Dr. Schroeder is the associate chief for research in the division of pediatric hospital medicine at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford, and a clinical professor in the division of hospital medicine and the division of critical care. His research interests focus on identifying areas where we can “safely do less” in healthcare, striving to ensure that children get the healthcare that they need while avoiding excessive tests and treatments that only cause harm. Dr. Schroeder is currently involved in multiple projects involving common conditions and interventions in pediatrics. He serves as the Stanford PI for PEDSNet and is an Associate Editor for the journal Hospital Pediatrics. At Stanford he co-leads the residency clinical research scholarly concentration and the faculty Clinical Research Peer Scholarship Community. Dr. Schroeder provides clinical care for children in the PICU and the pediatric ward.

Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
  • Pediatric hospital medicine

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • BA, Stanford University, Human Biology (1993)
  • Medical Education: Georgetown University Hospital (1998) DC
  • Residency: Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2001) CA
  • Fellowship, University of California, San Francisco (2004)
  • Fellowship: Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2007) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2001)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (2008)

2023-24 Courses

All Publications

  • A multicenter randomized trial to compare automatic versus as-needed follow-up for children hospitalized with common infections: The FAAN-C trial protocol. Journal of hospital medicine Coon, E. R., Greene, T., Fritz, J., Desai, A. D., Ray, K. N., Hersh, A. L., Bardsley, T., Bonafide, C. P., Brady, P. W., Wallace, S. S., Schroeder, A. R., FAAN‐C Trial Group 2024


    INTRODUCTION: Physicians commonly recommend automatic primary care follow-up visits to children being discharged from the hospital. While automatic follow-up provides an opportunity to address postdischarge needs, the alternative is as-needed follow-up. With this strategy, families monitor their child's symptoms and decide if they need a follow-up visit in the days after discharge. In addition to being family centered, as-needed follow-up has the potential to reduce time and financial burdens on both families and the healthcare system. As-needed follow-up has been shown to be safe and effective for children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, but the extent to which hospitalized children with other common conditions might benefit from as-needed follow-up is unclear.METHODS: The Follow-up Automatically versus As-Needed Comparison (FAAN-C, or "fancy") trial is a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Children who are hospitalized for pneumonia, urinary tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, or acute gastroenteritis are eligible to participate. Participants are randomized to an as-needed versus automatic posthospitalization follow-up recommendation. The sample size estimate is 2674 participants and the primary outcome is all-cause hospital readmission within 14 days of discharge. Secondary outcomes are medical interventions and child health-related quality of life. Analyses will be conducted in an intention-to-treat manner, testing noninferiority of as-needed follow-up compared with automatic follow-up.DISCUSSION: FAAN-C will elucidate the relative benefits of an as-needed versus automatic follow-up recommendation, informing one of the most common decisions faced by families of hospitalized children and their medical providers. Findings from FAAN-C will also have implications for national quality metrics and guidelines.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.13425

    View details for PubMedID 38840329

  • Gender Communication Differences on a Pediatric Provider Listserv. Hospital pediatrics Allan, J. M., Black, E., Lemieux, N., Gilliam, C. A., Yardley, J., Kim, J. L., Ganem, J., Black, N. P., Schroeder, A. R., Ralston, S., Fromme, H. B. 2024


    Gender-based communication differences are described in educational online communities, but have not been rigorously evaluated in medical online communities. Understanding gender differences in communication may provide insight into gender disparities in the medical profession. Our objective was to describe gender differences in post frequency, content, and language styles on the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Hospital Medicine (SOHM) listserv.Posts were obtained from publicly available SOHM listserv archives. The first month of every quarter of 2019 and 2020 were reviewed. Two reviewers assigned a post topic (clinical, research, etc) and format (question vs statement) to all deidentified original posts (K = 1.0 topic, 0.89 format). Six trained reviewers assigned language styles (intraclass coefficient = 0.73, indicating good agreement).We analyzed 1592 posts: 287 original posts and 1305 responses. Frequency: Women authored 50% of posts. The 9 most frequent posters (7 men, 2 women) accounted for 19.5% of posts. Content: Men's posts had more words than women's (132.51 vs 112.3, P ≤ .01). Men were more likely to post about health policy and research (P < .001). Men were more likely to post statements compared with women (39% vs 21%, P < .001). Style: Men's posts were more likely to be coded adversarial (12.3% vs 5.5%, P < .001) authoritative (12.2% vs 6.5%, P < .001) or self-amplifying (6.5% vs 3.6%, P < .001).Women contribute disproportionately fewer posts to the American Academy of Pediatrics SOHM listserv compared with their percentage in the subspecialty. We noted significant gender differences in language style and content, which may impact career development and online community inclusion.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2023-007630

    View details for PubMedID 38832428

  • Prescribing Patterns of Nonrecommended Medications for Children With Acute COVID-19. Pediatrics Burns, J. E., Dahlen, A., Bio, L. L., Chamberlain, L. J., Bassett, H. K., Ramaraj, R., Schwenk, H. T., Teufel, R. J., Schroeder, A. R. 2024


    Repurposed medications for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continued to be prescribed after results from rigorous studies and national guidelines discouraged use. We aimed to describe prescribing rates of nonrecommended medications for acute COVID-19 in children, associations with demographic factors, and provider type and specialty.In this retrospective cohort of children <18 years in a large United States all-payer claims database, we identified prescriptions within 2 weeks of an acute COVID-19 diagnosis. We calculated prescription rate, performed multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors, and described prescriber type and specialty during nonrecommended periods defined by national guidelines.We identified 3 082 626 COVID-19 diagnoses in 2 949 118 children between March 7, 2020 and December 31, 2022. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and ivermectin were prescribed in 0.03% and 0.14% of COVID-19 cases, respectively, during nonrecommended periods (after September 12, 2020 for HCQ and February 5, 2021 for ivermectin) with considerable variation by state. Prescription rates were 4 times the national average in Arkansas (HCQ) and Oklahoma (ivermectin). Older age, nonpublic insurance, and emergency department or urgent care visit were associated with increased risk of either prescription. Additionally, residence in nonurban and low-income areas was associated with ivermectin prescription. General practitioners had the highest rates of prescribing.Although nonrecommended medication prescription rates were low, the overall COVID-19 burden translated into high numbers of ineffective and potentially harmful prescriptions. Understanding overuse patterns can help mitigate downstream consequences of misinformation. Reaching providers and parents with clear evidence-based recommendations is crucial to children's health.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2023-065003

    View details for PubMedID 38716573

  • Prioritization of Randomized Clinical Trial Questions for Children Hospitalized With Common Conditions: A Consensus Statement. JAMA network open Coon, E. R., McDaniel, C. E., Paciorkowski, N., Grimshaw, M., Frakes, E., Ambroggio, L., Auger, K. A., Cohen, E., Garber, M., Gill, P. J., Jennings, R., Joshi, N. S., Leyenaar, J. K., McCulloh, R., Pantell, M. S., Sauers-Ford, H. S., Schroeder, A. R., Srivastava, R., Wang, M. E., Wilson, K. M., Kaiser, S. V., RCT conference series group, Kemper, A. R., Heath, A., Fromme, H. B., Jennings, B. N., Wainscott, C. E., Russell, C. J., McCulloch, C. E., Snow, C. H., Alvarez, F. J., Percelay, J. M., Nicholson, K. S., Morton, K. M., Dias, M., Marek, R. L., Wilcox, R. A., Hyde, S. A., Mahant, S., Edwards, Y. R. 2024; 7 (5): e2411259


    Importance: There is a lack of randomized clinical trial (RCT) data to guide many routine decisions in the care of children hospitalized for common conditions. A first step in addressing the shortage of RCTs for this population is to identify the most pressing RCT questions for children hospitalized with common conditions.Objective: To identify the most important and feasible RCT questions for children hospitalized with common conditions.Design, Setting, and Participants: For this consensus statement, a 3-stage modified Delphi process was used in a virtual conference series spanning January 1 to September 29, 2022. Forty-six individuals from 30 different institutions participated in the process. Stage 1 involved construction of RCT questions for the 10 most common pediatric conditions leading to hospitalization. Participants used condition-specific guidelines and reviews from a structured literature search to inform their development of RCT questions. During stage 2, RCT questions were refined and scored according to importance. Stage 3 incorporated public comment and feasibility with the prioritization of RCT questions.Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was RCT questions framed in a PICO (population, intervention, control, and outcome) format and ranked according to importance and feasibility; score choices ranged from 1 to 9, with higher scores indicating greater importance and feasibility.Results: Forty-six individuals (38 who shared demographic data; 24 women [63%]) from 30 different institutions participated in our modified Delphi process. Participants included children's hospital (n=14) and community hospital (n=13) pediatricians, parents of hospitalized children (n=4), other clinicians (n=2), biostatisticians (n=2), and other researchers (n=11). The process yielded 62 unique RCT questions, most of which are pragmatic, comparing interventions in widespread use for which definitive effectiveness data are lacking. Overall scores for importance and feasibility of the RCT questions ranged from 1 to 9, with a median of 5 (IQR, 4-7). Six of the top 10 selected questions focused on determining optimal antibiotic regimens for 3 common infections (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and cellulitis).Conclusions and Relevance: This consensus statementhas identified the most important and feasible RCT questions for children hospitalized with common conditions. This list of RCT questions can guide investigators and funders in conducting impactful trials to improve care and outcomes for hospitalized children.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.11259

    View details for PubMedID 38748429

  • Incidence of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA network open Liang, D., Wang, M. E., Dahlen, A., Liao, Y., Saunders, A. C., Coon, E. R., Schroeder, A. R. 2024; 7 (1): e2350061


    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children, but the population incidence is largely unknown. Controversy surrounds the optimal diagnostic criteria and how to balance the risks of undertreatment and overtreatment. Changes in health care use during the COVID-19 pandemic created a natural experiment to examine health care use and UTI diagnosis and outcomes.To examine the population incidence of UTI in children and assess the changes of the COVID-19 pandemic regarding UTI diagnoses and measures of UTI severity.This retrospective observational cohort study used US commercial claims data from privately insured patients aged 0 to 17 years from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2021.Time periods included prepandemic (January 1, 2016, to February 29, 2020), early pandemic (April 1 to June 30, 2020), and midpandemic (July 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021).The primary outcome was the incidence of UTI, defined as having a UTI diagnosis code with an accompanying antibiotic prescription. Balancing measures included measures of UTI severity, including hospitalizations and intensive care unit admissions. Trends were evaluated using an interrupted time-series analysis.The cohort included 13 221 117 enrollees aged 0 to 17 years, with males representing 6 744 250 (51.0%) of the population. The mean incidence of UTI diagnoses was 1.300 (95% CI, 1.296-1.304) UTIs per 100 patient-years. The UTI incidence was 0.86 per 100 patient-years at age 0 to 1 year, 1.58 per 100 patient-years at 2 to 5 years, 1.24 per 100 patient-years at 6 to 11 years, and 1.37 per 100 patient-years at 12 to 17 years, and was higher in females vs males (2.48 [95% CI, 2.46-2.50] vs 0.180 [95% CI, 0.178-0.182] per 100 patient-years). Compared with prepandemic trends, UTIs decreased in the early pandemic: -33.1% (95% CI, -39.4% to -26.1%) for all children and -52.1% (95% CI, -62.1% to -39.5%) in a subgroup of infants aged 60 days or younger. However, all measures of UTI severity decreased or were not significantly different. The UTI incidence returned to near prepandemic rates (-4.3%; 95% CI, -32.0% to 34.6% for all children) after the first 3 months of the pandemic.In this cohort study, UTI diagnosis decreased during the early pandemic period without an increase in measures of disease severity, suggesting that reduced overdiagnosis and/or reduced misdiagnosis may be an explanatory factor.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.50061

    View details for PubMedID 38170521

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10765266

  • Misclassification of Both Influenza Infection and Oseltamivir Exposure Status in Administrative Data. JAMA pediatrics Bassett, H. K., Coon, E. R., Mansbach, J. M., Snow, K., Wheeler, M., Schroeder, A. R. 2023


    This cross-sectional study examines documented hospitalization for influenza and administration of neuraminidase inhibitors in US children.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2023.5731

    View details for PubMedID 38147329

  • Trends in Low-Value Care Among Children's Hospitals. Pediatrics House, S. A., Marin, J. R., Coon, E. R., Ralston, S. L., Hall, M., Gruhler De Souza, H., Ho, T., Reyes, M., Schroeder, A. R. 2023


    Longitudinal pediatric low-value care (LVC) trends are not well established. We used the Pediatric Health Information System LVC Calculator, which measures utilization of 30 nonevidenced-based services, to report 7-year LVC trends.This retrospective cohort study applied the LVC Calculator to emergency department (ED) and hospital encounters from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2022. We used generalized estimating equation models accounting for hospital clustering to assess temporal changes in LVC.There were 5 265 153 eligible ED encounters and 1 301 613 eligible hospitalizations. In 2022, of 21 LVC measures applicable to the ED cohort, the percentage of encounters with LVC had increased for 11 measures, decreased for 1, and remained unchanged for 9 as compared with 2016. Computed tomography for minor head injury had the largest increase (17%-23%; P < .001); bronchodilators for bronchiolitis decreased (22%-17%; P = .001). Of 26 hospitalization measures, LVC increased for 6 measures, decreased for 9, and was unchanged for 11. Inflammatory marker testing for pneumonia had the largest increase (23%-38%; P = .003); broad-spectrum antibiotic use for pneumonia had the largest decrease (60%-48%; P < .001). LVC remained unchanged or decreased for most medication and procedure measures, but remained unchanged or increased for most laboratory and imaging measures.LVC improved for a minority of services between 2016 and 2022. Trends were more favorable for therapeutic (medications and procedures) than diagnostic measures (imaging and laboratory studies). These data may inform prioritization of deimplementation efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2023-062492

    View details for PubMedID 38130171

  • Suctioning in Bronchiolitis and the Need for More Trials. JAMA network open Schroeder, A. R., Jain, S., Ralston, S. L. 2023; 6 (10): e2339970

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.39970

    View details for PubMedID 37856128

  • Incidence of Neonatal Hypothermia in the Newborn Nursery and Associated Factors. JAMA network open Dang, R., Patel, A. I., Weng, Y., Schroeder, A. R., Lee, H. C., Aby, J., Frymoyer, A. 2023; 6 (8): e2331011


    Thermoregulation is a key component of well-newborn care. There is limited epidemiologic data on hypothermia in late preterm and term infants admitted to the nursery. Expanding on these data is essential for advancing evidence-based care in a population that represents more than 3.5 million births per year in the US.To examine the incidence and factors associated with hypothermia in otherwise healthy infants admitted to the newborn nursery following delivery.A retrospective cohort study using electronic health record data from May 1, 2015, to August 31, 2021, was conducted at a newborn nursery at a university-affiliated children's hospital. Participants included 23 549 infants admitted to the newborn nursery, from which 321 060 axillary and rectal temperature values were analyzed.Infant and maternal clinical and demographic factors.Neonatal hypothermia was defined according to the World Health Organization threshold of temperature less than 36.5 °C. Hypothermia was further classified by severity (mild: single episode, temperature 36.0-36.4 °C; moderate/severe: persistent or recurrent hypothermia and/or temperature <36.0 °C) and timing (early: all hypothermic episodes occurred within the first 24 hours after birth; late: any episode extended beyond the first 24 hours).Of 23 549 included infants (male, 12 220 [51.9%]), 5.6% were late preterm (35-36 weeks' gestation) and 4.3% were low birth weight (≤2500 g). The incidence of mild hypothermia was 17.1% and the incidence of moderate/severe hypothermia was 4.6%. Late hypothermia occurred in 1.8% of infants. Lower birth weight and gestational age and Black and Asian maternal race and ethnicity had the highest adjusted odds across all classifications of hypothermia. The adjusted odds ratios of moderate/severe hypothermia were 5.97 (95% CI 4.45-8.00) in infants with a birth weight less than or equal to 2500 vs 3001 to 3500 g, 3.17 (95% CI 2.24-4.49) in 35 week' vs 39 weeks' gestation, and 2.65 (95% CI 1.78-3.96) in infants born to Black mothers and 1.94 (95% CI 1.61-2.34) in infants born to Asian mothers vs non-Hispanic White mothers.In this cohort study of infants in the inpatient nursery, hypothermia was common, and the incidence varied by hypothermia definition applied. Infants of lower gestational age and birth weight and those born to Black and Asian mothers carried the highest odds of hypothermia. These findings suggest that identifying biological, structural, and social determinants of hypothermia is essential for advancing evidence-based equitable thermoregulatory care.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.31011

