Bio


Rania Awaad, M.D. is a Clinical Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the Stanford University School of Medicine where she is the Director of the Stanford Muslim Mental Health & Islamic Psychology Lab as well Stanford University's Affiliate Chaplain. She also serves as the Associate Division Chief for Public Mental Health and Population Sciences as well as the Section Co-Chief of Diversity and Cultural Mental Health. In addition, she is a faculty member of the Abbasi Program in Islamic Studies at Stanford University. She pursued her psychiatric residency training at Stanford where she also completed a postdoctoral clinical research fellowship with the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

As a nationally recognized leader in Muslim mental health, Dr. Awaad has been invited by Presidents Obama and Biden, the CDC, HHS and SAMHSA to present her work at national convenings in DC. She has pioneered by establishing the first Muslim Mental Health Community Advisory Board (BAMMH CAB) in the US. Dr. Awaad has also established multiple Muslim mental health clinics as well as custom-tailored clinical and educational training programs for clinicians, religious and community leaders to address the mental health needs of Muslim communities.

Through community partnerships established by the Stanford Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Awaad is currently the Psychiatric Director of the El Camino Women's Medical Group where she pursues her interest in women's mental health. Additionally, she serves as the Executive Director of Maristan, a holistic mental health nonprofit serving Muslim communities. Previously, she served as the founding Clinical Director of the Bay Area branch of the Khalil Center.

Her courses at Stanford range from teaching a pioneering course on Islamic Psychology (PSYC 144/244), to instructing medical students, psychiatry residents and clinical psychology trainees on implicit bias and integrating culture and religion into medical care (PAU’s CLDV 700 and Stanford’s PGY-3 “Culture and Religion in Psychiatry”), to teaching undergraduate and graduate students the psychology of xenophobia (PSYC 86Q). Some of her recent academic publications include an edited volume on "Islamophobia and Psychiatry" (Springer, 2019), "Applying Islamic Principles to Clinical Mental Health" (Routledge, 2020) and an upcoming clinical textbook on Muslim Mental Health for the American Psychiatric Association. She has also produced a toolkit, fact sheet, CME course on Muslim mental health for the APA.

Dr. Awaad is particularly passionate about uncovering the historical roots of mental health care in the Islamic intellectual heritage and has two upcoming books on the topic. In addition, she is affiliate faculty of Islamic Psychology at the Cambridge Muslim College and The Islamic Seminary of America. She is also a Senior Fellow at the Yaqeen Institute and the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding. She also has an interest in refugee mental health and has traveled to Amman, Jordan multiple times with the Care Program for Refugees (CPR) sponsored by Al-Alusi Foundation. She worked on developing and presenting a "train the trainers" curriculum to aid workers and therapists in Amman working with Syrian and Iraqi refugees.

Prior to studying medicine, she pursued classical Islamic studies in Damascus, Syria and holds certifications (ijaza) in Qur’an, Islamic Law and other branches of the Islamic Sciences. Dr. Awaad has also previously served as the first female Professor of Islamic Law at Zaytuna College, a Muslim Liberal Arts College in Berkeley, CA. In addition, she serves as the Director of The Rahmah Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to educating Muslim women and girls. Dr. Awaad been the recipient of several awards and grants for her work. She is a nationally recognized speaker, award-winning teacher, researcher and author in both the Islamic and medical sciences. Follow her @Dr.RaniaAwaad

Clinical Focus


  • Psychiatry
  • Muslim Mental Health
  • Faith, Spirituality, Religion and Mental Health
  • Cultural Psychiatry
  • Women's Mental Health
  • Refugee Mental Health

Academic Appointments


  • Clinical Associate Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Administrative Appointments


