Anders Rydstrom is a Postdoctoral Scholar with the Natural Capital Project and is investigating the links between exposure to nature areas and health. His research primarily focuses on conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with uses of multimodal data sources such as accelerometers, ecological momentary assessments, behavioral outcomes and biometric health data. Anders received his Ph.D. in psychology and neuroscience from Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, where he analyzed heterogeneity of treatment effects in lifestyle oriented RCT’s for prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease and cognitive impairment. He has also conducted research within cognitive training and emotion regulation. He holds an M.Sc. in psychology from Lund University, Lund, Sweden and has also clinical experience from working as a licensed healthcare psychologist in Scandinavia.

Honors & Awards

  • Doctoral Student Research Stipend, Gun & Bertil Stohne's Foundation (2019)
  • Mind & Life Junior Summer Research Fellowship, Mind & Life (2011)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • The Role of Brain Integrity in the Association between Occupational Complexity and Cognitive Performance in Subjects with Increased Risk of Dementia. Gerontology Rydström, A., Stephen, R., Kåreholt, I., Darin Mattsson, A., Ngandu, T., Lehtisalo, J., Bäckman, L., Kemppainen, N., Rinne, J., Sindi, S., Soininen, H., Vanninen, R., Solomon, A., Mangialasche, F. 2023; 69 (8): 972-985


    Mechanisms underlying the positive association between occupational mental demands and late-life cognition are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess whether the association between occupational complexity and cognition is related to and moderated by brain integrity in individuals at risk for dementia. Brain integrity was appraised throughout structural measures (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) and amyloid accumulation (Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography, PiB-PET).Participants from the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) neuroimaging sample - MRI (N = 126), PiB-PET (N = 41) - were included in a post hoc cross-sectional analysis. Neuroimaging parameters comprised the Alzheimer's disease signature (ADS) cortical thickness (FreeSurfer 5.3), medial temporal atrophy (MTA), and amyloid accumulation (PiB-PET). Cognition was assessed using the neuropsychological test battery. Occupational complexity with data, people, and substantive complexity were classified through the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Linear regression models included cognition as dependent variable, and occupational complexity, measures of brain integrity, and their interaction terms as predictors.Occupational complexity with data and substantive complexity were associated with better cognition (overall cognition, executive function) when adjusting for ADS and MTA (independent association). Significant interaction effects between occupational complexity and brain integrity were also found, indicating that, for some indicators of brain integrity and cognition (e.g., overall cognition, processing speed), the positive association between occupational complexity and cognition occurred only among persons with higher brain integrity (moderated association).Among individuals at risk for dementia, occupational complexity does not seem to contribute toward resilience against neuropathology. These exploratory findings require validation in larger populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000530688

    View details for PubMedID 37071974

  • The Association Between Temporal Atrophy and Episodic Memory Is Moderated by Education in a Multi-Center Memory Clinic Sample. Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD Gyllenhammar, M., Rennie, A., Padilla, D. F., Wallert, J., Rydström, A., Wahlund, L. O., Eriksdotter, M., Westman, E., Ekman, U. 2023; 92 (2): 605-614


    Cognitive reserve (CR) is hypothesized to partially explain the discrepancy between Alzheimer's disease related brain pathology and cognitive performance. Educational attainment is often used as a proxy for CR.To examine the association of years of education and the relationship between atrophy in the medial temporal lobe and episodic memory, in a cross-sectional ecological multi-center memory clinic cohort.Included patients (n = 702) had undergone memory clinic examination and were diagnosed with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 99), mild cognitive impairment (n = 471), or dementia (n = 132). Total years of education were used as a moderating variable and neuropathology was operationalized as visual ratings of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography images. Weighted least squares regression and multiple regression were used to analyze moderation and the effect of education separately by diagnostic group. A composite score of two episodic memory tests constituted the dependent variable.After controlling for age and gender the interaction term between MTA and years of education was significant indicating moderation. In particular, the regression model showed that at low levels of MTA, high education individuals had better episodic memory performance. However, at higher MTA levels, high education individuals had the lowest episodic memory performance. Education had a significant positive effect on episodic memory in SCI and MCI, but not dementia.These results extend the findings of education moderating the effect of MTA on cognition to a naturalistic memory clinic setting. Implications of the findings for theories on CR are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.3233/JAD-220741

    View details for PubMedID 36776050

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10041436

  • Occupational complexity and cognition in the FINGER multidomain intervention trial. Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association Rydström, A., Darin-Mattsson, A., Kåreholt, I., Ngandu, T., Lehtisalo, J., Solomon, A., Antikainen, R., Bäckman, L., Hänninen, T., Laatikainen, T., Levälahti, E., Lindström, J., Paajanen, T., Havulinna, S., Peltonen, M., Sindi, S., Soininen, H., Neely, A. S., Strandberg, T., Tuomilehto, J., Kivipelto, M., Mangialasche, F. 2022; 18 (12): 2438-2447