    View details for PubMedID 37642965

  • Clinical course of children 1-24 months old with positive urine cultures without pyuria. Academic pediatrics Wang, M. E., Jones, V. G., Kane, M., Allan, J. M., Maleknia, L., Patel, R., Ip, W., Newman, T. B., Roberts, K. B., Schroeder, A. R. 2023


    To describe the clinical course of children with positive urine cultures without pyuria who were not given antibiotics initially, identify predictors of subsequent antibiotic treatment, and evaluate the association between subsequent treatment and urinary tract infection (UTI) within 30 days.We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of children 1-24 months old who had positive urine cultures without pyuria and who were not started on antibiotics upon presentation to 3 healthcare systems from 2010-2021. Outcomes included clinical status at the time urine cultures resulted, escalation of care (emergency department visit or hospitalization) and subsequent antibiotic treatment within 7 days, and subsequent UTI within 30 days of presentation.Of 202 included children, 61% were female and median age was 9 months. Of 151 patients with clinical status information when cultures resulted, 107 (70.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 62.9-77.9%) were improved. Two of 202 children (1.0%, 95% CI 0.2-4.0%) experienced care escalation. Antibiotics were started in 142 (82.2%) children and treatment was associated with prior UTI (risk ratio [RR] 1.20, 95% CI 1.15-1.26) and lack of improvement (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.33). Subsequent UTI was diagnosed in 2 of 164 (1.2%, 95% CI 0.1-4.3%) treated and 0 of 36 (0%, 95% CI 0-9.7%) untreated children.Seventy percent of children with positive urine cultures without pyuria improved before starting antibiotics, however >80% were ultimately treated. Future research should study the impact of diagnostic stewardship interventions and various urine testing strategies to optimize management of children evaluated for UTI.Seventy percent of children with positive urine cultures without pyuria improved before starting antibiotics, however >80% were ultimately treated. Future research should study the impact of diagnostic stewardship interventions to optimize management of children evaluated for UTI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2023.06.023

    View details for PubMedID 37354950

  • Concordance between electronic health record-recorded race/ethnicity and parental report in hospitalized children. Journal of hospital medicine Hoang, K., Gold, J., Powell, C., Lee, H. C., Floyd, B., Schroeder, A., Chadwick, W. 2023


    Electronic health records (EHRs) have become an important repository for patient race and ethnicity. Misclassification could negatively affect efforts to monitor and reduce health disparities and structural discrimination.We assessed the concordance of parental reports of race/ethnicity for their hospitalized children with EHR-documented demographics. We also aimed to describe parents' preferences on how race/ethnicity should be captured in the hospital's EHR.From December 2021 to May 2022, we conducted a single-center cross-sectional survey of parents of hospitalized children asking to describe their child's race/ethnicity and compared these responses to the race/ethnicity documented in the EHR.Concordance was analyzed with a kappa statistic (κ). Additionally, we queried respondents about their awareness of and preferences for race/ethnicity documentation.Of the 275 participants surveyed (79% response rate), there was 69% agreement (κ = 0.56) for race and 80% agreement (κ = 0.63) for ethnicity between parent report and EHR documentation. Sixty-eight parents (21%) felt that the designated categories poorly represent their child's race/ethnicity. Twenty-two (8%) were uncomfortable with their child's race/ethnicity being displayed on the hospital's EHR. Eighty-nine (32%) preferred a more comprehensive list of race/ethnicity categories.Nonconcordance between EHR-recorded race/ethnicity and parental report exists in the EHR for our hospitalized patients, which has implications for describing patient populations and for understanding racial and ethnic disparities. Current EHR categories may be limited in their ability to capture the complexity of these constructs. Future efforts should focus on ensuring that demographic information in the EHR is accurately collected and appropriately reflects families' preferences.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.13140

    View details for PubMedID 37226928

  • Perspectives of Health Care Personnel on the Benefits of Bronchiolitis Interventions. Pediatrics Marlow, J. A., Kalburgi, S., Gupta, V., Shadman, K., Webb, N. E., Chang, P. W., Ben Wang, X., Frost, P. A., Flesher, S. L., Le, M. K., Shankar, L. G., Schroeder, A. R., Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network 2023


    OBJECTIVES: Many interventions in bronchiolitis are low-value or poorly studied. Inpatient bronchiolitis management is multidisciplinary, with varying degrees of registered nurse (RN) and respiratory therapist (RT) autonomy. Understanding the perceived benefit of interventions for frontline health care personnel may facilitate deimplementation efforts. Our objective was to examine perceptions surrounding the benefit of common inpatient bronchiolitis interventions.METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of inpatient pediatric RNs, RTs, and physicians/licensed practitioners (P/LPs) (eg, advanced-practice practitioners) from May to December of 2021 at 9 university-affiliated and 2 community hospitals. A clinical vignette preceded a series of inpatient bronchiolitis management questions.RESULTS: A total of 331 surveys were analyzed with a completion rate of 71.9%: 76.5% for RNs, 57.4% for RTs, and 71.2% for P/LPs. Approximately 54% of RNs and 45% of RTs compared with 2% of P/LPs believe albuterol would be "extremely or somewhat likely" to improve work of breathing (P < .001). Similarly, 52% of RNs, 32% of RTs, and 23% of P/LPs thought initiating or escalating oxygen in the absence of hypoxemia was likely to improve work of breathing (P < .001). Similar differences in perceived benefit were observed for steroids, nebulized hypertonic saline, and deep suctioning, but not superficial nasal suctioning. Hospital type (community versus university-affiliated) did not impact the magnitude of these differences.CONCLUSIONS: Variation exists in the perceived benefit of several low-value or poorly studied bronchiolitis interventions among health care personnel, with RNs/RTs generally perceiving higher benefit. Deimplementation, educational, and quality improvement efforts should be designed with an interprofessional framework.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2022-059939

    View details for PubMedID 37183614

  • Performance of a Provider-Assigned Functional Outcome Score in Critically Ill Children. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies Wilson, N. E., Su, F., DaCar, A., Chang, N., Kapphahn, K., Schroeder, A. R., Tawfik, D. S., Knight, L., Rasmussen, L. 2023


    OBJECTIVES: Determine agreement between Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) scores integrated into clinical workflow and traditional investigator-assigned scores.DESIGN: Longitudinal study.SETTING: A single-center quaternary-care academic institution.SUBJECTS: Children admitted to the PICU between November 2019 and April 2020.INTERVENTIONS: Providers assigned PCPC scores as part of daily workflow. Investigators assigned scores using retrospective chart review.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULT: s: Of 803 patients admitted to the PICU, 782 survived and were included. Admission and discharge scores were recorded in 95% and 90% of patients, respectively. Agreement between provider- and investigator-assigned scores was excellent, with a weighted kappa of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.90) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.76-0.84) for admission and discharge.CONCLUSIONS: Provider-assigned PCPC scores, documented as standard of care, are largely concordant with retrospective investigator-assigned scores. Measurement of cognitive functional status can be successfully integrated into daily provider workflow for use in the clinical, quality improvement, and research arenas.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003234

    View details for PubMedID 37098780

  • Race and Ethnicity Reporting and Representation in Pediatric Clinical Trials. Pediatrics Brewster, R. C., Steinberg, J. R., Magnani, C. J., Jackson, J., Wong, B. O., Valikodath, N., MacDonald, J., Li, A., Marsland, P., Goodman, S. N., Schroeder, A., Turner, B. 2023


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Representative enrollment of racial and ethnic minoritized populations in biomedical research ensures the generalizability of results and equitable access to novel therapies. Previous studies on pediatric clinical trial diversity are limited to subsets of journals or disciplines. We aimed to evaluate race and ethnicity reporting and representation in all US pediatric clinical trials on We performed a cross-sectional study of US-based clinical trials registered on that enrolled participants aged <18 years old between October 2007 and March 2020. We used descriptive statistics, compound annual growth rates, and multivariable logistic regression for data analysis. Estimates of US population statistics and disease burden were calculated with the US Census, Kids' Inpatient Database, and National Survey of Children's Health.RESULTS: Among 1183 trials encompassing 405376 participants, race and ethnicity reporting significantly increased from 27% in 2007 to 87% in 2018 (P < .001). The median proportional enrollment of Asian American children was 0.6% (interquartile range [IQR], 0%-3.7%); American Indian, 0% (IQR, 0%-0%); Black, 12% (IQR, 2.9%-28.4%); Hispanic, 7.1% (IQR, 0%-18.6%); and white 66.4% (IQR, 41.5%-81.6%). Asian American, Black, and Hispanic participants were underrepresented relative to US population demographics. Compared with expected proportions based on disease prevalence and hospitalizations, Asian American and Hispanic participants were most consistently underrepresented across diagnoses.CONCLUSIONS: While race and ethnicity reporting in pediatric clinical trials has improved, the representative enrollment of minoritized participants remains an ongoing challenge. Evidence-based and policy solutions are needed to address these disparities to advance biomedical innovation for all children.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2022-058552

    View details for PubMedID 36916197

  • Overuse of Reflux Medications in Infants. Pediatrics Wolf, E. R., Sabo, R. T., Lavallee, M., French, E., Schroeder, A. R., Huffstetler, A. N., Schefft, M., Krist, A. H. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2022-058330

    View details for PubMedID 36756736

  • The association of preconception paternal metabolic syndrome on early childhood emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Andrology Chen, T., Zhang, C. A., Li, S., Schroeder, A. R., Shaw, G. M., Eisenberg, M. L. 2022


    Increasing preconception paternal comorbidity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, whether the father's health impacts the child after birth is uncertain.In the present study, we examined the association of preconception paternal metabolic syndrome status with childhood emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations.This is a longitudinal cohort study of children (295,355 boys and 278,735 girls) born to linked pairs of fathers and mothers in the United States between 2009 to 2016 within the IBM MarketScan® Research database. Associations between paternal and maternal metabolic syndrome (MetS) component diagnoses and subsequent hospitalizations and emergency department visits for offspring within the first two years of life were determined.35.5% (203,617/574,090) of children had at least one emergency room visit and 6.1% (35,141/574,090) of children had an inpatient admission. After adjustment, the odds of inpatient admission and emergency department visits increased in a dose-dependent fashion among fathers with higher comorbidities. Similar trends were seen for emergency department visit utilization.Increasing paternal preconception comorbidity is associated with a higher risk that a child requires emergency department and inpatient care in the first years of life. An opportunity exists to engage men in preconception counseling to optimize theirs and their offspring's health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/andr.13370

    View details for PubMedID 36542456

  • Reviewer Feedback for Abstract Submissions to the Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting: A Pilot Project ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS Schroeder, A. R., Solan, L. G., Williams, D., Thomas, B., Smith, C., Minshew, G., Rauch, D. A. 2022; 22 (8): 1499-1502
  • Duration of Antibiotic Therapy for Bacterial Meningitis in Young Infants: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics Van Hentenryck, M., Schroeder, A. R., McCulloh, R. J., Stave, C. D., Wang, M. E. 2022


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recommendations for parenteral antibiotic therapy duration in bacterial meningitis in young infants are based predominantly on expert consensus. Prolonged durations are generally provided for proven and suspected meningitis and are associated with considerable costs and risks. The objective of the study was to review the literature on the duration of parenteral antibiotic therapy and outcomes of bacterial meningitis in infants <3 months old.METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for publications until May 31, 2021. Eligible studies were published in English and included infants <3 months old with bacterial meningitis for which the route and duration of antibiotic therapy and data on at least 1 outcome (relapse rates, mortality, adverse events, duration of hospitalization, or neurologic sequelae) were reported.RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were included: 1 randomized controlled trial, 25 cohort studies, and 6 case series. The randomized controlled trial found no difference in treatment failure rates between 10 and 14 days of therapy. One cohort study concluded that antibiotic courses >21 days were not associated with improved outcomes as compared with shorter courses. The remaining studies had small sample sizes and/or did not stratify outcomes by therapy duration. Meta-analysis was not possible because of the heterogeneity of the treatments and reported outcomes.CONCLUSIONS: Rigorous, prospective clinical trial data are lacking to determine the optimal parenteral antibiotic duration in bacterial meningitis in young infants. Given the associated costs and risks, there is a pressing need for high-quality comparative effectiveness research to further study this question.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2022-057510

    View details for PubMedID 36195580

  • HEROIC Trials to Answer Pragmatic Questions for Hospitalized Children. Hospital pediatrics Coon, E. R., Bonafide, C., Cohen, E., Heath, A., McDaniel, C. E., Schroeder, A. R., Kaiser, S. V. 2022


    Although the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published each year involving adult populations is steadily rising, the annual number of RCTs published involving pediatric populations has not changed since 2005. Barriers to the broader utilization of RCTs in pediatrics include a lower prevalence of disease, less available funding, and more complicated regulatory requirements. Although child health researchers have been successful in overcoming these barriers for isolated diseases such as pediatric cancer, common pediatric diseases are underrepresented in RCTs relative to their burden. This article proposes a strategy called High-Efficiency RandOmIzed Controlled (HEROIC) trials to increase RCTs focused on common diseases among hospitalized children. HEROIC trials are multicenter RCTs that pursue the rapid, low-cost accumulation of study participants with minimal burden for individual sites. Five key strategies distinguish HEROIC trials: (1) dispersed low-volume recruitment, in which a large number of sites (50-150 hospitals) enroll a small number of participants per site (2-10 participants per site), (2) incentivizing site leads with authorship, training, education credits, and modest financial support, (3) a focus on pragmatic questions that examine simple, widely used interventions, (4) the use of a single institutional review board, integrated consent, and other efficient solutions to regulatory requirements, and (5) scaling the HEROIC trial strategy to accomplish multiple trials simultaneously. HEROIC trials can boost RCT feasibility and volume to answer fundamental clinical questions and improve care for hospitalized children.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2022-006617

    View details for PubMedID 35989332

  • A Cross-sectional Study Characterizing Pediatric Temperature Percentiles in Children at Well-Child Visits. Academic pediatrics Dang, R., Schroeder, A. R., Weng, Y., Wang, M. E., Patel, A. I. 2022


    BACKGROUND: Temperature measurement plays a central role in determining pediatric patients' disease risk and management. However, current pediatric temperature thresholds may be outdated and not applicable to children.OBJECTIVE: To characterize pediatric temperature norms and variation by patient characteristics, time of measurement, and thermometer route.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 134,641 well-child visits occurring between 2014-2019 at primary care clinics that routinely measured temperature. We performed bivariate and multivariable quantile regressions with clustered standard errors to determine temperature percentiles and variation by age, sex, time of measurement, and thermometer route. We performed sensitivity analyses: 1) using a cohort that excluded visits with infectious diagnoses that could explain temperature aberrations and 2) including clinic as a fixed effect.RESULTS: The median rectal temperature for visits of infants ≤12 months old was 37.2˚C, which was 0.4˚C higher than the median axillary temperature. The median axillary temperature for children 1-18 years old was 36.7˚C, which was 0.1˚C lower than the median values of all other routes. The 99th percentile for rectal temperatures in infants was 37.8˚C and the 99.9th percentile for axillary temperatures in children was 38.5˚C. Adjusted analyses did not demonstrate clinically significant variation in temperature by sex, age, or time of measurement.CONCLUSIONS: These updated temperature norms can serve as reference values in clinical practice and should be considered in the context of thermometer route used and the clinical condition being evaluated. Variations in temperature values by sex, age, and time of measurement were not clinically significant.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.015

    View details for PubMedID 35914730

  • Estimated Cumulative Incidence of Wisdom Tooth Extractions in Privately Insured US Patients FRONTIERS IN DENTAL MEDICINE Schroeder, A. R., Newman, T. B., Girod, S., Hashemi, S., Haberle, A. D. 2022; 3
  • Fatal nocardiosis infection in a pediatric patient with an immunodeficiency after heart re-transplantation. Pediatric transplantation Mai, D. H., Sedler, J., Weinberg, K., Bernstein, D., Schroeder, A., Mathew, R., Chen, S., Lee, D., Dykes, J. C., Hollander, S. A. 2022: e14344