  • Associate Chief, Division of Public Mental Health and Population Sciences (2020 - Present)
  • Co-Chief, Diversity Section, Adult Psychiatry (2020 - Present)
  • Co-Chief, Diversity Retention and Recruitment (2020 - Present)
  • Chief, centerspace Clinic (2020 - Present)
  • Director, Stanford Muslim Mental Health & Islamic Psychology Lab (2014 - Present)
  • Psychiatric Director, El Camino Women's Medical Group (2015 - Present)
  • Clinical Director, Khalil Center- Bay Area (2015 - 2020)

Honors & Awards


  • Department Faculty Professional and Leadership Award, Stanford University School of Medicine (2021)
  • Outstanding Faculty Teaching Award, Stanford Psychiatry Residency Program (2021)
  • Stanford Leadership Development Program, Stanford University (2020-2021)
  • Top 25 Faith and Spiritual Influencers of 2020 Award, HolyTV (2020)
  • Community Achievement Award for exceptional commitment to promoting mental health wellbeing, ACCESS California (2019)
  • Faculty Teaching Award, Stanford University School of Medicine (2019)
  • Annual Leadership Award, Muslim Coalition of Connecticut (2018)
  • Islamic Psychology Researcher of the Year Award, University of Southern California (2018)
  • Stanford Outstanding Community Partnership Award, Stanford University Office of Community Engagement (2017)
  • APA/SAMHSA Minority Fellowship Award, American Psychiatric Association/Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2011-2013)
  • Arnold P. Gold Foundation Award for Humanism and Excellence in Teaching, Arnold P. Gold Foundation (2011)
  • Young Investigators Award, American Psychiatric Association (2009)
  • Minorities in Mental Health APA Travel Scholarship, American Psychiatric Association (2008-2009)
  • Program for Minority Research Training in Psychiatry National Research Service Award (NRSA), American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education and NIMH (2008-2009)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Advisor, Stanford Public Psychiatry Track, Stanford Psychiatry Adult Residency Program Advisory Committee (2021 - Present)
  • Advisory Board Member, International and National Board of the Centre for Islamic Psychology (Pakistan) (2021 - Present)
  • Advisory Board Member, Al-Balkhi Institute of Islamic Psychology Research (UK) (2021 - Present)
  • Affiliate Chaplain, Stanford University (2021 - Present)
  • Content Expert, Special Taskforce on Spirituality, International Islamic University Malaysia (Malaysia) (2021 - Present)
  • Executive Director, Maristan (2021 - Present)
  • Advisory Board Member, Islamic Association of Social and Educational Professions (Germany) (2020 - Present)
  • Chair, Diversity Coalition, Stanford Psychiatry Department (2020 - Present)
  • Member, Chair’s Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Advisory Committee (2020 - Present)
  • Senior Fellow, Institute of Social Policy and Understanding (2020 - Present)
  • Mentor, LEAD (Leadership Education in Advancing Diversity), Stanford Medicine (2020 - 2021)
  • Search Committee member, Associate Dean for Muslim Life, Stanford University (2020 - 2021)
  • Senior Fellow, Yaqeen Institute (2019 - Present)
  • Interim Chaplain, Stanford University (2019 - 2021)
  • Advisor, Muslim Student Association (MSA) West (2018 - Present)
  • Fellow, International Association of Islamic Psychology (2018 - Present)
  • Faculty Steering Committee member, Haas Center for Public Service, Stanford University (2018 - 2021)
  • Committee Member, Diversity and Inclusion Faculty Wellness Workgroup, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University SOM (2018 - 2020)
  • Faculty Steering Committee member, Stanford Refugee Research Project, Stanford University (2018 - 2020)
  • Board Member, Abbasi Program in Islamic Studies Education Advisory Board, Stanford University (2017 - Present)
  • Faculty Advisor, Muslim Student Union, Stanford University (2017 - Present)
  • Founder and Member, Community Advisory Board on Muslim Mental Health (2016 - Present)
  • Reviewer, Journal of Muslim Mental Health (2015 - Present)
  • Senior Fellow, Stanford Center of Global Innovation in Global Health (2015 - Present)
  • Advisor and Host, Bay Area Muslim Mental Health Professionals (2014 - Present)
  • Consultant, Care Program for Refugees/ Al-Alusi Foundation (2014 - Present)
  • Reviewer, Journal of Academic Psychiatry (2014 - Present)
  • Education Committee Member, Society for the Study of Cultural Psychiatry (2014 - 2016)
  • Member, Stanford Community Mental Health Committee (2013 - Present)
  • Admissions Committee Member, Zaytuna College (2013 - 2018)
  • Member, APA Council of Healthcare Systems and Financing (2011 - 2013)
  • Member, California Psychiatric Society (2010 - Present)
  • Member, Stanford Society for Physician Scholars (2010 - Present)
  • Founding Director, The Rahmah Foundation (2008 - Present)
  • Member, American Psychiatric Association (2008 - Present)
  • Member, Physicians for Human Rights (2005 - Present)
  • Member, Phi Rho Sigma Medical Society (2005 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, Psychiatry (2015)
  • Fellowship, Stanford University School of Medicine, T32 NIMH Clinical Research Fellowship (2014)
  • Residency: Stanford Hospital and Clinics (2014) CA
  • Medical Education: Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine (2009) OH

