Noninvasive ultrasonic induction of cerebrospinal fluid flow enhances intrathecal drug delivery.
Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
Intrathecal drug delivery is routinely used in the treatment and prophylaxis of varied central nervous system conditions, as doing so allows drugs to directly bypass the blood-brain barrier. However, the utility of this route of administration is limited by poor brain and spinal cord parenchymal drug uptake from the cerebrospinal fluid. We demonstrate that a simple noninvasive transcranial ultrasound protocol can significantly increase influx of cerebrospinal fluid into the perivascular spaces of the brain, to enhance the uptake of intrathecally administered drugs. Specifically, we administered small (~1 kDa) and large (~155 kDa) molecule agents into the cisterna magna of rats and then applied low, diagnostic-intensity focused ultrasound in a scanning protocol throughout the brain. Using real-time magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo histologic analyses, we observed significantly increased uptake of small molecule agents into the brain parenchyma, and of both small and large molecule agents into the perivascular space from the cerebrospinal fluid. Notably, there was no evidence of brain parenchymal damage following this intervention. The low intensity and noninvasive approach of transcranial ultrasound in this protocol underscores the ready path to clinical translation of this technique. In this manner, this protocol can be used to directly bypass the blood-brain barrier for whole-brain delivery of a variety of agents. Additionally, this technique can potentially be used as a means to probe the causal role of the glymphatic system in the variety of disease and physiologic processes to which it has been correlated.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jconrel.2022.06.067
View details for PubMedID 35798095