    BACKGROUND: Nocardia infections are rare opportunistic infections in SOT recipients, with few reported pediatric cases. Pediatric patients with single ventricle congenital heart defects requiring HT may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections due to a decreased T-cell repertoire from early thymectomy and potential immunodeficiencies related to their congenital heart disease. Other risk factors in SOT recipients include the use of immunosuppressive medications and the development of persistent lymphopenia, delayed count recovery and/or lymphocyte dysfunction.METHODS: We report the case of a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent neonatal congenital heart surgery (with thymectomy) prior to palliative surgery and 2 HTs.RESULTS: After developing respiratory and neurological symptoms, the patient was found to be positive for Nocardia farcinica by BAL culture and cerebrospinal fluid PCR. Immune cell phenotyping demonstrated an attenuated T and B-cell repertoire. Despite antibiotic and immunoglobulin therapy, his symptoms worsened and he was subsequently discharged with hospice care.CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with a history of congenital heart defects who undergo neonatal thymectomy prior to heart transplantation and a long-term history of immunosuppression should undergo routine immune system profiling to evaluate for T- and B-cell deficiency as risk factors for opportunistic infection. Such patients could benefit from long-term therapy with TMP/SMX for optimal antimicrobial prophylaxis, with desensitization as needed for allergies. Disseminated nocardiosis should be considered when evaluating acutely ill SOT recipients, especially those with persistent lymphopenia and known or suspected secondary immunodeficiencies.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.14344

    View details for PubMedID 35726843

  • Intravenous Antibiotic Durations: "Short" Wins Again. Hospital pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Desai, S., Hess, L. M. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2022-006719

    View details for PubMedID 35726557

  • Defining Normal. JAMA pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Dang, R. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.0801

    View details for PubMedID 35467711

  • Impact of Diagnostic Criteria on UTI Prevalence in Young Infants With Jaundice: A Meta-analysis. Hospital pediatrics Chang, P. W., Schroeder, A. R., Lucas, B. P., McDaniel, C. E. 2022


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Previously reported prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants with jaundice range from <1% to 25%. However, UTI criteria are variable and, as demonstrated in a meta-analysis on UTI prevalence in bronchiolitis, disease prevalence is greatly impacted by disease definition. The objective of this study was to conduct a systemic review and meta-analysis examining the impact of including positive urinalysis (UA) results as a diagnostic criterion on the estimated UTI prevalence in young infants with jaundice.METHODS: The data sources used were Medline (1946-2020) and Ovid Embase (1976-2020) through January 2020 and bibliographies of retrieved articles. We selected studies reporting UTI prevalence in young infants with jaundice. Data were extracted in accordance with meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology guidelines. Random-effects models produced a weighted pooled event rate with 95% confidence intervals (CI).RESULTS: We screened 526 unique articles by abstract and reviewed 53 full-text articles. We included 32 studies and 16 contained UA data. The overall UTI prevalence in young infants with jaundice from all 32 studies was 6.2% (95% CI, 3.9-8.9). From the 16 studies with UA data, the overall UTI prevalence was 8.7% (95% CI, 5.1-13.2), which decreased to 3.6% (95% CI, 2.0-5.8) with positive UA results included as a diagnostic criterion.CONCLUSIONS: The estimated UTI prevalence in young infants with jaundice decreases substantially when UA results are incorporated into the UTI definition. Due to the heterogeneity of study subjects' ages and definitions of jaundice, positive UA results, and UTI, there is uncertainty about the exact prevalence and about which infants with hyperbilirubinemia warrant urine testing.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2021-006382

    View details for PubMedID 35322269

  • Early Discontinuation, Results Reporting, and Publication of Pediatric Clinical Trials. Pediatrics Brewster, R., Wong, M., Magnani, C. J., Gunningham, H., Hoffer, M., Showalter, S., Tran, K., Steinberg, J. R., Turner, B. E., Goodman, S. N., Schroeder, A. R. 2022


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Unique ethical, epidemiological, and economic factors are barriers to performing research in children. The landscape of pediatric clinical trials, including drivers of completion and timely dissemination of results, is not well understood. We aimed to characterize the prevalence of and factors associated with early discontinuation, results reporting, and publication of pediatric clinical trials registered at Cross-sectional analysis of clinical trials enrolling participants <18 years old registered at from October 2007 to March 2020. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to assess the association between trial characteristics and primary outcomes. Publication data were obtained through PubMed,, Embase, and Scopus.RESULTS: Overall, 11.1% trials were stopped early, with recruitment failure being the predominant reason for discontinuation. Only 23.5% of completed trials reported results, and 38.8% were published within 3 years of completion. Rates of discontinuation and publication significantly improved over the study period. Among funding sources, government-sponsored trials (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.47-0.97) and academic trials (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.82) had lower odds of discontinuation compared with industry trials and were more likely to be published (government: aOR, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.52-2.48] academic: aOR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.35-1.92). Academic trial investigators were the least likely to report results (aOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.31-0.52).CONCLUSIONS: Early discontinuation and nonreporting/nonpublication of findings remain common in registered pediatric clinical trials and were associated with funding source and other trial features. Targeted efforts are needed to support trial completion and timely results dissemination toward strengthening evidence-based pediatric medicine.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2021-052557

    View details for PubMedID 35314864

  • Reviewer feedback for abstract submissions to the Pediatric Academic Societies meeting: a pilot project. Academic pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Solan, L. G., Williams, D., Thomas, B., Smith, C., Minshew, G., Rauch, D. A. 2022


    PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate a pilot project to provide reviewer comments to authors who submitted abstracts to the Hospital-based medicine topic area for the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) 2021 annual meeting METHODS: : Abstract reviewers were encouraged via email to include reviewer comments for authors in their abstract reviews. Unedited comments were emailed to authors shortly after the abstract decision notifications were sent. We quantified the number of reviewers who commented per abstract. Additionally, we surveyed authors and reviewers to evaluate the perceived impact of the pilot project.RESULTS: For 123 abstracts submitted to the Hospital-based medicine topic area, every abstract received comments from at least one reviewer, and a median (IQR) of 4 (3-5) reviewers commented per abstract. The response rates for the author and reviewer surveys were 61/114 (54%) and 54/84 (64%), respectively, and both groups of respondents generally favored the pilot program. The majority of authors (59%) made changes to their project based on the feedback provided and 96% reported that they would like to continue to receive reviewer feedback for future PAS abstract submissions. Reviewers reported spending a mean of 11 minutes reviewing each abstract. Most (85%) felt that they spent the same or slightly more (1-25%) time reviewing than in prior years. Multiple open-ended comments were provided, largely positive.CONCLUSION: A pilot program to incorporate reviewer feedback into abstract decision notification for a large national research meeting was successful. This approach should be considered for future meetings to enhance this integral component of academic development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2022.02.018

    View details for PubMedID 35318158

  • Pediatric Hospital Medicine Needs More Randomized Controlled Trials. Hospital pediatrics Kaiser, S. V., Schroeder, A. R., Coon, E. R. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2021-006429

    View details for PubMedID 35190804

  • 2021 Update on Pediatric Overuse. Pediatrics Money, N. M., Schroeder, A. R., Quinonez, R. A., Ho, T., Marin, J. R., Wolf, E. R., Morgan, D. J., Dhruva, S. S., Coon, E. R. 1800; 149 (2)


    This update on pediatric medical overuse identifies and provides concise summaries of 10 impactful articles related to pediatric medical overuse from the years 2019 to 2020.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2021-053384

    View details for PubMedID 35059726

  • Disparities by Ethnicity in Enrollment of a Clinical Trial. Pediatrics Coon, E. R., Schroeder, A. R., Lion, K. C., Ray, K. N. 1800

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2021-052595

    View details for PubMedID 35043194

  • Healthcare utilization in children across the care continuum during the COVID-19 pandemic. PloS one Schroeder, A. R., Dahlen, A., Purington, N., Alvarez, F., Brooks, R., Destino, L., Madduri, G., Wang, M., Coon, E. R. 2022; 17 (10): e0276461


    OBJECTIVES: Healthcare utilization decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, likely due to reduced transmission of infections and healthcare avoidance. Though various investigations have described these changing patterns in children, most have analyzed specific care settings. We compared healthcare utilization, prescriptions, and diagnosis patterns in children across the care continuum during the first year of the pandemic with preceding years.STUDY DESIGN: Using national claims data, we compared enrollees under 18 years during the pre-pandemic (January 2016 -mid-March 2020) and pandemic (mid-March 2020 through March 2021) periods. The pandemic was further divided into early (mid-March through mid-June 2020) and middle (mid-June 2020 through March 2021) periods. Utilization was compared using interrupted time series.RESULTS: The mean number of pediatric enrollees/month was 2,519,755 in the pre-pandemic and 2,428,912 in the pandemic period. Utilization decreased across all settings in the early pandemic, with the greatest decrease (76.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 72.6-80.5%) seen for urgent care visits. Only well visits returned to pre-pandemic rates during the mid-pandemic. Hospitalizations decreased by 43% (95% CI 37.4-48.1) during the early pandemic and were still 26.6% (17.7-34.6) lower mid-pandemic. However, hospitalizations in non-psychiatric facilities for various mental health disorders increased substantially mid-pandemic.CONCLUSION: Healthcare utilization in children dropped substantially during the first year of the pandemic, with a shift away from infectious diseases and a spike in mental health hospitalizations. These findings are important to characterize as we monitor the health of children, can be used to inform healthcare strategies during subsequent COVID-19 surges and/or future pandemics, and may help identify training gaps for pediatric trainees. Subsequent investigations should examine how changes in healthcare utilization impacted the incidence and outcomes of specific diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0276461

    View details for PubMedID 36301947

  • Development and Use of a Calculator to Measure Pediatric Low-Value Care Delivered in US Children's Hospitals. JAMA network open House, S. A., Hall, M., Ralston, S. L., Marin, J. R., Coon, E. R., Schroeder, A. R., De Souza, H. G., Davidson, A., Duda, P., Ho, T., Genies, M. C., Mestre, M., Reyes, M. A. 1800; 4 (12): e2135184


    Importance: The scope of low-value care in children's hospitals is poorly understood.Objective: To develop and apply a calculator of hospital-based pediatric low-value care to estimate prevalence and cost of low-value services.Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study developed and applied a calculator of hospital-based pediatric low-value care to estimate the prevalence and cost of low-value services among 1 011 950 encounters reported in 49 US children's hospitals contributing to the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database. To develop the calculator, a multidisciplinary stakeholder group searched existing pediatric low-value care measures and used an iterative process to identify and operationalize relevant hospital-based measures in the PHIS database. Children with an eligible encounter in 2019 were included in the calculator-applied analysis. Two cohorts were analyzed: an emergency department cohort (with encounters resulting in emergency department discharge) and a hospitalized cohort.Exposures: Eligible condition-specific hospital encounters.Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion and volume of encounters in which low-value services were delivered and their associated standardized costs. Measures were ranked by those outcomes.Results: There were 1 011 950 encounters eligible for 1 or more of 30 calculator-included measures in 2019; encounters were incurred by 816 098 unique patients with a median age of 3 years (IQR, 1-8 years). In the emergency department cohort, low-value services delivered in the greatest percentage of encounters were Group A streptococcal testing among children younger than 3 years with pharyngitis (3679 of 9785 [37.6%]), computed tomography scan for minor head injury (7541 of 42 602 [17.7%]), and bronchodilators for treatment of bronchiolitis (8899 of 55 616 [16.0%]). In the hospitalized cohort, low-value care was most prevalent for broad-spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (3406 of 5658 [60.2%]), acid suppression therapy for infants with esophageal reflux (3814 of 7507 of [50.8%]), and blood cultures for uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia (2277 of 5823 [39.1%]). Measured low-value services generated nearly $17 million in total standardized cost. The costliest services in the emergency department cohort were computed tomography scan for abdominal pain (approximately $1.8 million) and minor head injury (approximately $1.5 million) and chest radiography for asthma (approximately $1.1 million). The costliest services in the hospitalized cohort were receipt of 2 or more concurrent antipsychotics (approximately $2.4 million), and chest radiography for bronchiolitis ($801 680) and asthma ($625 866).Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional analysis found that low-value care for some pediatric services was prevalent and costly. Measuring receipt of low-value services across conditions informs prioritization of deimplementation efforts. Continued use of this calculator may establish trends in low-value care delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.35184

    View details for PubMedID 34967884

  • Parent Preferences for Transparency of Their Child's Hospitalization Costs. JAMA network open Bassett, H. K., Beck, J., Coller, R. J., Flaherty, B., Tiedt, K. A., Hummel, K., Tchou, M. J., Kapphahn, K., Walker, L., Schroeder, A. R. 2021; 4 (9): e2126083


    Importance: Health care in the US is often expensive for families; however, there is little transparency in the cost of medical services. The extent to which parents want cost transparency in their children's care is not well characterized.Objective: To explore the preferences and experiences of parents of hospitalized children regarding the discussion and consideration of health care costs in the inpatient care of their children.Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional multicenter survey study included 6 geographically diverse university-affiliated US children's hospitals from November 3, 2017, to November 8, 2018. Participants included a convenience sample of English- and Spanish-speaking parents of hospitalized children nearing hospital discharge. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2020, to June 25, 2021.Main Outcomes and Measures: Parents' preferences and experiences regarding transparency of their child's health care costs. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between clinical and sociodemographic variables with parents' preferences for knowing, discussing, and considering costs in the clinical setting. Factors included family financial difficulties, child's level of chronic disease, insurance payer, deductible, family poverty level, race, ethnicity, parental educational level, and study site.Results: Of 644 invited participants, 526 (82%) were enrolled (290 [55%] male), of whom 362 (69%) were White individuals, 400 (76%) were non-Hispanic/Latino individuals, and 274 (52%) had children with private insurance. Overall, 397 families (75%) wanted to discuss their child's medical costs, but only 36 (7%) reported having a cost conversation. If cost discussions were to occur, 294 families (56%) would prefer to speak to a financial counselor. Ninety-eight families (19%) worried discussing costs would hurt the quality of their child's care. Families with a medical financial burden unrelated to their hospitalized child had higher mean agreement that their child's physician should consider the family's costs in medical decision-making than families without a medical financial burden (effect size, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.18-0.92]). No variables were consistently associated with cost transparency preferences.Conclusions and Relevance: Most parents want to discuss their child's costs during an acute hospitalization. Discussions of health care costs may be an important, relatively unexplored component of family-centered care. However, these discussions rarely occur, indicating a tremendous opportunity to engage and support families in this issue.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.26083

    View details for PubMedID 34546372

  • "For COVID" or "With COVID": Classification of SARS-CoV-2 Hospitalizations in Children. Hospital pediatrics Kushner, L. E., Schroeder, A. R., Kim, J., Mathew, R. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2021-006001

    View details for PubMedID 34011566

  • Management and Outcomes in Children with Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Urinary Tract Infections. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Wang, M. E., Greenhow, T. L., Lee, V., Beck, J., Bendel-Stenzel, M., Hames, N., McDaniel, C. E., King, E. E., Sherry, W., Parmar, D., Patrizi, S. T., Srinivas, N., Schroeder, A. R. 2021


    BACKGROUND: Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) often have limited oral antibiotic options with some children receiving prolonged parenteral courses. Our objectives were to determine predictors of long parenteral therapy and the association between parenteral therapy duration and UTI relapse in children with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTIs.METHODS: We conducted a multisite retrospective cohort study of children <18 years presenting to acute care at 5 children's hospitals and a large managed care organization from 2012 to 2017 with a third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTI from Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. Long parenteral therapy was ≥3 days and short/no parenteral therapy was 0-2 days of concordant parenteral antibiotics. Discordant therapy was antibiotics to which the pathogen was non-susceptible. Relapse was a UTI from the same organism within 30 days.RESULTS: Of the 482 children included, 81% were female and the median age was 3.3 years (interquartile range: 0.8-8). Fifty-four children (11.2%) received long parenteral therapy (median duration: 7 days). Predictors of long parenteral therapy included age <2 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 67.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.4-275.7), limited oral antibiotic options (aOR 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8-12.3), and genitourinary abnormalities (aOR 5.4; 95% CI: 1.8-15.9). UTI relapse occurred in 1 of the 54 (1.9%) children treated with long parenteral therapy and in 6 of the 428 (1.5%) children treated with short/no parenteral therapy (P = .57). Of the 105 children treated exclusively with discordant antibiotics, 3 (2.9%, 95% CI: 0.6%-8.1%) experienced UTI relapse.CONCLUSIONS: Long parenteral therapy was associated with age <2 months, limited oral antibiotic options, and genitourinary abnormalities. UTI relapse was rare and not associated with duration of parenteral therapy. For UTIs with limited oral options, further research is needed on the effectiveness of continued discordant therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jpids/piab003

    View details for PubMedID 33595081

  • Trends in Imaging Findings, Interventions, and Outcomes Among Children With Isolated Head Trauma PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE Coon, E. R., Newman, T. B., Hall, M., Wilkes, J., Bratton, S. L., Schroeder, A. R. 2021; 37 (2): 55–61
  • Improving Value in Bronchiolitis Care. JAMA network open Schroeder, A. R., Marlow, J. A., Bonafide, C. P. 2021; 4 (2): e210157