Community and International Work


  • Maristan

    Topic

    Islamic Psychology

    Location

    California

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

  • Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) with American Muslim Community

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Muslim Community Association (MCA)

    Populations Served

    Bay Area Muslim community

    Location

    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

  • Capacity Building Pilot Project, Sacramento Muslim Community

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Muslim American Society-Social Services Foundation (MAS-SSF)

    Populations Served

    Muslim Community

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Bay Area Muslim Mental Health Professionals

    Partnering Organization(s)

    BAMMHP

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

  • Mental Health Emergency response team

    Partnering Organization(s)

    BAMMHP

    Populations Served

    Muslim Community

    Location

    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • El Camino Women's Medical Group

    Populations Served

    Women

    Location

    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Train the Trainers Curriculum Refugee Mental Health

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Al-Alusi Foundation

    Populations Served

    Refugees

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


As the Director of the Muslims and Mental Health Lab, Dr. Awaad is dedicated to creating an academic home for the study of mental health as it relates to the Islamic faith and Muslim populations. The lab aims to provide the intellectual resources to clinicians, researchers, trainees, educators, community and religious leaders working with or studying Muslims.

Current lines of research include:
- Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) with American Muslim Community
- Historical representations of Mental Health in the Muslim world
- Psychometric Scales Specific to Muslims
- Islamic Framework for Mental Health
- Social Justice and Muslim Mental Health
- International and Refugee Mental Health
- Resources for Muslim Mental Health Researchers (Resource Information Networks)

2022-23 Courses


All Publications


  • Improving Recruitment for Mental Health Research in Muslim American Women : Research Recruitment in Muslim American Women. Community mental health journal Awaad, R., Abolaban, H., Maklad, S., Ahmad, R., Koopman, C. 2021

    Abstract

    This study determines the methods for improving recruitment of Muslim American women in mental health research. Studying this minority population in moredepth will reduce their suffering from mental illness. A 40-item survey, along with cover letter, was hosted on the Stanford University website and sent via email to organizations known to have large Muslim American women populations. Although approximately 200-300 responses were hoped for, an unexpected total of 1279 women completed the survey within days. The effectiveness of this survey was attributed to multiple factors: ease of an online survey, privacy afforded through an anonymous survey, trust in the PI, the survey being hosted by areputableuniversity and understanding the importance of mental health research. It is important to continue improving methods to recruit the minority Muslim American women population for studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10597-021-00887-6

    View details for PubMedID 34510299

  • Suicide Attempts of Muslims Compared With Other Religious Groups in the US. JAMA psychiatry Awaad, R., El-Gabalawy, O., Jackson-Shaheed, E., Zia, B., Keshavarzi, H., Mogahed, D., Altalib, H. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.1813

