivity was associated with an 89% (95% CI 23-190) increased rate of pain resolution (P = 0.004).Greater preoperative self-perceived risk of addiction, and lower anxiety sensitivity predicted a slower rate of pain resolution following surgery. Each of these factors was a better predictor of pain duration than preoperative depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, past substance use, fear of pain, gender, age, preoperative pain, or preoperative opioid use.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pme.12842

    View details for PubMedID 26179223

  • Management of a Patient with a Thoracic Epidural After Accidental Clopidogrel Administration. A & A case reports Hah, J. M., Noon, K., Gowda, A., Brun, C. 2015; 5 (2): 18-20

    Abstract

    We report a case of accidental clopidogrel administration in a patient receiving ongoing epidural analgesia postoperatively. The epidural catheter was removed 7 hours after the clopidogrel dose without incident. The onset of inhibition of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation in healthy individuals has been reported at 12 to 24 hours after administration of a single 75-mg dose of clopidogrel. This case demonstrates the importance of understanding clopidogrel's pharmacology to avoid ordering unnecessary tests, which may delay catheter removal. Consideration of appropriate testing and limitations in the context of unintentional antiplatelet administration with indwelling neuraxial catheters is discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000165

    View details for PubMedID 26171737

  • A Review of Chronic Non-Cancer Pain: Epidemiology, Assessment, Treatment, and Future Needs FOCUS: Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry Hah, J. M., Mackey, S. C. 2015; 13 (3): 267-282
  • Factors Associated with Opioid Use in a Cohort of Patients Presenting for Surgery. Pain research and treatment Hah, J. M., Sharifzadeh, Y., Wang, B. M., Gillespie, M. J., Goodman, S. B., Mackey, S. C., Carroll, I. R. 2015; 2015: 829696-?

    Abstract

    Objectives. Patients taking opioids prior to surgery experience prolonged postoperative opioid use, worse clinical outcomes, increased pain, and more postoperative complications. We aimed to compare preoperative opioid users to their opioid naïve counterparts to identify differences in baseline characteristics. Methods. 107 patients presenting for thoracotomy, total knee replacement, total hip replacement, radical mastectomy, and lumpectomy were investigated in a cross-sectional study to characterize the associations between measures of pain, substance use, abuse, addiction, sleep, and psychological measures (depressive symptoms, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms, somatic fear and anxiety, and fear of pain) with opioid use. Results. Every 9-point increase in the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised (SOAPP-R) score was associated with 2.37 (95% CI 1.29-4.32) increased odds of preoperative opioid use (p = 0.0005). The SOAPP-R score was also associated with 3.02 (95% CI 1.36-6.70) increased odds of illicit preoperative opioid use (p = 0.007). Also, every 4-point increase in baseline pain at the future surgical site was associated with 2.85 (95% CI 1.12-7.27) increased odds of legitimate preoperative opioid use (p = 0.03). Discussion. Patients presenting with preoperative opioid use have higher SOAPP-R scores potentially indicating an increased risk for opioid misuse after surgery. In addition, legitimate preoperative opioid use is associated with preexisting pain.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2015/829696

    View details for PubMedID 26881072

  • Self-Loathing Aspects of Depression Reduce Postoperative Opioid Cessation Rate PAIN MEDICINE Hah, J. M., Mackey, S., Barelka, P. L., Wang, C. K., Wang, B. M., Gillespie, M. J., McCue, R., Younger, J. W., Trafton, J., Humphreys, K., Goodman, S. B., Dirbas, F. M., Schmidt, P. C., Carroll, I. R. 2014; 15 (6): 954-964