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0157

    View details for PubMedID 33587130

  • Temperature Measurement at Well-Child Visits in the United States. The Journal of pediatrics Dang, R. n., Schroeder, A. R., Patel, A. I., Parsonnet, J. n., Wang, M. n. 2021


    To determine the frequency and predictors of temperature measurement at well-child visits in the US and report rates of interventions associated with visits at which temperature is measured and fever is detected.In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 22,518 sampled well-child visits from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) between 2003 and 2015. We estimated the frequency of temperature measurement and performed multivariable regression to identify patient, provider/clinic and seasonal factors associated with the practice. We described rates of interventions (complete blood count, x-ray, urinalysis, antibiotic prescription, and emergency department/hospital referral) by measurement and fever (temperature ≥100.4˚F, ≥38.0˚C) status.Temperature was measured in 48.5% (95% CI 45.6-51.4) of well-child visits. Measurement was more common during visits by non-pediatric providers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.5; ref: pediatricians), in Hispanic (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.3) and Black (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9; ref: non-Hispanic White) patients, and in patients with government (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.4; ref: private) insurance. Interventions were more commonly pursued when temperature was measured (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6) and fever was detected (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.5-9.4).Temperature was measured in nearly half of all well-child visits. Interventions were more common when temperature was measured and fever was detected. The value of routine temperature measurement during well-child visits warrants further evaluation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.01.045

    View details for PubMedID 33508277

  • Patient, Provider, and Health Care System Characteristics Associated With Overuse in Bronchiolitis. Pediatrics Wolf, E. R., Richards, A., Lavallee, M., Sabo, R. T., Schroeder, A. R., Schefft, M., Krist, A. H. 2021


    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends against the routine use of β-agonists, corticosteroids, antibiotics, chest radiographs, and viral testing in bronchiolitis, but use of these modalities continues. Our objective for this study was to determine the patient, provider, and health care system characteristics that are associated with receipt of low-value services.Using the Virginia All-Payers Claims Database, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of children aged 0 to 23 months with bronchiolitis (code J21, International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) in 2018. We recorded medications within 3 days and chest radiography or viral testing within 1 day of diagnosis. Using Poisson regression, we identified characteristics associated with each type of overuse.Fifty-six percent of children with bronchiolitis received ≥1 form of overuse, including 9% corticosteroids, 17% antibiotics, 20% β-agonists, 26% respiratory syncytial virus testing, and 18% chest radiographs. Commercially insured children were more likely than publicly insured children to receive a low-value service (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.30; P < .0001). Children in emergency settings were more likely to receive a low-value service (aPR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.15-1.33; P < .0001) compared with children in inpatient settings. Children seen in rural locations were more likely than children seen in cities to receive a low-value service (aPR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.11-1.29; P < .0001).Overuse in bronchiolitis remains common and occurs frequently in emergency and outpatient settings and rural locations. Quality improvement initiatives aimed at reducing overuse should include these clinical environments.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2021-051345

    View details for PubMedID 34556548

  • Frequency and Consequences of Routine Temperature Measurement at Well-Child Visits. Pediatrics Dang, R., Patel, A. I., Marlow, J., Weng, Y., Wang, M. E., Schroeder, A. R. 2021


    To determine the (1) frequency and visit characteristics of routine temperature measurement and (2) rates of interventions by temperature measurement practice and the probability of incidental fever detection.In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed well-child visits between 2014-2019. We performed multivariable regression to characterize visits associated with routine temperature measurement and conducted generalized estimating equations regression to determine adjusted rates of interventions (antibiotic prescription, and diagnostic testing) and vaccine deferral by temperature measurement and fever status, clustered by clinic and patient. Through dual independent chart review, fever (≥100.4°F) was categorized as probable, possible, or unlikely to be incidentally detected.Temperature measurement occurred at 155 527 of 274 351 (58.9%) well-child visits. Of 24 clinics, 16 measured temperature at >90% of visits ("routine measurement clinics") and 8 at <20% of visits ("occasional measurement clinics"). After adjusting for age, ethnicity, race, and insurance, antibiotic prescription was more common (adjusted odds ratio: 1.21; 95% CI 1.13-1.29), whereas diagnostic testing was less common (adjusted odds ratio: 0.76; 95% CI 0.71-0.82) at routine measurement clinics. Fever was detected at 270 of 155 527 (0.2%) routine measurement clinic visits, 47 (17.4%) of which were classified as probable incidental fever. Antibiotic prescription and diagnostic testing were more common at visits with probable incidental fever than without fever (7.4% vs 1.7%; 14.8% vs 1.2%; P < .001), and vaccines were deferred at 50% such visits.Temperature measurement occurs at more than one-half of well-child visits and is a clinic-driven practice. Given the impact on subsequent interventions and vaccine deferral, the harm-benefit profile of this practice warrants consideration.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2021-053412

    View details for PubMedID 34890449

  • Trends in Views of Articles Published in 3 Leading Medical Journals During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA network open Giustini, A. J., Schroeder, A. R., Axelrod, D. M. 2021; 4 (4): e216459

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.6459

    View details for PubMedID 33792734

  • Infant Allergy Testing and Food Allergy Diagnoses Before and After Guidelines for Early Peanut Introduction. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice Lo, R. M., Purington, N., McGhee, S. A., Mathur, M. B., Shaw, G. M., Schroeder, A. R. 2020


    BACKGROUND: A landmark 2015 trial on early exposure to peanuts led to expert recommendations for screening and early peanut introduction in high-risk (severe eczema and/or egg allergy) infants, but the impact of this paradigm shift on allergy testing and diagnosis is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of the Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) trial and guideline publications on allergy testing and food allergy diagnoses in infants.METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, de-identified administrative health claims from a commercial and Medicare advantage claims database were used. Infants with at least one year of continuous coverage were selected using newborn codes for birth hospitalizations from January 2010 to June 2018. Interrupted time series models were used to compare the prevalence of allergy testing before and after LEAP publication in February 2015 and formal guideline publication in January 2017.RESULTS: For 487,533 included infants, allergy testing increased after LEAP (risk ratio [RR]: 1.11 [95% CI, 1.07-1.15]) and guidelines (1.21 [1.18-1.23]). This increase of testing was also seen in infants not considered high-risk, both after LEAP (1.12 [1.08-1.17]) and guidelines (1.20 [1.16, 1.23]). For first-time allergy tests, post-guideline median number of allergens tested was 9 for serum tests and 10 for skin tests. Post-guidelines there was a significant increase in diagnosis of peanut (RR: 1.08 [1.00, 1.16]), egg (1.12 [1.05, 1.20]), and other food allergies (excluding milk) (1.22 [1.14, 1.31]).CONCLUSION: Allergy testing has increased, including in non-high-risk infants. Multi-allergen testing may be contributing to an increase in the diagnosis of other food allergies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.10.060

    View details for PubMedID 33186769

  • Deimplementation in Pediatrics: Past, Present, and Future. JAMA pediatrics Wolf, E. R., Krist, A. H., Schroeder, A. R. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.4681

    View details for PubMedID 33136129

  • Less Radiation but More Overall Advanced Imaging in Children-Good News or Bad News? JAMA pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Imler, D. L. 2020: e202222

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.2222

    View details for PubMedID 32744602

  • Parental Perspectives on Continuous Pulse Oximetry Use in Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations. Pediatrics Chi, K. W., Coon, E. R., Destino, L., Schroeder, A. R. 2020


    BACKGROUND: Because of the impact of continuous pulse oximetry (CPOX) on the overdiagnosis of hypoxemia in bronchiolitis, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Choosing Wisely campaign have issued recommendations for intermittent monitoring. Parental preferences for monitoring may impact adoption of these recommendations, but these perspectives are poorly understood.METHODS: Using this cross-sectional survey, we explored parental perspectives on CPOX monitoring before discharge and 1 week after bronchiolitis hospitalizations. During the 1-week call, half of the participants were randomly assigned to receive a verbal statement on the potential harms of CPOX to determine if conveying the concept of overdiagnosis can change parental preferences on monitoring frequency. An aggregate variable measuring favorable perceptions of CPOX was created to determine CPOX affinity predictors.RESULTS: In-hospital interviews were completed on 357 patients, of which 306 (86%) completed the 1-week follow-up. Although 25% of parents agreed or strongly agreed that hospital monitors made them feel anxious, 98% agreed that the monitors were helpful. Compared to other vital signs, respiratory rate (87%) and oxygen saturation (84%) were commonly rated as "extremely important." Providing an educational statement on CPOX comparatively decreased parental desire for continuous monitoring (40% vs 20%; P < .001). Although there were no significant predictors of CPOX affinity, the effect size of the educational intervention was higher in college-educated parents.CONCLUSIONS: Parents find security in CPOX. A brief statement on the potential harms of CPOX use had an impact on stated monitoring preferences. Parental perspectives are important to consider because they may influence the adoption of intermittent monitoring.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2020-0130

    View details for PubMedID 32675334

  • Comparison of As-Needed and Scheduled Posthospitalization Follow-up for Children Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis: The Bronchiolitis Follow-up Intervention Trial (BeneFIT) Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA pediatrics Coon, E. R., Destino, L. A., Greene, T. H., Vukin, E., Stoddard, G., Schroeder, A. R. 2020: e201937


    Importance: Posthospitalization follow-up visits are prescribed frequently for children with bronchiolitis. The rationale for this practice is unclear, but prior work has indicated that families value these visits for the reassurance provided. The overall risks and benefits of scheduled visits have not been evaluated.Objective: To assess whether an as-needed posthospitalization follow-up visit is noninferior to a scheduled posthospitalization follow-up visit with respect to reducing anxiety among parents of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis.Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, noninferiority randomized clinical trial, performed between January 1, 2018, and April 31, 2019, assessed children younger than 24 months of age hospitalized for bronchiolitis at 2 children's hospitals (Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Palo Alto, California) and 2 community hospitals (Intermountain Riverton Hospital, Riverton, Utah, and Packard El Camino Hospital, Mountain View, California). Data analysis was performed in an intention-to-treat manner.Interventions: Randomization (1:1) to a scheduled (n=151) vs an as-needed (n=153) posthospitalization follow-up visit.Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was parental anxiety 7 days after hospital discharge, measured using the anxiety portion of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, which ranged from 0 to 28 points, with higher scores indicating greater anxiety. Fourteen prespecified secondary outcomes were assessed.Results: Among 304 children randomized (median age, 8 months; interquartile range, 3-14 months; 179 [59%] male), the primary outcome was available for 269 patients (88%). A total of 106 children (81%) in the scheduled follow-up group attended a scheduled posthospitalization visit compared with 26 children (19%) in the as-needed group (absolute difference, 62%; 95% CI, 53%-71%). The mean (SD) 7-day parental anxiety score was 3.9 (3.5) among the as-needed posthospitalization follow-up group and 4.2 (3.5) among the scheduled group (absolute difference, -0.3 points; 95% CI, -1.0 to 0.4 points), with the upper bound of the 95% CI within the prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.1 points. Aside from a decreased mean number of clinic visits (absolute difference, -0.6 visits per patient; 95% CI, -0.4 to -0.8 visits per patient) among the as-needed group, there were no significant between-group differences in secondary outcomes, including readmissions (any hospital readmission before symptom resolution: absolute difference, -1.6%; 95% CI, -5.7% to 2.5%) and symptom duration (time from discharge to cough resolution: absolute difference, -0.6 days; 95% CI, -2.4 to 1.2 days; time from discharge to child reported "back to normal": absolute difference, -0.8 days; 95% CI, -2.7 to 1.0 days; and time from discharge to symptom resolution: absolute difference, -0.6 days; 95% CI, -2.5 to 1.3 days).Conclusions and Relevance: Among parents of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis, an as-needed posthospitalization follow-up visit is noninferior to a scheduled posthospitalization follow-up visit with respect to reducing parental anxiety. These findings support as-needed follow-up as an effective posthospitalization follow-up strategy.Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT03354325.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1937

    View details for PubMedID 32628250

  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria prevalence. The Journal of pediatrics Jain, S., Schroeder, A. R. 2020; 222: 253–57

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.04.022

    View details for PubMedID 32586532

  • Consent Rates Reported in Published Pediatric Randomized Controlled Trials. The Journal of pediatrics Lonhart, J. A., Edwards, A. R., Agarwal, S., Lucas, B. P., Schroeder, A. R. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the average reported consent rate for published pediatric randomized controlled trials and whether this rate varies by trial characteristics.STUDY DESIGN: A review of pediatric RCTs published in Medline in 2009, 2010 or 2015 was performed. Secondary analyses of prior trials, trials including adults, trials not requiring consent, or trials with missing or unclear consent data were excluded. Consent rate was defined as number of patients enrolled divided by number of eligible patients where families were approached. Random effects meta-regression was conducted to determine the weighted average consent rate.RESULTS: Of 2,347 trials identified, 1,651 were excluded. An additional 418/696 (60%) were excluded because the consent rate was missing or unclear. The average consent rate for 278 included RCTs was 82.6% (95% CI 80.3 - 84.8%) and was higher for vaccination compared with behavioral trials and for industry-funded compared with NIH or other government-funded trials. The average consent rate was under 70% for 26% of included trials. Of these trials, US trials (28/77, 36.4%) had a higher probability of consent rate < 70% than non-US studies (35/64, 21.3%) and multinational (9/37, 24.3%) studies. There was slight variation by funding category.CONCLUSIONS: Although the average consent rate for published trials was reasonably high, approximately one-quarter of trials had consent rates below 70%. Consent rates reporting has improved over time but remains suboptimal. Our findings should assist with the planning of future pediatric RCTs, though consent data from unpublished trials are also needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.06.058

    View details for PubMedID 32599033

  • Reporting and Categorization of Blood Culture Contaminants in Infants and Young Children: A Scoping Review JOURNAL OF THE PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES SOCIETY Chappell-Campbell, L., Schwenk, H. T., Capdarest-Arest, N., Schroeder, A. R. 2020; 9 (2): 110–17
  • COVID-19 and Kawasaki Disease: Finding the Signal in the Noise. Hospital pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Wilson, K. M., Ralston, S. L. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2020-000356

    View details for PubMedID 32404331

  • Diagnosis and Management of UTI in Febrile Infants Age 0-2 Months: Applicability of the AAP Guideline. Journal of hospital medicine Chang, P. W., Wang, M. E., Schroeder, A. R. 2020; 15 (2): e1–e5


    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection in young infants. The American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) clinical practice guideline for UTIs focuses on febrile children age 2-24 months, with no guideline for infants <2 months of age, an age group commonly encountered by pediatric hospitalists. In this review, we assess the applicability of the AAP UTI Guideline's action statements for previously healthy, febrile infants <2 months of age. We also discuss additional considerations in this age group, including concurrent bacteremia and routine testing for meningitis.