    View details for PubMedID 34287614

  • Predicting rejection attitudes toward utilizing formal mental health services in Muslim women in the US: Results from the Muslims' perceptions and attitudes to mental health study. The International journal of social psychiatry Ali, S., Elsayed, D., Elahi, S., Zia, B., Awaad, R. 2021: 207640211001084

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: The underutilization of mental health services is a recognized problem for the growing number of Muslims living in the West. Despite their unique mental health risk factors and the pivotal role they play in determining mental health discourse in their families and in society, Muslim women in particular have not received sufficient study.AIM: To help remedy this research gap, we examined factors that may impact the rejection attitudes of Muslim women toward professional mental health care using the first psychometrically validated scale of its kind; the M-PAMH (Muslims' Perceptions and Attitudes to Mental Health).METHODS: A total of 1,222 Muslim women responded to questions about their cultural and religious beliefs about mental health, stigma associated with mental health, and familiarity with formal mental health services in an anonymous online survey.RESULTS: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that higher religious and cultural beliefs, higher societal stigma, and lower familiarity with professional mental health services were associated with greater rejection attitudes toward professional mental healthcare. The final model was statistically significant, F (5, 1,216)=73.778; p<.001, and explained 23% of the variance in rejection attitudes with stigma accounting for the most (12.3%) variance, followed by cultural and religious mental health beliefs (6%), and familiarity with mental health services (2.7%).CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that although the examined factors contributed significantly to the model, they may not be sufficient in the explanation of Muslim women's rejection attitudes toward mental health services. Future research may explore additional variables, as well as predictive profiles for Muslim women's perceptions and attitudes of mental health based on a combination of these factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/00207640211001084

    View details for PubMedID 33719665

  • BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS OF TRANSITIONAL-AGED MUSLIM YOUTH IN COVID-19 Awaad, R. Y. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: S17
  • THE MENTAL HEALTH CHALLENGES FACING MUSLIM YOUTH IN THE ERA OF COVID-19 Adam, B. S., Awaad, R. Y., Abbasi, F. Z. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2021: S16
  • Common and Country-Specific Characteristics Associated With Suicidality in the Arab Region. The Journal of clinical psychiatry Daouk, S., Awaad, R., Ahmed, B., Barakat, S., Munoz, R. F., Leykin, Y. 2020; 82 (1)

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence of recent (previous 2 weeks) suicide attempts and estimates of likelihood of future suicide attempts as well as demographic characteristics associated with such attempts among residents of the Arab region looking for depression information online.METHODS: Google Ads were used to recruit 1,003 Arabic-speaking adults mostly from February 2014 to June 2014 to take part in a depression and suicidality screening study using a self-report questionnaire based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria.RESULTS: Of the eligible participants (N = 900), 10.6% reported a suicide attempt in the previous 2 weeks, and 16.1% indicated a likelihood of making a suicide attempt in the following month. Men, those declining to state their sexual orientation, those from lower subjective social status (SSS), and unemployed individuals had higher odds of reporting a past suicide attempt (P = .001, P = .002, P < .001, P = .023, respectively). Younger individuals, those less religious, those with past suicide attempt, and those with lower SSS had higher odds of a likelihood of a future suicide attempt (P = .03, P = .02, P < .001, P = .001, respectively). Comparing the 4 countries with highest number of participants (Algeria, n = 148, Egypt, n = 260, Morocco, n = 118, and Saudi Arabia, n = 99), lower SSS was associated with higher odds of an attempt for Algeria, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia, but not for Egypt (P = .002). Lower religiosity was related to higher odds of estimates of future suicide for Algeria, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, but not for Morocco (P = .014).CONCLUSIONS: Suicidality among residents of Arab-speaking countries warrants further exploration. Common predictors of risk may be less relevant for some populations.​.