    Abstract

    We previously reported that increased preoperative Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) scores were associated with a 47% (95% CI 24%-64%) reduction in the rate of opioid cessation following surgery. We aimed to identify the underlying factors of the BDI-II (affective/cognitive vs somatic) associated with a decreased rate of opioid cessation after surgery.We conducted a secondary analysis of the data from a previously reported prospective, longitudinal, observational study of opioid use after five distinct surgical procedures (total hip replacement, total knee replacement, thoracotomy, mastectomy, and lumpectomy) in 107 patients. The primary endpoint was time to opioid cessation. After exploratory factor analysis of the BDI-II, mean summary scores were calculated for each identified factor. These scores were evaluated as predictors of time to opioid cessation using Cox proportional hazards regression.The exploratory factor analysis produced three factors (self-loathing symptoms, motivational symptoms, emotional symptoms). All three factors were significant predictors in univariate analysis. Of the three identified factors of the BDI-II, only preoperative self-loathing symptoms (past failure, guilty feelings, self-dislike, self-criticalness, suicidal thoughts, worthlessness) independently predicted a significant decrease in opioid cessation rate after surgery in the multivariate analysis (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99, P value 0.037).Our results identify a set of negative cognitions predicting prolonged time to postoperative opioid cessation. Somatic symptoms captured by the BDI-II were not primarily responsible for the association between preoperative BDI-II scores and postoperative prolonged opioid use.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pme.12439

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338025900009

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4083472

  • From Catastrophizing to Recovery: a pilot study of a single-session treatment for pain catastrophizing JOURNAL OF PAIN RESEARCH Darnall, B. D., Sturgeon, J. A., Kao, M., Hah, J. M., Mackey, S. C. 2014; 7: 219-226

    Abstract

    Pain catastrophizing (PC) - a pattern of negative cognitive-emotional responses to real or anticipated pain - maintains chronic pain and undermines medical treatments. Standard PC treatment involves multiple sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy. To provide efficient treatment, we developed a single-session, 2-hour class that solely treats PC entitled "From Catastrophizing to Recovery" [FCR].To determine 1) feasibility of FCR; 2) participant ratings for acceptability, understandability, satisfaction, and likelihood to use the information learned; and 3) preliminary efficacy of FCR for reducing PC.Uncontrolled prospective pilot trial with a retrospective chart and database review component. Seventy-six patients receiving care at an outpatient pain clinic (the Stanford Pain Management Center) attended the class as free treatment and 70 attendees completed and returned an anonymous survey immediately post-class. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was administered at class check-in (baseline) and at 2, and 4 weeks post-treatment. Within subjects repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Student's t-test contrasts were used to compare scores across time points.All attendees who completed a baseline PCS were included as study participants (N=57; F=82%; mean age =50.2 years); PCS was completed by 46 participants at week 2 and 35 participants at week 4. Participants had significantly reduced PC at both time points (P<0001) and large effect sizes were found (Cohen's d=0.85 and d=1.15).Preliminary data suggest that FCR is an acceptable and effective treatment for PC. Larger, controlled studies of longer duration are needed to determine durability of response, factors contributing to response, and the impact on pain, function and quality of life.

    View details for DOI 10.2147/JPR.S62329

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364587600005

    View details for PubMedID 24851056

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4008292

  • Pilot study of a compassion meditation intervention in chronic pain. Journal of compassionate health care Chapin, H. L., Darnall, B. D., Seppala, E. M., Doty, J. R., Hah, J. M., Mackey, S. C. 2014; 1

    Abstract

    The emergence of anger as an important predictor of chronic pain outcomes suggests that treatments that target anger may be particularly useful within the context of chronic pain. Eastern traditions prescribe compassion cultivation to treat persistent anger. Compassion cultivation has been shown to influence emotional processing and reduce negativity bias in the contexts of emotional and physical discomfort, thus suggesting it may be beneficial as a dual treatment for pain and anger. Our objective was to conduct a pilot study of a 9-week group compassion cultivation intervention in chronic pain to examine its effect on pain severity, anger, pain acceptance and pain-related interference. We also aimed to describe observer ratings provided by patients' significant others and secondary effects of the intervention.Pilot clinical trial with repeated measures design that included a within-subjects wait-list control period. Twelve chronic pain patients completed the intervention (F= 10). Data were collected from patients at enrollment, treatment baseline and post-treatment; participant significant others contributed data at the enrollment and post-treatment time points.In this predominantly female sample, patients had significantly reduced pain severity and anger and increased pain acceptance at post-treatment compared to treatment baseline. Significant other qualitative data corroborated patient reports for reductions in pain severity and anger.Compassion meditation may be a useful adjunctive treatment for reducing pain severity and anger, and for increasing chronic pain acceptance. Patient reported reductions in anger were corroborated by their significant others. The significant other corroborations offer a novel contribution to the literature and highlight the observable emotional and behavioral changes in the patient participants that occurred following the compassion intervention. Future studies may further examine how anger reductions impact relationships with self and others within the context of chronic pain.