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3349

    View details for PubMedID 32118563

  • 2019 Update on Pediatric Medical Overuse: A Systematic Review. JAMA pediatrics Money, N. M., Schroeder, A. R., Quinonez, R. A., Ho, T., Marin, J. R., Morgan, D. J., Dhruva, S. S., Coon, E. R. 2020


    Importance: Medical overuse is common in pediatrics and may lead to unnecessary care, resource use, and patient harm. Timely scrutiny of established and emerging practices can identify areas of overuse and empower clinicians to reconsider the balance of harms and benefits of the medical care that they provide. A literature review was conducted to identify the most important areas of pediatric medical overuse in 2018.Observations: Consistent with prior methods, a structured MEDLINE search and manual table of contents review of selected pediatric journals for the 2018 literature was conducted identifying articles pertaining to pediatric medical overuse. The structured MEDLINE search consisted of a PubMed search for articles with the Medical Subject Headings term health services misuse or medical overuse or article titles containing the term unnecessary, inappropriate, overutilization, or overuse. Articles containing the term overuse injury or overuse injuries were excluded, along with articles not published in English and those not constituting original research. The same search was performed using Embase with the additional Emtree term unnecessary procedure. Each article was evaluated by 3 independent raters for quality of methods, magnitude of potential harm, and number of patients potentially harmed. Ten articles were identified based on scores and appraisal of overall potential harm. This year's review identified both established and emerging practices that may warrant deimplementation. Examples of such established practices include antibiotic prophylaxis for urinary tract infections, routine opioid prescriptions, prolonged antibiotic courses for latent tuberculosis, and routine intensive care admission and pharmacologic therapy for neonatal abstinence syndrome. Emerging practices that merit greater inspection and discouragement of widespread adoption include postdischarge nurse-led home visits, probiotics for gastroenteritis, and intensive cardiac screening programs for athletes.Conclusions and Relevance: This year's review highlights established and emerging practices that represent medical overuse in the pediatric setting. Deimplementation of disproven practices and careful examination of emerging practices are imperative to prevent unnecessary resource use and patient harm.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.5849

    View details for PubMedID 32011675

  • Allergy testing and peanut allergy diagnoses in infants before and after the publication of the Learning Early About Peanut allergy (LEAP) study Lo, R., McGhee, S., Purington, N., Schroeder, A. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2020: AB48
  • Clinical Response to Discordant Therapy in Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant UTIs. Pediatrics Wang, M. E., Lee, V. n., Greenhow, T. L., Beck, J. n., Bendel-Stenzel, M. n., Hames, N. n., McDaniel, C. E., King, E. E., Sherry, W. n., Parmar, D. n., Patrizi, S. T., Srinivas, N. n., Schroeder, A. R. 2020


    To describe the initial clinical response and care escalation needs for children with urinary tract infections (UTIs) resistant to third-generation cephalosporins while on discordant antibiotics.We performed a retrospective study of children <18 years old presenting to an acute care setting of 5 children's hospitals and a large managed care organization from 2012 to 2017 with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTIs (defined as the growth of ≥50 000 colony-forming units per mL of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. nonsusceptible to ceftriaxone with a positive urinalysis). We included children started on discordant antibiotics who had follow-up when culture susceptibilities resulted. Outcomes were escalation of care (emergency department visit, hospital admission, or ICU transfer while on discordant therapy) and clinical response at follow-up (classified as improved or not improved).Of the 316 children included, 78% were girls and the median age was 2.4 years (interquartile range 0.6-6.5). Children were evaluated in the emergency department (56%) or clinic (43%), and 90% were started on a cephalosporin. A total of 7 of 316 children (2.2%; 95% confidence interval 0.8%-4.5%) experienced escalation of care. For the 230 children (73%) with clinical response recorded, 192 of 230 (83.5%; 95% confidence interval 78.0%-88.0%) experienced clinical improvement. In children with repeat urine testing while on discordant therapy, pyuria improved or resolved in 16 of 19 (84%) and urine cultures sterilized in 11 of 17 (65%).Most children with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant UTIs started on discordant antibiotics experienced initial clinical improvement, and few required escalation of care. Our findings suggest that narrow-spectrum empiric therapy is appropriate while awaiting final urine culture results.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-1608

    View details for PubMedID 31953316

  • Association Between Citations, Altmetrics, and Article Views in Pediatric Research. JAMA network open Giustini, A. J., Axelrod, D. M., Lucas, B. P., Schroeder, A. R. 2020; 3 (7): e2010784

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.10784

    View details for PubMedID 32687584

  • Financial Difficulties in Families of Hospitalized Children. Journal of hospital medicine Bassett, H. K., Coller, R. J., Beck, J. n., Hummel, K. n., Tiedt, K. A., Flaherty, B. n., Tchou, M. J., Kapphahn, K. n., Walker, L. n., Schroeder, A. R. 2020


    High costs of hospitalization may contribute to financial difficulties for some families.To examine the prevalence of financial distress and medical financial burden in families of hospitalized children and identify factors that can predict financial difficulties.Cross-sectional survey of parents of hospitalized children at six children's hospitals between October 2017 and November 2018.The outcomes were high financial distress and medical financial burden. Multivariable logistic regression identified predictors of each outcome. The primary predictor variable was level of chronic disease (complex chronic disease, C-CD; noncomplex chronic disease, NC-CD; no chronic disease, no-CD).Of 644 invited participants, 526 (82%) were enrolled, with 125 (24%) experiencing high financial distress, and 160 (30%) reporting medical financial burden. Of those, 86 (54%) indicated their medical financial burden was caused by costs associated with their hospitalized child. Neither C-CD nor NC-CD were associated with high financial distress. Child-related medical financial burden was associated with both C-CD and NC-CD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.98; 95% CI, 2.41-10.29; and AOR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.11-5.93), compared to no-CD. Although household poverty level was associated with both measures, financial difficulties occurred in all family income brackets.Financial difficulties are common in families of hospitalized children. Low-income families and those who have children with chronic conditions are at particular risk; however, financial difficulties affect all subsets of the pediatric population. Hospitalization may be a prime opportunity to identify and engage families at risk for financial distress and medical financial burden.

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3500

    View details for PubMedID 33147127

  • Day of Illness and Outcomes in Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations. Pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Destino, L. A., Ip, W. n., Vukin, E. n., Brooks, R. n., Stoddard, G. n., Coon, E. R. 2020


    Bronchiolitis is often described to follow an expected clinical trajectory, with a peak in severity between days 3 and 5. This predicted trajectory may influence anticipatory guidance and clinical decision-making. We aimed to determine the association between day of illness at admission and outcomes, including hospital length of stay, receipt of positive-pressure ventilation, and total cough duration.We compiled data from 2 multicenter prospective studies involving bronchiolitis hospitalizations in patients <2 years. Patients were excluded for complex conditions. We assessed total cough duration via weekly postdischarge phone calls. We used mixed-effects multivariable regression models to test associations between day of illness and outcomes, with adjustment for age, sex, insurance (government versus nongovernment), race, and ethnicity.The median (interquartile range) day of illness at admission for 746 patients was 4 (2-5) days. Day of illness at admission was not associated with length of stay (coefficient 0.01 days, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.05 to 0.08 days), positive-pressure ventilation (adjusted odds ratio: 1.0, 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.1), or total cough duration (coefficient 0.33 days, 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.67 days). Additionally, there was no significant difference in day of illness at discharge in readmitted versus nonreadmitted patients (5.9 vs 6.4 days, P = .54). The median cough duration postdischarge was 6 days, with 65 (14.3%) patients experiencing cough for 14+ days.We found no associations between day of illness at admission and outcomes in bronchiolitis hospitalizations. Practitioners should exercise caution when making clinical decisions or providing anticipatory guidance based on symptom duration.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2020-1537

    View details for PubMedID 33093138

  • Too Much of a Good Thing: Hyperoxia and Pediatric Respiratory Illnesses. Pediatrics Ralston, S. L., Lonhart, J. A., Schroeder, A. R. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2019-3343

    View details for PubMedID 32719108

  • Reducing Variability in the Infant Sepsis Evaluation (REVISE): A National Quality Initiative. Pediatrics Biondi, E. A., McCulloh, R., Staggs, V. S., Garber, M., Hall, M., Arana, J., Barsotti, B., Natt, B. C., Schroeder, A. R., Schroeder, L., Wylie, T., Ralston, S. L., AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS REVISE COLLABORATIVE 2019


    BACKGROUND: Substantial variability exists in the care of febrile, well-appearing infants. We aimed to assess the impact of a national quality initiative on appropriate hospitalization and length of stay (LOS) in this population.METHODS: The initiative, entitled Reducing Variability in the Infant Sepsis Evaluation (REVISE), was designed to standardize care for well-appearing infants ages 7 to 60 days evaluated for fever without an obvious source. Twelve months of baseline and 12 months of implementation data were collected from emergency departments and inpatient units. Ill-appearing infants and those with comorbid conditions were excluded. Participating sites received change tools, run charts, a mobile application, live webinars, coaching, and a LISTSERV. Analyses were performed via statistical process control charts and interrupted time series regression. The 2 outcome measures were the percentage of hospitalized infants who were evaluated and hospitalized appropriately and the percentage of hospitalized infants who were discharged with an appropriate LOS.RESULTS: In total, 124 hospitals from 38 states provided data on 20570 infants. The median site improvement in percentages of infants who were evaluated and hospitalized appropriately and in those with appropriate LOS was 5.3% (interquartile range = -2.5% to 13.7%) and 15.5% (interquartile range = 2.9 to 31.3), respectively. Special cause variation toward the target was identified for both measures. There was no change in delayed treatment or missed bacterial infections (slope difference 0.1; 95% confidence interval, -8.3 to 9.1).CONCLUSIONS: Reducing Variability in the Infant Sepsis Evaluation noted improvement in key aspects of febrile infant management. Similar projects may be used to improve care in other clinical conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2018-2201

    View details for PubMedID 31434688

  • Medical Overuse and Appendicitis Treatment-Reply. JAMA pediatrics Coon, E. R., Schroeder, A. R. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.2399

    View details for PubMedID 31329244

  • Aligning Inpatient Pediatric Research With Settings of Care: A Call to Action PEDIATRICS McDaniel, C. E., Jennings, R., Schroeder, A. R., Paciorkowski, N., Hofmann, M., Leyenaar, J. 2019; 143 (5)
  • Right Care for Children: Top Five Do's and Don'ts AMERICAN FAMILY PHYSICIAN Schefft, M., Schroeder, A. R., Liu, D., Nicklas, D., Moher, J., Quinonez, R. 2019; 99 (6): 376–82
  • Association of Diagnostic Criteria With Urinary Tract Infection Prevalence in Bronchiolitis A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis JAMA PEDIATRICS McDaniel, C. E., Ralston, S., Lucas, B., Schroeder, A. R. 2019; 173 (3): 269–77
  • 2018 Update on Pediatric Medical Overuse: A Review. JAMA pediatrics Coon, E. R., Quinonez, R. A., Morgan, D. J., Dhruva, S. S., Ho, T., Money, N., Schroeder, A. R. 2019


    Importance: Efforts to combat medical overuse have gained traction in recent years, but success has been intermittent and shortcomings have been recognized. A commitment to a strong evidence base is needed to more broadly engage clinicians and reduce overuse.Observations: A structured MEDLINE search and a manual review of tables of contents from selected high-impact journals was performed to identify original research published in 2017 relevant to pediatric overuse. Articles were scored from low to high for 3 categories: quality of methods, magnitude of potential harm, and number of patients potentially harmed. The top-scoring articles presented in this review highlight examples of safe reductions in treatment intensity, including in the setting of cancer, appendicitis, acute respiratory tract infection, and elective anesthesia. This year's articles also provide cautionary examples of rational interventions adopted without a full understanding of potential harms, including pharmacologic migraine therapies, docosahexaenoic acid supplementation for preterm neonates, tight glycemic control for individuals with critically illness, and prophylactic antibiotics for children with vesicoureteral reflux.Conclusions and Relevance: The articles represent high-quality, original research from 2017 that may help mitigate overuse. These works should be fundamental to the maturation of the pediatric overuse field.

    View details for PubMedID 30776069

  • Association of Opioid Prescriptions From Dental Clinicians for US Adolescents and Young Adults With Subsequent Opioid Use and Abuse JAMA INTERNAL MEDICINE Schroeder, A. R., Dehghan, M., Newman, T. B., Bentley, J. P., Park, K. T. 2019; 179 (2): 145–52
  • Negative Urinalyses in Febrile Infants Age 7 to 60 Days Treated for Urinary Tract Infection JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE Schroeder, A. R., Lucas, B. P., Garber, M. D., McCulloh, R. J., Joshi-Patel, A. A., Biondi, E. A. 2019; 14 (2): 101–4

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3120

    View details for Web of Science ID 000457470400007

  • Negative Urinalyses in Febrile Infants Age 7 to 60 Days Treated for Urinary Tract Infection. Journal of hospital medicine Schroeder, A. R., Lucas, B. P., Garber, M. D., McCulloh, R. J., Joshi-Patel, A. A., Biondi, E. A. 2019; 14 (2): 101-104


    The role of the urinalysis (UA) in the management of young, febrile infants is controversial. To assess how frequently infants are treated for urinary tract infection (UTI) despite having normal UA values and to compare the characteristics of infants treated for UTI who have positive versus negative UAs, we reviewed 20,570 wellappearing febrile infants 7-60 days of age evaluated at 124 hospitals in the United States who were included in a national quality improvement project. Of 19,922 infants without bacteremia and meningitis, 2,407 (12.1%) were treated for UTI, of whom 2,298 (95.5%) had an initial UA performed. UAs were negative in 337/2,298 (14.7%) treated subjects. The proportion of infants treated for UTI with negative UAs ranged from 0%-35% across hospitals. UA-negative subjects were more likely to have respiratory symptoms and less likely to have abnormal inflammatory markers than UA+ subjects, indicating that they are mounting less of an inflammatory response to their underlying illness and/or might have contaminated specimens or asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.3120

    View details for PubMedID 30785417

  • Parent Attitudes and Preferences for Discussing Health Care Costs in the Inpatient Setting. Pediatrics Beck, J. n., Wignall, J. n., Jacob-Files, E. n., Tchou, M. J., Schroeder, A. n., Henrikson, N. B., Desai, A. D. 2019


    To explore parent attitudes toward discussing their child's health care costs in the inpatient setting and to identify strategies for health care providers to engage in cost discussions with parents.Using purposeful sampling, we conducted semistructured interviews between October 2017 and February 2018 with parents of children with and without chronic disease who received care at a tertiary academic children's hospital. Researchers coded the data using applied thematic analysis to identify salient themes and organized them into a conceptual model.We interviewed 42 parents and identified 2 major domains. Categories in the first domain related to factors that influence the parent's desire to discuss health care costs in the inpatient setting, including responsibility for out-of-pocket expenses, understanding their child's insurance coverage, parent responses to financial stress, and their child's severity of illness on hospital presentation. Categories in the second domain related to parent preference regarding the execution of cost discussions. Parents felt these discussions should be optional and individualized to meet the unique values and preferences of families. They highlighted concerns regarding physician involvement in these discussions; their preference instead was to explore financial issues with a financial counselor or social worker.Parents recommended that cost discussions in the inpatient setting should be optional and based on the needs of the family. Families expressed a desire for physicians to introduce rather than conduct cost discussions. Specific recommendations from parents for these discussions may be used to inform the initiation and improvement of cost discussions with families during inpatient encounters.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2018-4029

    View details for PubMedID 31270139

  • Testing for Meningitis in Febrile Well-Appearing Young Infants With a Positive Urinalysis. Pediatrics Wang, M. E., Biondi, E. A., McCulloh, R. J., Garber, M. D., Natt, B. C., Lucas, B. P., Schroeder, A. R. 2019


    To determine factors associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in febrile young infants with a positive urinalysis and assess the probability of delayed diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in infants treated for urinary tract infection (UTI) without CSF testing.We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Reducing Excessive Variability in Infant Sepsis Evaluation quality improvement project. A total of 20 570 well-appearing febrile infants 7 to 60 days old presenting to 124 hospitals from 2015 to 2017 were included. A mixed-effects logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with CSF testing. Delayed meningitis was defined as a new diagnosis of bacterial meningitis within 7 days of discharge.Overall, 3572 infants had a positive urinalysis; 2511 (70.3%) underwent CSF testing. There was wide variation by site, with CSF testing rates ranging from 64% to 100% for infants 7 to 30 days old and 10% to 100% for infants 31 to 60 days old. Factors associated with CSF testing included: age 7 to 30 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8-5.5), abnormal inflammatory markers (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.8-2.5), and site volume >300 febrile infants per year (aOR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.6). Among 505 infants treated for UTI without CSF testing, there were 0 (95% CI: 0%-0.6%) cases of delayed meningitis.There was wide variation in CSF testing in febrile infants with a positive urinalysis. Among infants treated for UTI without CSF testing (mostly 31 to 60-day-old infants), there were no cases of delayed meningitis within 7 days of discharge, suggesting that routine CSF testing of infants 31 to 60 days old with a positive urinalysis may not be necessary.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2018-3979

    View details for PubMedID 31395621

  • Early, Unanticipated PICU Transfers: Is There a Need for Improvement? Hospital pediatrics Flaherty, B. F., Schroeder, A. R. 2019

    View details for PubMedID 31023787

  • Patterns of Electrolyte Testing at Children's Hospitals for Common Inpatient Diagnoses. Pediatrics Tchou, M. J., Hall, M. n., Shah, S. S., Johnson, D. P., Schroeder, A. R., Antoon, J. W., Genies, M. C., Quinonez, R. n., Miller, C. W., Shah, S. P., Brady, P. W. 2019


    Overuse of laboratory testing contributes substantially to health care waste, downstream resource use, and patient harm. Understanding patterns of variation in hospital-level testing across common inpatient diagnoses could identify outliers and inform waste-reduction efforts.We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of pediatric inpatients at 41 children's hospitals using administrative data from 2010 to 2016. Initial electrolyte testing was defined as testing occurring within the first 2 days of an encounter, and repeat testing was defined as subsequent testing within an encounter in which initial testing occurred. To examine if testing rates correlated across diagnoses at the hospital level, we compared risk-adjusted rates for gastroenteritis with a weighted average of risk-adjusted rates in other diagnosis cohorts. For each diagnosis, linear regression was performed to compare initial and subsequent testing.In 497 719 patient encounters, wide variation was observed across hospitals in adjusted, initial, and repeat testing rates. Hospital-specific rates of testing in gastroenteritis were moderately to strongly correlated with the weighted average of testing in other conditions (initial: r = 0.63; repeat r = 0.83). Within diagnoses, higher hospital-level initial testing rates were associated with significantly increased rates of subsequent testing for all diagnoses except gastroenteritis.Among children's hospitals, rates of initial and repeat electrolyte testing vary widely across 8 common inpatient diagnoses. For most diagnoses, hospital-level rates of initial testing were associated with rates of subsequent testing. Consistent rates of testing across multiple diagnoses suggest that hospital-level factors, such as institutional culture, may influence decisions for electrolyte testing.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2018-1644

    View details for PubMedID 31171587

  • Dangers of Opioid Prescribing for Young Adults After Dental Procedures-Reply. JAMA internal medicine Schroeder, A. R., Newman, T. B., Park, K. T. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.0213

    View details for PubMedID 31107504

  • Reporting and Categorization of Blood Culture Contaminants in Infants and Young Children: A Scoping Review. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Chappell-Campbell, L., Schwenk, H. T., Capdarest-Arest, N., Schroeder, A. R. 2018


    Background: Blood cultures are obtained routinely for infants and young children for the evaluation for serious bacterial infection. Isolation of organisms that represent possible contaminants poses a management challenge. The prevalence of bacteremia reported in this population is potentially biased by inconsistent contaminant categorization reported in the literature. Our aim was to systematically review the definition and reporting of contaminants within the literature regarding infant bacteremia.Methods: A search of studies published between 1986 and mid-September 2016 was conducted using Medline/PubMed. Included studies examined children aged 0 to 36 months for whom blood culture was performed as part of a serious bacterial infection evaluation. Studies that involved children in an intensive care unit, prematurely born children, and immunocompromised children or those with an indwelling catheter/device were excluded. Data extracted included contaminant designation methodology, organisms classified as contaminants and pathogens, and contamination and bacteremia rates.Discussion: Our search yielded 1335 articles, and 69 of them met our inclusion criteria. The methodology used to define contaminants was described in 37 (54%) study reports, and 16 (23%) reported contamination rates, which ranged from 0.5% to 22.8%. Studies defined contaminants according to organism species (n = 22), according to the patient's clinical management (n = 4), and using multifactorial approaches (n = 11). Many common organisms, particularly Gram-positive cocci, were inconsistently categorized as pathogens or contaminants.Conclusions: Reporting and categorization of blood culture contamination are inconsistent within the pediatric bacteremia literature, which limits our ability to estimate the prevalence of bacteremia. Although contaminants are characterized most frequently according to organism, we found inconsistency regarding the classification of certain common organisms. A standardized approach to contaminant reporting is needed.