    View details for DOI 10.4088/JCP.19m13199

    View details for PubMedID 33356022

  • US policy of public charge inadmissibility and refugee suicides LANCET PSYCHIATRY Awaad, R., Dailami, M., Noureddine, N. 2020; 7 (3): E12
  • US policy of public charge inadmissibility and refugee suicides. The lancet. Psychiatry Awaad, R. n., Dailami, M. n., Noureddine, N. n. 2020; 7 (3): e12

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30037-7

    View details for PubMedID 32087811

  • Development and Validation of the Muslims' Perceptions and Attitudes to Mental Health (M-PAMH) Scale with a Sample of American Muslim Women JOURNAL OF MUSLIM MENTAL HEALTH Awaad, R., Fisher, A. J., Ali, S., Rasgon, N. 2019; 13 (2): 119–35
  • Considerations for clinicians treating Muslim patients with psychiatric disorders during Ramadan LANCET PSYCHIATRY Furqan, Z., Awaad, R., Kurdyak, P., Husain, M. I., Husain, N., Zaheer, J. 2019; 6 (7): 556–57
  • Considerations for clinicians treating Muslim patients with psychiatric disorders during Ramadan. The lancet. Psychiatry Furqan, Z., Awaad, R., Kurdyak, P., Husain, M. I., Husain, N., Zaheer, J. 2019

    View details for PubMedID 31056458

  • A Muslim Graduate Student From Sudan Trapped by the Travel Ban. The American journal of psychiatry Awaad, R. 2017; 174 (10): 925-926

    View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17060700

    View details for PubMedID 28965465

  • Facilitating mental health screening of war-torn populations using mobile applications SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY Hashemi, B., Ali, S., Awaad, R., Soudi, L., Housel, L., Sosebee, S. J. 2017; 52 (1): 27-33

    Abstract

    War-torn populations are often hard to screen for mental health disorders. Classical data collection approaches, such as paper-based, online, or SMS-operated, are either infeasible or lack accuracy due to a variety of challenges associated with dynamics and consequences of war.In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for accurate and fast screening using free open-source software, Open Data Kit (ODK) mobile application. This approach was developed by the Palestine Children's Relief Fund (PCRF) to assess the mental health symptoms of 986 Palestinian children (age 6-18) in the aftermath of Israel's Operation Protective Edge (OPE) in 2014. The organization developed assessment questionnaires and trained local field workers on the use of the mobile application, and on recruiting and interviewing war victims.War-affected children were found to suffer from several alarming symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatic symptoms. Children with highest number of psychological symptoms were referred for further evaluation and treatment.The use of ODK mobile technologies facilitated efficient screening of affected children in war zones. The offline data collection capability was crucial for handling the difficult conditions associated with war-torn areas, enabling timely intervention for urgent cases. Further applications of the novel mobile technology are to be explored.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00127-016-1303-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392312600004

  • Facilitating mental health screening of war-torn populations using mobile applications. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology Hashemi, B., Ali, S., Awaad, R., Soudi, L., Housel, L., Sosebee, S. J. 2016: -?

    Abstract

    War-torn populations are often hard to screen for mental health disorders. Classical data collection approaches, such as paper-based, online, or SMS-operated, are either infeasible or lack accuracy due to a variety of challenges associated with dynamics and consequences of war.In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for accurate and fast screening using free open-source software, Open Data Kit (ODK) mobile application. This approach was developed by the Palestine Children's Relief Fund (PCRF) to assess the mental health symptoms of 986 Palestinian children (age 6-18) in the aftermath of Israel's Operation Protective Edge (OPE) in 2014. The organization developed assessment questionnaires and trained local field workers on the use of the mobile application, and on recruiting and interviewing war victims.War-affected children were found to suffer from several alarming symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatic symptoms. Children with highest number of psychological symptoms were referred for further evaluation and treatment.The use of ODK mobile technologies facilitated efficient screening of affected children in war zones. The offline data collection capability was crucial for handling the difficult conditions associated with war-torn areas, enabling timely intervention for urgent cases. Further applications of the novel mobile technology are to be explored.