    Lifetime exposure to occupational complexity is linked to late-life cognition, and may affect benefits of preventive interventions.In the 2-year multidomain Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), we investigated, through post hoc analyses (N = 1026), the association of occupational complexity with cognition. Occupational complexity with data, people, and substantive complexity were classified through the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.Higher levels of occupational complexity were associated with better baseline cognition. Measures of occupational complexity had no association with intervention effects on cognition, except for occupational complexity with data, which was associated with the degree of intervention-related gains for executive function.In older adults at increased risk for dementia, higher occupational complexity is associated with better cognition. The cognitive benefit of the FINGER intervention did not vary significantly among participants with different levels of occupational complexity. These exploratory findings require further testing in larger studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/alz.12561

    View details for PubMedID 35142055

  • Multimodal Preventive Trial for Alzheimer's Disease: MIND-ADmini Pilot Trial Study Design and Progress. The journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease Sindi, S., Thunborg, C., Rosenberg, A., Andersen, P., Andrieu, S., Broersen, L. M., Coley, N., Couderc, C., Duval, C. Z., Faxen-Irving, G., Hagman, G., Hallikainen, M., Håkansson, K., Lehtisalo, J., Levak, N., Mangialasche, F., Pantel, J., Kekkonen, E., Rydström, A., Stigsdotter-Neely, A., Wimo, A., Ngandu, T., Soininen, H., Hartmann, T., Solomon, A., Kivipelto, M. 2022; 9 (1): 30-39


    Interventions simultaneously targeting multiple risk factors and mechanisms are most likely to be effective in preventing cognitive impairment. This was indicated in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) testing a multidomain lifestyle intervention among at-risk individuals. The importance of medical food at the early symptomatic disease stage, prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD), was emphasized in the LipiDiDiet trial. The feasibility and effects of multimodal interventions in prodromal AD are unclear.To evaluate the feasibility of an adapted FINGER-based multimodal lifestyle intervention, with or without medical food, among individuals with prodromal AD.MIND-ADmini is a multinational proof-of-concept 6-month randomized controlled trial (RCT), with four trial sites (Sweden, Finland, Germany, France). The trial targeted individuals with prodromal AD defined using the International Working Group-1 criteria, and with vascular or lifestyle-related risk factors. The parallel-group RCT includes three arms: 1) multimodal lifestyle intervention (nutritional guidance, exercise, cognitive training, vascular/metabolic risk management and social stimulation); 2) multimodal lifestyle intervention+medical food (Fortasyn Connect); and 3) regular health advice/care (control group). Primary outcomes are feasibility and adherence. Secondary outcomes are adherence to the individual intervention domains and healthy lifestyle changes.Screening began on 28 September 2017 and was completed on 21 May 2019. Altogether 93 participants were randomized and enrolled. The intervention proceeded as planned.For the first time, this pilot trial tests the feasibility and adherence to a multimodal lifestyle intervention, alone or combined with medical food, among individuals with prodromal AD. It can serve as a model for combination therapy trials (non-pharma, nutrition-based and/or pharmacological interventions).

    View details for DOI 10.14283/jpad.2022.4

    View details for PubMedID 35098971

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8783958

  • Direct-Current Stimulation Does Little to Improve the Outcome of Working Memory Training in Older Adults. Psychological science Nilsson, J., Lebedev, A. V., Rydström, A., Lövdén, M. 2017; 28 (7): 907-920


    The promise of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) as a modulator of cognition has appealed to researchers, media, and the general public. Researchers have suggested that tDCS may increase effects of cognitive training. In this study of 123 older adults, we examined the interactive effects of 20 sessions of anodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex (vs. sham tDCS) and simultaneous working memory training (vs. control training) on change in cognitive abilities. Stimulation did not modulate gains from pre- to posttest on latent factors of either trained or untrained tasks in a statistically significant manner. A supporting meta-analysis ( n = 266), including younger as well as older individuals, showed that, when combined with training, tDCS was not much more effective than sham tDCS at changing working memory performance ( g = 0.07, 95% confidence interval, or CI = [-0.21, 0.34]) and global cognition performance ( g = -0.01, 95% CI = [-0.29, 0.26]) assessed in the absence of stimulation. These results question the general usefulness of current tDCS protocols for enhancing the effects of cognitive training on cognitive ability.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0956797617698139

    View details for PubMedID 28509625

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5536199

  • The temporal dynamics of emotion regulation: An EEG study of distraction and reappraisal BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY Thiruchselvam, R., Blechert, J., Sheppes, G., Rydstrom, A., Gross, J. J. 2011; 87 (1): 84-92


    Distraction and reappraisal are two widely used forms of emotion regulation. The process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998) holds that they differ (1) in when they act on the emotion-generative process, and (2) in their impact on subsequent responses to regulated stimuli. We tested these two predictions by measuring electrocortical responses to neutral and emotional images during two phases. In the regulation phase, images were watched or regulated using distraction or reappraisal. During the re-exposure phase, the same images were passively watched. As predicted, during regulation, distraction reduced the late positive potential (LPP) earlier than reappraisal. Upon re-exposure, images with a distraction (but not reappraisal) history elicited a larger LPP than images with an attend history. This pattern of results suggests that distraction and reappraisal intervene at separate stages during emotion generation, a feature which may have distinct consequences that extend beyond the regulatory episode.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.02.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290195100010

    View details for PubMedID 21354262