    View details for PubMedID 30544178

  • Oral Rehydration Solution-An Essential Therapy for Childhood Gastroenteritis Reply JAMA PEDIATRICS Coon, E. R., Quinonez, R. A., Schroeder, A. R. 2018; 172 (10): 991–92

    View details for PubMedID 30178045

  • Medical Overuse in Pediatric End-of-Life Care Reply JAMA PEDIATRICS Ralston, S. L., Schroeder, A. R. 2018; 172 (5): 496

    View details for PubMedID 29532065

  • Outcomes of Follow-up Visits After Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations. JAMA pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Destino, L. A., Brooks, R. n., Wang, C. J., Coon, E. R. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 29379947

  • The Quality of Pediatric Healthcare: What Are We Measuring? House, S. A., Coon, E., Schroeder, A., Ralston, S. AMER ACAD PEDIATRICS. 2018
  • "GAPPS" in Patient Safety. Pediatrics Quinonez, R. A., Schroeder, A. R. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 30006444

  • 2017 Update on Pediatric Medical Overuse: A Review. JAMA pediatrics Coon, E. R., Young, P. C., Quinonez, R. A., Morgan, D. J., Dhruva, S. S., Schroeder, A. R. 2018


    Medical overuse has historically focused on adult health care, but interest in how children are affected by medical overuse is increasing. This review examines important research articles published in 2016 that address pediatric overuse.A structured search of PubMed and a manual review of the tables of contents of 10 journals identified 169 articles related to pediatric overuse published in 2016, from which 8 were selected based on the quality of methods and potential harm to patients in terms of prevalence and magnitude. Articles were categorized by overtreatment, overmedicalization, and overdiagnosis. Findings included evidence of overtreatment with commercial rehydration solution, antidepressants, and parenteral nutrition; overmedicalization with planned early deliveries, immobilization of ankle injuries, and use of hydrolyzed infant formula; and evidence of overdiagnosis of hypoxemia among children recovering from bronchiolitis.The articles were of high quality, with most based on randomized clinical trials. The potential harms associated with pediatric overuse were significant, including increased risk of infection, developmental disability, and suicidality.

    View details for PubMedID 29582079

  • Teaching High-Value Care in Pediatrics: A National Survey of Current Practices and Guide for Future Curriculum Development. Journal of graduate medical education Tchou, M. J., Walz, A., Burgener, E., Schroeder, A., Blankenburg, R. 2017; 9 (6): 741-747


    Health care expenditures in the United States are increasing at an unsustainable pace. There have been calls to incorporate education on resource stewardship into medical training, yet the perceived need for and current use of high-value care (HVC) curricula in pediatrics residency programs is unknown.We described the current national landscape of HVC curricula in pediatrics residencies, including characterization of current programs, barriers to the practice of HVC, and clarification of preferred curricula types.Using a cross-sectional study design, we conducted a national, anonymous, web-based survey of pediatrics residency program directors and pediatrics chief residents in fall 2014.We received responses from 85 of 199 (43%) pediatrics program directors and 74 of 199 (37%) pediatrics chief residents. Only 10% (8 of 80) of program directors and 12% (8 of 65) of chief residents reported having a formal curriculum on HVC. Respondents identified the largest barriers to HVC as a lack of cost transparency (program directors) and attending physicians having the final say in treatment decisions (chief residents). The majority of respondents (83%, 121 of 146) agreed their program needs a HVC curriculum, and 90% (131 of 145) reported they would use a curriculum if it was available. Respondents significantly preferred a case-based conference discussion format over other approaches.Most pediatrics residency programs responding to a survey lacked formal HVC curricula. There is a desire nationally for HVC education in pediatrics, particularly in a case-based discussion format.

    View details for DOI 10.4300/JGME-D-17-00139.1

    View details for PubMedID 29270265

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5734330

  • Re: Balancing Breastfeeding Promotion. Pediatrics Garber, M. D., Schroeder, A. R., Flaherman, V. 2017; 140 (5)

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2017-2658A

    View details for PubMedID 29089405

  • Epidemiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid Cultures and Time to Detection in Term Infants PEDIATRICS Leazer, R., Erickson, N., Paulson, J., Zipkin, R., Stemmle, M., Schroeder, A. R., Bendel-Stenzel, M., Fine, B. R. 2017; 139 (5)


    Although meningitis is rare in previously healthy term infants, lumbar puncture is often performed to evaluate for source of illness. This study was performed to determine the time to detection for positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and to provide an update on the current epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in term infants.This study was a multicenter, retrospective review of positive CSF cultures in infants ≤90 days of age. Specimens were drawn in the emergency department or inpatient setting between January 2000 and December 2013. Cultures were deemed true pathogens or contaminant species based on the attending physician's treatment plan. Cultures from premature infants, an operative source, or those with significant medical history were excluded.A total of 410 positive CSF culture results were included, with 53 (12.9%) true pathogens and 357 (87.1%) contaminant species. The mean ± SD time to detection for true pathogens was 28.6 ± 16.8 hours (95% confidence interval, 24-33.2); for contaminant species, it was 68.1 ± 36.2 hours (95% confidence interval, 64.3-71.9). Forty-three true-positive cases (81.1%) were positive in ≤36 hours. The most common pathogen was group B Streptococcus (51%), followed by Escherichia coli (13%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (9%).The majority of pathogenic bacteria in CSF exhibit growth within 36 hours. Most growth from CSF cultures in febrile infants is treated as contamination. The epidemiology of meningitis has remained constant, with group B Streptococcus as the predominant pathogen, despite changes noted in the epidemiology of bacteremia in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2016-3268

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400371500026

    View details for PubMedID 28557739

  • Developing the PedsValue Modules - A National Pediatric High Value Care Curriculum. Academic pediatrics Avery, C. S., Beck, J., Padrez, R., LaRue Walker, L., Herrmann, L. E., Woods, S., Schroeder, A. R., Schickedanz, A. 2017

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2017.04.006

    View details for PubMedID 28428096

  • Categorization of National Pediatric Quality Measures PEDIATRICS House, S. A., Coon, E. R., Schroeder, A. R., Ralston, S. L. 2017; 139 (4)


    The number of quality measures has grown dramatically in recent years. This growth has outpaced research characterizing content and impact of these metrics. Our study aimed to identify and classify nationally promoted quality metrics applicable to children, both by type and by content, and to analyze the representation of common pediatric issues among available measures.We identified nationally applicable quality measure collections from organizational databases or clearinghouses, federal Web sites, and key informant interviews and then screened each measure for pediatric applicability. We classified measures as structure, process, or outcome using a Donabedian framework. Additionally, we classified process measures as targeting underuse, overuse, or misuse of health services. We then classified measures by content area and compared disease-specific metrics to frequency of diagnoses observed among children.A total of 386 identified measures were relevant to pediatric patients; exclusion of duplicates left 257 unique measures. The majority of pediatric measures were process measures (59%), most of which target underuse of health services (77%). Among disease-specific measures, those related to depression and asthma were the most common, reflecting the prevalence and importance of these conditions in pediatrics. Conditions such as respiratory infection and otitis media had fewer associated measures despite their prevalence. Other notable pediatric issues lacking associated measures included care of medically complex children and injuries.Pediatric quality measures are predominated by process measures targeting underuse of health care services. The content represented among these measures is broad, although there remain important gaps.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2016-3269

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398602400036

    View details for PubMedID 28298481

  • Update on Pediatric Overuse PEDIATRICS Coon, E. R., Young, P. C., Quinonez, R. A., Morgan, D. J., Dhruva, S. S., Schroeder, A. R. 2017; 139 (2)


    As concerns over health care-related harms and costs continue to mount, efforts to identify and combat medical overuse are needed. Although much of the recent attention has focused on health care for adults, children are also harmed by overuse. Using a structured PubMed search and manual tables of contents review, we identified important articles on pediatric overuse published in 2015. These articles were evaluated according to the quality of the methods, the magnitude of clinical effect, and the number of patients potentially affected and were categorized into overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and overutilization. Overdiagnosis: Findings included evidence for overdiagnosis of hypoxemia in children with bronchiolitis and skull fractures in children suffering minor head injuries. Overtreatment: Findings included evidence that up to 85% of hospitalized children with radiographic pneumonia may not have a bacterial etiology; many children are receiving prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy for osteomyelitis although oral therapy is equally effective; antidepressant medication for adolescents and nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis appear to be ineffective; and thresholds for treatment of hyperbilirubinemia may be too low. Overutilization: Findings suggested that the frequency of head circumference screening could be relaxed; large reductions in abdominal computed tomography testing for appendicitis appear to have been safe and effective; and overreliance on C-reactive protein levels in neonatal early onset sepsis appears to extend hospital length-of-stay.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2016-2797

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393035100053

    View details for PubMedID 28049113

  • US Preventive Task Force cites insufficient evidence for pediatric lipid screening. journal of pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Newman, T. B. 2017; 180: 291-294

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.10.059

    View details for PubMedID 28010798

  • Viral Testing for Pediatric Respiratory Infections: Why Precise Diagnoses Do Not Always Translate to Patient Benefit. JAMA Schroeder, A. R., Ralston, S. L. 2017; 318 (5): 472–73

    View details for PubMedID 28763534

  • Why It Is So Hard to Talk About Overuse in Pediatrics and Why It Matters. JAMA pediatrics Ralston, S. L., Schroeder, A. R. 2017

    View details for PubMedID 28828471

  • When technology creates uncertainty: pulse oximetry and overdiagnosis of hypoxaemia in bronchiolitis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) Quinonez, R. A., Coon, E. R., Schroeder, A. R., Moyer, V. A. 2017; 358: j3850

    View details for PubMedID 28814557

  • Randomized Trials in Children With UTI. Pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Newman, T. B. 2017; 140 (6)

    View details for PubMedID 29187581

  • Physician Preferences Surrounding Urinary Tract Infection Management in Neonates. Hospital pediatrics Joshi, N. S., Lucas, B. P., Schroeder, A. R. 2017


    Variability exists in the treatment of neonates with urinary tract infection (UTI), potentially reflecting an overuse of resources. A cross-sectional vignette survey was designed to examine variability in physician preferences for intravenous (IV) antibiotic duration, genitourinary imaging, and prophylactic antibiotics and to evaluate drivers of resource use.The survey was administered to a random sample of pediatricians through the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile. Respondents were provided with a case vignette of a 2-week-old neonate with a febrile UTI and asked to indicate preferences for IV antibiotic duration and rank drivers of this decision. Respondents were also asked whether they would obtain a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and, regardless of preference, randomly presented with a normal result or bilateral grade II vesicoureteral reflux. The survey was delivered electronically to facilitate skip logic and randomization.A total of 279 surveys were completed. Preference for total IV antibiotic duration differed significantly (P < .001) across specialty, with a median duration of 2 days for general pediatricians/hospitalists, 7 days for neonatologists, and 5 days for infectious disease pediatricians. For the 47% (n = 131) who did not want a VCUG, 24/61 (39%) wanted prophylactic antibiotics when presented with grade II vesicoureteral reflux (P < .001).Subspecialty status appeared to be the most influential driver of IV antibiotic duration in the treatment of UTI. A substantial proportion of pediatricians who initially expressed a preference against ordering a VCUG wished to prescribe prophylactic antibiotics when results were abnormal, which suggests that even unwanted diagnostic test results drive treatment decisions.

    View details for PubMedID 29196453

  • UTI and Faulty Gold Standards. Pediatrics Schroeder, A. R. 2017; 139 (3)

    View details for PubMedID 28246347

  • Urinary Imaging Findings in Young Infants With Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection. Hospital pediatrics Chang, P. W., Abidari, J. M., Shen, M. W., Greenhow, T. L., Bendel-Stenzel, M., Roman, H. K., Biondi, E. A., Schroeder, A. R. 2016; 6 (11): 647-652


    To describe renal ultrasound (RUS) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) findings and determine predictors of abnormal imaging in young infants with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI).We used retrospective data from a multicenter sample of infants younger than 3 months with bacteremic UTI, defined as the same pathogenic organism in blood and urine. Infants were excluded if they had any major comorbidities, known urologic abnormalities at time of presentation, required intensive unit care, or had no imaging performed. Imaging results as stated in the radiology reports were categorized by a pediatric urologist.Of the 276 infants, 19 were excluded. Of the remaining 257 infants, 254 underwent a RUS and 224 underwent a VCUG. Fifty-five percent had ≥1 RUS abnormalities. Thirty-four percent had ≥1 VCUG abnormalities, including vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, 27%), duplication (1.3%), and infravesicular abnormality (0.9%). Age <1 month, male sex, and non-Escherichia coli organism predicted an abnormal RUS, but only non-E coli organism predicted an abnormal VCUG. Seventeen of 96 infants (17.7%) with a normal RUS had an abnormal VCUG: 15 with VUR (Grade I-III = 13, Grade IV = 2), 2 with elevated postvoid residual, and 1 with infravesical abnormality.Although RUS and VCUG abnormalities were common in this cohort, the frequency and severity were similar to previous studies of infants with UTIs in general. Our findings do not support special consideration of bacteremia in imaging decisions for otherwise well-appearing young infants with UTI.