    View details for PubMedID 27815623

  • A modern conceptualization of phobia in al-Balkhi's 9th century treatise: Sustenance of the Body and Soul. Journal of anxiety disorders Awaad, R., Ali, S. 2016; 37: 89-93

    Abstract

    Morbid fears and phobias have been mentioned in religious, philosophical and medical manuscripts since ancient times. Despite early insights by the Greeks, phobias did not appear as a separate clinical phenomenon in Western medicine until the 17th century and has evolved substantially since. However, robust investigations attempting to decipher the clinical nature of phobias emerged in pre-modern times during the oft-overlooked Islamic Golden Era (9th-12th centuries); which overlapped with Europe's medieval period. An innovative attempt was made by the 9th century Muslim scholar, Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, in his medical manuscript "Sustenance of the Body and Soul," to define phobias as a separate diagnostic entity. Al-Balkhi was one of the earliest to cluster psychological and physical symptoms of phobias under one category, "al-Fazaá", and outline a specific management plan. We analyze al-Balkhi's description of phobias, according to the modern understanding of psychiatric classifications and symptomatology as described in the DSM-5.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.11.003

    View details for PubMedID 26741063

  • A Process-Oriented Approach to Teaching Religion and Spirituality in Psychiatry Residency Training. Academic psychiatry Awaad, R., Ali, S., Salvador, M., Bandstra, B. 2015; 39 (6): 654-660

    Abstract

    Although the importance of addressing issues of spirituality and religion is increasingly acknowledged within psychiatry training, many questions remain about how to best teach relevant knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Current literature on curricula highlights the importance of maintaining a clinical focus and the balance between didactic content and process issues. The authors present findings from a program evaluation study of a course on religion, spirituality, and psychiatry that deliberately takes a primarily process-oriented, clinically focused approach.Two six-session courses were offered. The first course targeted fourth-year psychiatry residents and the second targeted third-year psychiatry residents. Teaching sessions consisted of brief didactics combined with extensive process-oriented discussion. A two-person faculty team facilitated the courses. Clinical case discussions were integrated throughout the curriculum. A panel of chaplains was invited to participate in one session of each course to discuss the interface between spiritual counsel and psychiatry. A modified version of the Course Impact Questionnaire, a 20-item Likert scale utilized in previous studies of spirituality curricula in psychiatry, assessed residents' personal spiritual attitudes, competency, change in professional practice, and change in professional attitudes before and after the course (N = 20). Qualitative feedback was also elicited through written comments.The results from this study showed a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-test scale for residents' self-perceived competency and change in professional practice.The findings suggest improvement in competency and professional practice scores in residents who participated in this course. This points toward the overall usefulness of the course and suggests that a process-oriented approach may be effective for discussing religion and spirituality in psychiatric training.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s40596-014-0256-y

    View details for PubMedID 25510222

  • Obsessional Disorders in al-Balkhi's 9th century treatise: Sustenance of the Body and Soul JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Awaad, R., Ali, S. 2015; 180: 185-189

    Abstract

    Some argue that the earliest case of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) was reported by Robert Burton in his compendium The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) and that only in the 19th century did modern concepts of OCD evolve, differentiating it from other types of mental illness. In this paper, we aim to reveal an even earlier presentation of the malady we now call OCD based on the 9th century work, Sustenance of the Body and Soul, written by Abu Zayd al-Balkhi during the Islamic Golden Era. Discovery of this manuscript reveals that Abu Zayd al-Balkhi should be credited with differentiating OCD from other forms of mental illnesses nearly a millennium earlier than is currently claimed by anthologies documenting the history of mental illness. Particular attention is paid to al-Balkhi's classifications, symptom descriptions, predisposing factors, and the treatment modalities for obsessional disorders. Analysis of this manuscript in light of the DSM-5 and modern scientific discoveries reveals transcultural diagnostic consistency of OCD across many centuries. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354607700027

    View details for PubMedID 25911133