    View details for PubMedID 27499883

  • Pilot Study of a Compassion Meditation Intervention in Chronic Pain Journal of Compassionate Health Care Chapin, H., Darnell, B., Seppala, E., Doty, J., Hah, J., Sean 2014; 1: 4
  • Perioperative Interventions to Reduce Chronic Postsurgical Pain JOURNAL OF RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY Carroll, I., Hah, J., Mackey, S., Ottestad, E., Kong, J. T., Lahidji, S., Tawfik, V., Younger, J., Curtin, C. 2013; 29 (4): 213-222

    Abstract

    Approximately 10% of patients following a variety of surgeries develop chronic postsurgical pain. Reducing chronic postoperative pain is especially important to reconstructive surgeons because common operations such as breast and limb reconstruction have even higher risk for developing chronic postsurgical pain. Animal studies of posttraumatic nerve injury pain demonstrate that there is a critical time frame before and immediately after nerve injury in which specific interventions can reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic neuropathic pain behaviors-so called "preventative analgesia." In animal models, perineural local anesthetic, systemic intravenous local anesthetic, perineural clonidine, systemic gabapentin, systemic tricyclic antidepressants, and minocycline have each been shown to reduce pain behaviors days to weeks after treatment. The translation of this work to humans also suggests that brief perioperative interventions may protect patients from developing new chronic postsurgical pain. Recent clinical trial data show that there is an opportunity during the perioperative period to dramatically reduce the incidence and severity of chronic postsurgical pain. The surgeon, working with the anesthesiologist, has the ability to modify both early and chronic postoperative pain by implementing an evidence-based preventative analgesia plan.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0032-1329921

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317597000001

    View details for PubMedID 23463498

  • Exploratory factor analysis of the beck depression inventory: predictors of delayed opioid cessation after surgery in a pilot cohort study Hah, J., Carroll, I., Younger, J., Mackey, S. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE. 2013: S25–S25
  • Analysis of preoperative measures that predict interference with sleep recovery after surgery Schmidt, P., Hah, J., Barelka, P., Wang, C., Wang, B., Gillespie, M., McCue, R., Younger, J., Trafton, J., Humphreys, K., Goodman, S., Dirbas, F., Whyte, R., Donington, J., Cannon, W., Mackey, S., Carroll, I. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE. 2013: S19–S19
  • Local Anesthetics and Other Interventional Approaches Neuropathic Pain: Causes, Management and Understanding Carroll, I., Hah, J., Mackey, S., Ottestad, E., Kong, J., et al Cambridge University Press. 2013
  • Factors contributing to pain chronicity CURRENT PAIN AND HEADACHE REPORTS Wang, C. K., Hah, J. M., Carroll, I. 2009; 13 (1): 7-11

    Abstract

    The chronicity of pain is the feature of pain that is least understood and most directly linked with our inability to effectively manage pain. Acute pain is relatively responsive to our current pharmacologic and interventional armamentarium. However, as pain persists, our ability to treat effectively diminishes and the patient's frustration and resource utilization increases. This article explores our current understanding of the factors linked to pain duration and the transition from acute to chronic pain in both human and animal models, and across a spectrum of human chronic pain conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11916-009-0003-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263064900003

    View details for PubMedID 19126364

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2743454

  • The dromedary sign - An unusual capnograph tracing ANESTHESIOLOGY Jaffe, R. A., Talavera, J. A., Hah, J. M., Brock-Utne, J. G. 2008; 109 (1): 149-150

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257135300022

    View details for PubMedID 18580185