    View details for PubMedID 27707778

  • Overuse of Medical Imaging and Its Radiation Exposure: Who's Minding Our Children? JAMA pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Duncan, J. R. 2016; 170 (11): 1037-1038

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.2147

    View details for PubMedID 27654817

  • Is Tradition Trumping Evidence in the Treatment of Young, Febrile Infants? Hospital pediatrics Schroeder, A. R., Roberts, K. B. 2016; 6 (4): 252-253

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2016-0013

    View details for PubMedID 26980753

  • Intranasal dexmedetomidine: an effective sedative agent for electroencephalogram and auditory brain response testing. Paediatric anaesthesia Baier, N. M., Mendez, S. S., Kimm, D., Velazquez, A. E., Schroeder, A. R. 2016; 26 (3): 280-285


    Dexmedetomidine is an α2 agonist with sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic properties. The intranasal (IN) route avoids the pain of intravenous (i.v.) catheter placement but limited literature exists on the use of IN dexmedetomidine. This study examines the effectiveness and safety of IN dexmedetomidine for sedation of patients undergoing electroencephalogram (EEG) and auditory brain response (ABR) testing.This was a review of all outpatients sedated with IN dexmedetomidine for EEG or ABR between October 1, 2012 and October 1, 2014. An initial dose of 2.5-3 μg·kg(-1) IN dexmedetomidine was given with a repeat dose of 1-1.5 μg·kg(-1) IN if needed 30 min later. Prospectively entered patient information was extracted from a quality assurance database and additional information gathered via retrospective chart review.Intranasal dexmedetomidine was used in 169 patients (EEG = 117, ABR = 52). First-dose success rates were 90.4% for ABR and 87.2% for EEG. Total success rates (with one or two doses of IN dexmedetomidine) were 100% for ABR and 99.1% for EEG. The median time to onset of sleep was 25 min (IQR, 20-32 min). The median duration of sedation was 107 min (IQR, 90-131 min). Adverse events included: 18 patients (10.7%) with hypotension which resolved without intervention, six patients with oxygen desaturation <90%, two of whom received supplemental oxygen, and one patient with an underlying upper airway abnormality who was treated with continuous positive airway pressure.IN dexmedetomidine is an effective and noninvasive method of sedating children for EEG and ABR.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.12851

    View details for PubMedID 26814037

  • Bacteraemic urinary tract infection: management and outcomes in young infants. Archives of disease in childhood Schroeder, A. R., Shen, M. W., Biondi, E. A., Bendel-Stenzel, M., Chen, C. N., French, J., Lee, V., Evans, R. C., Jerardi, K. E., Mischler, M., Wood, K. E., Chang, P. W., Roman, H. K., Greenhow, T. L. 2016; 101 (2): 125-130


    To determine predictors of parenteral antibiotic duration and the association between parenteral treatment duration and relapses in infants <3 months with bacteraemic urinary tract infection (UTI).Multicentre retrospective cohort study.Eleven healthcare institutions across the USA.Infants <3 months of age with bacteraemic UTI, defined as the same pathogenic organism isolated from blood and urine.Duration of parenteral antibiotic therapy, relapsed UTI within 30 days.The mean (±SD) duration of parenteral antibiotics for the 251 included infants was 7.8 days (±4 days), with considerable variability between institutions (mean range 5.5-12 days). Independent predictors of the duration of parenteral antibiotic therapy included (coefficient, 95% CI): age (-0.2 days, -0.3 days to -0.08 days, for each week older), year treated (-0.2 days, -0.4 to -0.03 days for each subsequent calendar year), male gender (0.9 days, 0.01 to 1.8 days), a positive repeat blood culture during acute treatment (3.5 days, 1.2-5.9 days) and a non-Escherichia coli organism (2.2 days, 0.8-3.6 days). No infants had a relapsed bacteraemic UTI. Six infants (2.4%) had a relapsed UTI (without bacteraemia). The duration of parenteral antibiotics did not differ between infants with and without a relapse (8.2 vs 7.8 days, p=0.81).Parenteral antibiotic treatment duration in young infants with bacteraemic UTI was variable and only minimally explained by measurable patient factors. Relapses were rare and were not associated with treatment duration. Shorter parenteral courses may be appropriate in some infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/archdischild-2014-307997

    View details for PubMedID 26177657

  • Detection of abnormalities is not synonymous with patient benefit. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne Coon, E. R., Schroeder, A. R. 2016; 188 (1): 63-?

    View details for DOI 10.1503/cmaj.1150077

    View details for PubMedID 26729485

  • Lipid Screening in Children: Low-Value Care. JAMA internal medicine Newman, T. B., Schroeder, A. R., Pletcher, M. J. 2016

    View details for PubMedID 27533131

  • Doing More vs Doing Good Aligning Our Ethical Principles From the Personal to the Societal JAMA PEDIATRICS Ralston, S. L., Schroeder, A. R. 2015; 169 (12): 1085-1086
  • Association Between Hyponatremia and Higher Bronchiolitis Severity Among Children in the ICU With Bronchiolitis. Hospital pediatrics Hasegawa, K., Stevenson, M. D., Mansbach, J. M., Schroeder, A. R., Sullivan, A. F., Espinola, J. A., Piedra, P. A., Camargo, C. A. 2015; 5 (7): 385-389


    It remains unclear whether hyponatremia independently predicts a higher severity of bronchiolitis in children. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hyponatremia and bronchiolitis severity in children hospitalized in the ICU for bronchiolitis.We conducted a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children aged <2 years with bronchiolitis during the winters of 2007 through 2010. Patients were classified into 2 groups (normonatremic [135-145 mEq/L] and hyponatremic [<135 mEq/L]) based on the first-measured serum sodium concentration on the day of hospitalization. Outcomes were use of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay (LOS). To examine the association of sodium status with outcomes, we fit logistic and linear regression models with propensity score adjustment.Of 231 children hospitalized in the ICU for bronchiolitis, 193 (84%) were categorized into the normonatremic group and 38 (16%) into the hyponatremic group. Compared with children with normonatremia, those with hyponatremia had higher risks of mechanical ventilation use (40% vs 58%; P = .04) and longer ICU LOS (median, 3 vs 6 days; P = .007). Likewise, in the adjusted analyses, children with hyponatremia had significantly higher risks of mechanical ventilation use (odds ratio, 2.14 [95% confidence interval, 1.03-4.48; P = .04) and longer ICU LOS (β-coefficient, 2.21 days [95% confidence interval, 0.68-3.73; P = .005]).In this prospective, multicenter study of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis, hyponatremia on the day of hospitalization was associated with a higher severity of disease. Our data support hyponatremia as a prognostic factor that might improve the ability of clinicians to predict the disease course of children with severe bronchiolitis.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2015-0022

    View details for PubMedID 26136313

  • Diagnostic Accuracy of the Urinalysis for Urinary Tract Infection in Infants < 3 Months of Age PEDIATRICS Schroeder, A. R., Chang, P. W., Shen, M. W., Biondi, E. A., Greenhow, T. L. 2015; 135 (6): 965-971


    The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics urinary tract infection (UTI) guideline suggests incorporation of a positive urinalysis (UA) into the definition of UTI. However, concerns linger over UA sensitivity in young infants. Infants with the same pathogenic organism in the blood and urine (bacteremic UTI) have true infections and represent a desirable population for examination of UA sensitivity.We collected UA results on a cross-sectional sample of 276 infants <3 months of age with bacteremic UTI from 11 hospital systems. Sensitivity was calculated on infants who had at least a partial UA performed and had ≥50 000 colony-forming units per milliliter from the urine culture. Specificity was determined by using a random sample of infants from the central study site with negative urine cultures.The final sample included 245 infants with bacteremic UTI and 115 infants with negative urine cultures. The sensitivity of leukocyte esterase was 97.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.5%-99.2%) and of pyuria (>3 white blood cells/high-power field) was 96% (95% CI 92.5%-98.1%). Only 1 infant with bacteremic UTI (Group B Streptococcus) and a complete UA had an entirely negative UA. In infants with negative urine cultures, leukocyte esterase specificity was 93.9% (95% CI 87.9 - 97.5) and of pyuria was 91.3% (84.6%-95.6%).In young infants with bacteremic UTI, UA sensitivity is higher than previous reports in infants with UTI in general. This finding can be explained by spectrum bias or by inclusion of faulty gold standards (contaminants or asymptomatic bacteriuria) in previous studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2015-0012

    View details for PubMedID 26009628

  • Safely Doing Less and the New AAP Bronchiolitis Guideline PEDIATRICS Quinonez, R. A., Schroeder, A. R. 2015; 135 (5): 793-795

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-3703

    View details for PubMedID 25847807

  • Hospital Course and Discharge Criteria for Children Hospitalized With Bronchiolitis JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE Mansbach, J. M., Clark, S., Piedra, P. A., Macias, C. G., Schroeder, A. R., Pate, B. M., Sullivan, A. F., Espinola, J. A., Camargo, C. A. 2015; 10 (4): 205-211


    For children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, there is uncertainty about the expected inpatient clinical course and when children are safe for discharge.Examine the time to clinical improvement, risk of clinical worsening after improvement, and develop discharge criteria.Prospective multiyear cohort study.Sixteen US hospitals.Consecutive hospitalized children age <2 years with bronchiolitis.We defined clinical improvement using: (1) retraction severity, (2) respiratory rate, (3) room air oxygen saturation, and (4) hydration status. After meeting improvement criteria, children were considered clinically worse based on the inverse of ≥1 of these criteria or need for intensive care.Among 1916 children, the median number of days from onset of difficulty breathing until clinical improvement was 4 (interquartile range, 3-7.5 days). Of the total, 1702 (88%) met clinical improvement criteria, with 4% worsening (3% required intensive care). Children who worsened were age <2 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07-5.94), gestational age <37 weeks (AOR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.13-3.32), and presented with severe retractions (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 2.12-14.50), inadequate oral intake (AOR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.39-4.62), or apnea (AOR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.45-5.68). Readmissions were similar for children who did and did not worsen.Although children hospitalized with bronchiolitis had wide-ranging recovery times, only 4% worsened after initial improvement. Children who worsened were more likely to be younger, premature infants presenting in more severe distress. For children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, these data may help establish more evidence-based discharge criteria, reduce practice variability, and safely shorten hospital length-of-stay.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.2318

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352631400001

    View details for PubMedID 25627657

  • Diagnosis and management of bacteremic urinary tract infection in infants. Hospital pediatrics Roman, H. K., Chang, P. W., Schroeder, A. R. 2015; 5 (1): 1-8


    To report the prevalence of bacteremia by age in a sample of infants<1 year of age with urinary tract infections (UTIs), to compare characteristics of infants with UTIs with and without bacteremia, and to describe treatment courses and 30-day outcomes in infants with UTIs with and without bacteremia.We used a retrospective cross-sectional design to determine the prevalence of bacteremia in infants with UTIs at our institution. A double cohort design matching for age and gender was used to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes between infants with bacteremic versus nonbacteremic UTIs.We identified 1379 UTIs, with blood cultures obtained in 52% of cases. The prevalence of bacteremia was 4.1% (95% confidence interval 3.1%-5.3%) for all UTIs and 8% (95% confidence interval 6.1%-10.2%) for UTIs in which blood culture was obtained. Fifty-five infants with bacteremic UTIs were compared with 110 infants with nonbacteremic UTIs. Except for minor differences in the urinalysis and serum band count, there were no significant differences in clinical presentation between the 2 groups. Bacteremic infants received longer parenteral treatment courses than nonbacteremic infants (mean 6.7 vs 2.4 days, P<.001). Treatment courses in the bacteremic group were variable and predicted by age but not severity of illness. No bacteremic infant had recurrent UTI or bacteremia with the same organism within 30 days of discharge.Treatment was variable but outcomes were excellent in infants with bacteremic UTIs.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2014-0051

    View details for PubMedID 25554753

  • Overdiagnosis: How Our Compulsion for Diagnosis May Be Harming Children PEDIATRICS Coon, E. R., Quinonez, R. A., Moyer, V. A., Schroeder, A. R. 2014; 134 (5): 1013-1023


    Overdiagnosis occurs when a true abnormality is discovered, but detection of that abnormality does not benefit the patient. It should be distinguished from misdiagnosis, in which the diagnosis is inaccurate, and it is not synonymous with overtreatment or overuse, in which excess medication or procedures are provided to patients for both correct and incorrect diagnoses. Overdiagnosis for adult conditions has gained a great deal of recognition over the last few years, led by realizations that certain screening initiatives, such as those for breast and prostate cancer, may be harming the very people they were designed to protect. In the fall of 2014, the second international Preventing Overdiagnosis Conference will be held, and the British Medical Journal will produce an overdiagnosis-themed journal issue. However, overdiagnosis in children has been less well described. This special article seeks to raise awareness of the possibility of overdiagnosis in pediatrics, suggesting that overdiagnosis may affect commonly diagnosed conditions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, bacteremia, food allergy, hyperbilirubinemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and urinary tract infection. Through these and other examples, we discuss why overdiagnosis occurs and how it may be harming children. Additionally, we consider research and education strategies, with the goal to better elucidate pediatric overdiagnosis and mitigate its influence.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-1778

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344385900051

    View details for PubMedID 25287462

  • Palliative care is critical to the changing face of child mortality and morbidity in the United States. Clinical pediatrics Bogetz, J. F., Schroeder, A. R., Bergman, D. A., Cohen, H. J., Sourkes, B. 2014; 53 (11): 1030-1031

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0009922814534767

    View details for PubMedID 24817074

  • Intravenous Antibiotic Durations for Common Bacterial Infections in Children: When is Enough Enough? JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE Schroeder, A. R., Ralston, S. L. 2014; 9 (9): 604-609


    Durations of intravenous antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections in hospitalized children sometimes extend well beyond clinical recovery and are often the primary determinants of length of stay. These durations, however, are not always based on solid evidence. Moreover, fixed durations are invariant to important individual factors. We review guidelines and the available evidence for durations of intravenous antibiotic therapy for meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and osteomyelitis, conditions where intravenous antibiotics often extend beyond resolution of clinical symptoms. We propose a framework for the duration of therapy that is intended to serve as a guide when standards of care are either nonexistent, dated, conflicting, or contrary to evidence from published studies. This framework incorporates patient-centered factors such as severity of infection, response to therapy, ease of intravenous access, harms and costs of ongoing intravenous treatment, and family preferences.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.2239

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342679100010

    View details for PubMedID 25044445

  • Recent evidence on the management of bronchiolitis CURRENT OPINION IN PEDIATRICS Schroeder, A. R., Mansbach, J. M. 2014; 26 (3): 328-333


    Bronchiolitis is a common condition in children less than 2  years of age and is a leading cause of infant hospitalization. Although there is significant variability in testing and treatment of children with bronchiolitis, diagnostic testing rarely improves care, and no currently available pharmacologic options have been proven to provide meaningful benefits or improve outcomes.Beta-agonists continue to be used frequently despite evidence that they do not reduce hospital admissions or length of stay. In general, therapies initially considered promising were subsequently proven ineffective, a pattern seen in studies on corticosteroids, and more recently with nebulized racemic epinephrine and hypertonic saline. Recent research has improved our understanding of the viral epidemiology of bronchiolitis, with increasing recognition of viruses other than respiratory syncytial virus and better awareness of the role of viral coinfections. How these findings will translate into improved outcomes remains uncertain.Much of the emphasis of the last few decades of bronchiolitis clinical care and research has centered on the identification and testing of novel therapies. Future quality improvement efforts should focus more on the limitation of unnecessary testing and treatments. Future research should include identification of subgroups of children with bronchiolitis that may benefit from focused clinical interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000090

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335956800011

    View details for PubMedID 24739493

  • The never-ending quest to detect bacteremia: time for a culture change. Hospital pediatrics Schroeder, A. R. 2014; 4 (2): 85-87

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2013-0122

    View details for PubMedID 24584977

  • Apnea in Children Hospitalized With Bronchiolitis PEDIATRICS Schroeder, A. R., Mansbach, J. M., Stevenson, M., Macias, C. G., Fisher, E. S., Barcega, B., Sullivan, A. F., Espinola, J. A., Piedra, P. A., Camargo, C. A. 2013; 132 (5): E1194-E1201


    To identify risk factors for inpatient apnea among children hospitalized with bronchiolitis.We enrolled 2207 children, aged <2 years, hospitalized with bronchiolitis at 16 sites during the winters of 2007 to 2010. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were obtained on all subjects, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to test NPA samples for 16 viruses. Inpatient apnea was ascertained by daily chart review, with outcome data in 2156 children (98%). Age was corrected for birth <37 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors for inpatient apnea.Inpatient apnea was identified in 108 children (5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%). Statistically significant, independent predictors of inpatient apnea included: corrected ages of <2 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 9.67) and 2 to 8 weeks (OR 4.72), compared with age ≥ 6 months; birth weight <2.3 kg (5 pounds; OR 2.15), compared with ≥ 3.2 kg (7 pounds); caretaker report of previous apnea during this bronchiolitis episode (OR 3.63); preadmission respiratory rates of <30 (OR 4.05), 30 to 39 (OR 2.35) and >70 (OR 2.26), compared with 40 to 49; and having a preadmission room air oxygen saturation <90% (OR 1.60). Apnea risk was similar across the major viral pathogens.In this prospective, multicenter study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, inpatient apnea was associated with younger corrected age, lower birth weight, history of apnea, and preadmission clinical factors including low or high respiratory rates and low room air oxygen saturation. Several bronchiolitis pathogens were associated with apnea, with similar apnea risk across the major viral pathogens.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2013-1501

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326475000010

    View details for PubMedID 24101759

  • Ruling out bacteremia and bacterial meningitis in infants less than one month of age: is 48 hours of hospitalization necessary? Hospital pediatrics Fielding-Singh, V., Hong, D. K., Harris, S. J., Hamilton, J. R., Schroeder, A. R. 2013; 3 (4): 355-361


    The appropriate duration of hospitalization for infants ≤ 30 days admitted for fever or other concerns for a serious bacterial infection is an understudied area. We sought to determine the risk of a positive, pathogenic bacterial culture of blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in this population beyond 24 hours after collection.This study was a retrospective review of 1145 infants aged ≤30 days who had a blood or CSF culture from 1999 to 2010 at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, a county health system in San Jose, California. Time to notification and the probability of a positive culture result after 24 hours were calculated. Infants were considered high risk if they had either a white blood cell count <5000 or >15 000 per µL, a band count >1500 per µL, or an abnormal urinalysis.We identified 1876 cultures (1244 blood, 632 CSF) in 1145 infants aged ≤30 days; 901 (79%) of 1145 were hospitalized and 408 (45%) of 901 hospitalizations were for fever without source (FWS). Thirty-one (2.7%) of the 1145 infants had pathogenic cultures; 6 of 1145 infants (0.5% [95% confidence interval: 0.2-1.1]) had a time to notification >24 hours. All 6 patients had FWS (1.5% of hospitalized FWS sample) and met high-risk criteria on presentation. No low-risk patients had a time to notification >24 hours. Low-risk characteristics were found in 57% (232 of 408) of the entire hospitalized FWS population.Low-risk infants hospitalized for FWS or other concerns for serious bacterial infection may not need hospitalization for a full 48 hours simply to rule out bacteremia and bacterial meningitis.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2013-0009

    View details for PubMedID 24435193

  • Choosing wisely in pediatric hospital medicine: Five opportunities for improved healthcare value JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE Quinonez, R. A., Garber, M. D., Schroeder, A. R., Alverson, B. K., Nickel, W., Goldstein, J., Bennett, J. S., Fine, B. R., Hartzog, T. H., McLean, H. S., Mittal, V., Pappas, R. M., Percelay, J. M., Phillips, S. C., Shen, M., Ralston, S. L. 2013; 8 (9): 479-485


    Despite estimates that waste constitutes up to 20% of healthcare expenditures in the United States, overuse of tests and therapies is significantly under-recognized in medicine, particularly in pediatrics. The American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation developed the Choosing Wisely campaign, which challenged medical societies to develop a list of 5 things physicians and patients should question. The Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) joined this effort in the spring of 2012. This report provides the pediatric work group's results.A work group of experienced and geographically dispersed pediatric hospitalists was convened by the Quality and Safety Committee of the SHM. This group developed an initial list of 20 recommendations, which was pared down through a modified Delphi process to the final 5 listed below.The top 5 recommendations proposed for pediatric hospital medicine are: (1) Do not order chest radiographs in children with asthma or bronchiolitis. (2) Do not use systemic corticosteroids in children under 2 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infection. (3) Do not use bronchodilators in children with bronchiolitis. (4) Do not treat gastroesophageal reflux in infants routinely with acid suppression therapy. (5) Do not use continuous pulse oximetry routinely in children with acute respiratory illness unless they are on supplemental oxygen.We recommend that pediatric hospitalists use this list to prioritize quality improvement efforts and include issues of waste and overuse in their efforts to improve patient care.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.2064

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324022200001

    View details for PubMedID 23955837

  • The Harm in Looking JAMA PEDIATRICS Schroeder, A. R., Redberg, R. F. 2013; 167 (8): 693-695
  • Fever Literacy and Fever Phobia CLINICAL PEDIATRICS Wallenstein, M. B., Schroeder, A. R., Hole, M. K., Ryan, C., Fijalkowski, N., Alvarez, E., Carmichael, S. L. 2013; 52 (3): 254-259


    To identify the percentage of parents who define the threshold for fever between 38.0°C and 38.3°C, which has not been reported previously, and to describe parental attitudes toward fever and antipyretic use.Thirteen-question survey study of caregivers.Overall, 81% of participants defined the threshold for fever as <38.0°C, 0% correctly defined fever between 38.0°C and 38.3°C, and 19% defined fever as >38.3°C. Twenty percent of children brought to clinic for a chief complaint of fever were never truly febrile. Ninety-three percent of participants believed that high fever can cause brain damage. For a comfortable-appearing child with fever, 89% of caregivers reported that they would give antipyretics and 86% would schedule a clinic visit.Our finding that 0% of parents correctly defined fever is both surprising and unsettling, and it should inform future discussions of fever between parents and clinicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0009922812472252

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317849900007

    View details for PubMedID 23349363

  • Utility of Clinical and Radiographic Findings in the Management of Traumatic Epidural Hematoma PEDIATRIC NEUROSURGERY Flaherty, B. F., Loya, J., Alexander, M. D., Pandit, R., Ha, B. Y., Torres, R. A., Schroeder, A. R. 2013; 49 (4): 208-214


    There are currently no clear guidelines for the management and radiological monitoring of pediatric patients with epidural hematomas (EDH). We aim to compare clinical and radiographic characteristics of pediatric EDH patients managed with observation alone versus surgical evacuation and to describe results of repeat head imaging in both groups.We performed a retrospective observational study of pediatric patients diagnosed with traumatic EDH at a level II trauma center.Forty-seven cases of EDH were analyzed. Sixty-two percent were managed by observation alone. Patients undergoing surgery were more likely to have an altered mental status (17 vs. 72%, p < 0.001), but there were no other significant clinical differences between the groups. The mean initial EDH thickness and volume were 8.0 mm and 8.6 ml in the observed group and 15.5 mm and 35 ml in the surgery group, respectively (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). Eighty-six percent of the observed and all surgery patients underwent repeat CT imaging. The initial repeat CT scan results led to surgery in 1 patient who was initially treated with observation.Most pediatric patients with EDH can be managed with observation. Mental status and radiographic findings should guide the need for surgical intervention. Multiple repeat CT scans have minimal utility in changing management.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000363143

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342731700003

  • Saving a Life After Discharge: CPR Training for Parents of High-Risk Children JOURNAL FOR HEALTHCARE QUALITY Knight, L. J., Wintch, S., Nichols, A., Arnolde, V., Schroeder, A. R. 2013; 35 (1): 9-17


    Pediatric patients with chronic disease are at risk for cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). Outcomes of CPA are improved if prompt quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is performed. This study examined the efficacy of the CPR Anytime™ Kit as a standardized method of CPR discharge training to families of high-risk children. The kit was provided to parents of 117 high-risk pediatric patients prior to hospital discharge. A telephone survey was used at 1, 3, and 6 months to assess retention of CPR knowledge and skills, parental comfort levels with CPR, and kit dissemination to family members. A second survey was used 1 year after implementation of program to assess nursing satisfaction. CPR comfort levels were reported as confident, knowledge and skills were reported as moderate on follow-up telephone surveys. A total of 82% of subjects reviewed the video at least once after discharge, and 79% of subjects shared the kit with at least two other family members or friends. A total of 72 of 74 nurses (97% ) surveyed were either "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with the program. Provision of the CPR Anytime Kit™ to families of high-risk pediatric patients prior to discharge leads to sustained levels of CPR knowledge and confidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1945-1474.2012.00221.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000209221500001

  • Cholesterol Screening and Management in Children and Young Adults Should Start Early - NO! CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY Schroeder, A. R., Redberg, R. F. 2012; 35 (11): 665-668


    In 2011, an expert panel from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute released recommendations for universal lipid screening and treatment of high cholesterol in children. There is no evidence that universal screening will help children lead longer, healthier lives. These recommendations will, however, fuel the epidemic of overtreatment that is currently threatening our healthcare system and our patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/clc.22075

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311103200008

    View details for PubMedID 23161509

  • Safely Doing Less: A Missing Component of the Patient Safety Dialogue PEDIATRICS Schroeder, A. R., Harris, S. J., Newman, T. B. 2011; 128 (6): E1596-E1597

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2011-2726

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298131400026

    View details for PubMedID 22123887

  • Impact of a More Restrictive Approach to Urinary Tract Imaging After Febrile Urinary Tract Infection ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Schroeder, A. R., Abidari, J. M., Kirpekar, R., Hamilton, J. R., Kang, Y. S., VyThao Tran, V., Harris, S. J. 2011; 165 (11): 1027-1032


    To determine the impact of using an algorithm requiring selective rather than routine urinary tract imaging following a first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) on imaging use, detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), prophylactic antibiotic use, and UTI recurrence within 6 months.Retrospective review comparing outcomes during periods before algorithm use (September 1, 2006, to August 31, 2007) and after algorithm use (September 1, 2008, to August 31, 2009). The new algorithm, which adapted recommendations from the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2007 guidelines, was implemented in 2008. The algorithm calls for renal ultrasonography in most cases and restricts voiding cystourethrography for use in patients with certain risk factors.County health system.Children younger than 2 years with a first febrile UTI.Selective algorithm for urinary tract imaging.Urinary tract imaging use, detection of VUR, prophylactic antibiotic use, and UTI recurrence within 6 months.After introduction of the new algorithm, voiding cystourethrography and prophylactic antibiotic use decreased markedly. Rates of UTI recurrence within 6 months and detection of grades 4 and 5 VUR did not change, but detection of grades 1 to 3 VUR decreased substantially. Patients in the prealgorithm group with grades 1 to 3 VUR who would have been missed with selective screening underwent no interventions other than successive urinary tract imaging and prophylactic antibiotic use.By restricting urinary tract imaging after an initial febrile UTI, rates of voiding cystourethrography and prophylactic antibiotic use decreased substantially without increasing the risk of UTI recurrence within 6 months and without an apparent decrease in detection of high-grade VUR. Clinicians can be more judicious in their use of urinary tract imaging.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296656500010

    View details for PubMedID 22065183

  • A continuous heparin infusion does not prevent catheter-related thrombosis in infants after cardiac surgery PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Schroeder, A. R., Axelrod, D. M., Silverman, N. H., Rubesova, E., Merkel, E., Roth, S. J. 2010; 11 (4): 489-495


    To determine whether a continuous infusion of heparin reduces the rate of catheter-related thrombosis in neonates and infants post cardiac surgery. Central venous and intracardiac catheters are used routinely in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients. Catheter-related thrombosis occurs in 8% to 45% of pediatric patients with central venous catheters.Single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial.Cardiovascular intensive care unit, university-affiliated children's hospital.Children <1 yr of age recovering from cardiac surgery.Patients were randomized to receive either continuous heparin at 10 units/kg/hr or placebo. The primary end point was catheter-related thrombosis as assessed by serial ultrasonography.Study enrollment was discontinued early based on results from an interim futility analysis. Ninety subjects were enrolled and received the study drug (heparin, 53; placebo, 37). The catheter-related thrombosis rate in the heparin group, compared with the placebo group, was 15% vs. 16% (p = .89). Subjects in the heparin group had a higher mean partial thromboplastin time (52 secs vs. 42 secs, p = .001), and this difference was greater for those aged <30 days (64 secs vs. 43 secs, p = .008). Catheters in place > or = 7 days had both a greater risk of thrombus formation (odds ratio, 4.3; p = .02) and catheter malfunction (odds ratio, 11.2; p = .008). We observed no significant differences in other outcome measures or in the frequency of adverse events.A continuous infusion of heparin at 10 units/kg/hr was safe but did not reduce catheter-related thrombus formation. Heparin at this dose caused an increase in partial thromboplastin time values, which, unexpectedly, was more pronounced in neonates.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181ce6e29

    View details for PubMedID 20101197

  • Heparin and catheter-related thrombosis in infants following cardiac surgery: Interim results from a randomized trial 80th Annual Scientific Session of the American-Heart-Association (AHA) Schroeder, A. R., Silverman, N., Axelrod, D. M., Merkel, E., Roth, S. J., Packard, L. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2007: 515–15
  • Choice of urine collection methods for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in young, febrile infants Annual Meeting of the Pediatric-Academic-Societies Schroeder, A. R., Newman, T. B., Wasserman, R. C., Finch, S. A., Pantell, R. H. AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 2005: 915–22


    The optimal method of urine collection in febrile infants is debatable; catheterization, considered more accurate, is technically difficult and invasive.To determine predictors of urethral catheterization in febrile infants and to compare bag and catheterized urine test performance characteristics.Prospective analysis of infants enrolled in the Pediatric Research in Office Settings' Febrile Infant Study.A total of 219 practices from within the Pediatric Research in Office Settings' network, including 44 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.A total of 3066 infants aged 0 to 3 months with temperatures of 38 degrees C or higher.We calculated adjusted odds ratios for predictors of catheterization. Diagnostic test characteristics were compared between bag and catheterization. Urinary tract infection was defined as pure growth of 100 000 CFU/mL or more (bag) and 20 000 CFU/mL or more (catheterization).Seventy percent of urine samples were obtained by catheterization. Predictors of catheterization included female sex, practitioner older than 40 years, Medicaid, Hispanic ethnicity, nighttime evaluation, and severe dehydration. For leukocyte esterase levels, bag specimens demonstrated no difference in sensitivity but somewhat lower specificity (84% [bag] vs 94% [catheterization], P<.001) and a lower area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for white blood cells (0.71 [bag] vs 0.86 [catheterization], P = .01). Infection rates were similar in bag and catheterized specimens (8.5% vs 10.8%). Ambiguous cultures were more common in bag specimens (7.4% vs 2.7%, P<.001), but 21 catheterized specimens are needed to avoid each ambiguous bag result.Most practitioners obtain urine from febrile infants via catheterization, but choice of method is not related to the risk of urinary tract infection. Although both urine cultures and urinalyses are more accurate in catheterized specimens, the magnitude of difference is small but should be factored into clinical decision making.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232322000002

    View details for PubMedID 16203935

  • Prolonged infusion of dexmedetomidine for sedation following tracheal resection PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA Hammer, G. B., Philip, B. M., Schroeder, A. R., Rosen, F. S., Koltai, P. J. 2005; 15 (7): 616-620


    Dexmedetomidine is a centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for short-term use (< or = 24 h) to provide sedation in adults in the ICU. This drug has been shown to be efficacious in adult medical and surgical patients in providing sedation, anxiolysis, and analgesia. Dexmedetomidine has been associated with rapid onset and offset, hemodynamic stability, and a natural, sleep-like state in mechanically ventilated adults. To date, there are few publications of the use of this drug in children, and prolonged infusion has not been described. We report our use of dexmedetomidine in a child during a 4-day period of mechanical ventilation following tracheal reconstruction for subglottic stenosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01656.x

    View details for PubMedID 15960649

  • Impact of pulse oximetry and oxygen therapy on length of stay in bronchiolitis hospitalizations 40th State-of-the-Art Program on Compound Semiconductors (SOTAPOCS XL)/2nd Narrow Bandgap Optoelectronic Materials and Devices Symposium Schroeder, A. R., Marmor, A. K., PANTELL, R. H., Newman, T. B. AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 2004: 527–30


    Infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis are frequently monitored with a pulse oximeter. However, there is little consensus on an acceptable lower limit of oxygenation. No previous studies have examined how the use of pulse oximetry and supplemental oxygen therapy affects length of stay.To determine the extent to which bronchiolitis hospitalizations are prolonged by a perceived need for supplemental oxygen based on pulse oximetry readings. Design and Patients Retrospective case series of subjects younger than 2 years who were hospitalized with bronchiolitis at an academic medical center. Two investigators independently reviewed the hospitalization records of 73 infants and determined at what point an infant met all discharge criteria except oxygenation. We then calculated the extent to which hospitalizations were prolonged by a perceived need for supplemental oxygen therapy based on pulse oximetry readings alone.Sixty-two infants met inclusion criteria. There was high interrater reliability in determining whether hospitalizations were prolonged (kappa = 0.75). In 16 (26%) of 62 patients (95% confidence interval, 15%-37%), the hospitalization was prolonged because of oxygenation concerns. Length of stay was prolonged an average of 1.6 days (range, 1.1-2.0 days) per hospitalization for these 16 patients, or 0.4 day (range, 0.2-0.6 day) per hospitalization for all 62 patients.Hospitalizations of some infants with bronchiolitis are prolonged by a perceived need for supplemental oxygen therapy based on pulse oximetry readings. Further investigation into outcomes of different levels and durations of oxygen desaturation is needed and would have the potential to reduce practice variability and shorten the length of stay.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221827700004

    View details for PubMedID 15184214

  • Pulse oximetry in bronchiolitis patients PEDIATRICS Schroeder, A. R., Marmor, A., Newman, T. B. 2003; 112 (6): 1463-1463

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186957500059

    View details for PubMedID 14654639