Stanford Advisors


All Publications


  • Enhancing the developing brain: tensions between parent, child, and state in the United States. Journal of law and the biosciences Jwa, A. S. 2021; 8 (1): lsab017

    Abstract

    Recent technological advances in neuroscience offer a novel way for parents to nurture their children: altering brain activation to improve cognitive functions. Parental use and state regulation of cognitive enhancement will inevitably cause tensions between parent, child, and state. These tensions stem from three different but fundamentally related causes, namely minors' incompetency in making decisions about their own welfare, parental autonomy to make decisions about the upbringing of their minor children, and the state's interests in protecting minors' well-being. However, these tensions are not without precedents. The courts have frequently struggled to set the boundary of parental autonomy and to balance parents' rights, children's interests, and state's interests, and have accumulated extensive precedents in various contexts. This article reviews previous US court decisions in select contexts analogous to cognitive enhancement-medical intervention, education, and mandatory vaccination-and analyzes their implications for the use of cognitive enhancement on minors. This article will provide a useful guide for policy makers and researchers to identify and analyze issues regarding cognitive enhancement and to develop sound policies to ensure responsible use of this novel technology.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jlb/lsab017

    View details for PubMedID 34188944

  • Regulating the Use of Cognitive Enhancement: an Analytic Framework NEUROETHICS Jwa, A. S. 2019; 12 (3): 293–309
  • DIY tDCS: a need for an empirical look JOURNAL OF RESPONSIBLE INNOVATION Jwa, A. 2018; 5 (1): 103–8
  • Early adopters of the magical thinking cap: a study on do-it-yourself (DIY) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) user community. Journal of law and the biosciences Jwa, A. 2015; 2 (2): 292-335

    Abstract

    Among currently available technologies, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one of the most promising neuroenhancements because it is relatively effective, safe, and affordable. Recently, lay people have begun to build-or purchase-the tDCS device to use it at home for treatment or as a cognitive enhancer. The tDCS device is currently not covered by the existing regulatory framework, but there are still significant potential risks of misusing this device, and its long-term effects on the brain have not been fully explored. Thus, researchers have argued the need for regulations or official guidelines for the personal use of tDCS. However, until now, no systematic research on the do-it-yourself (DIY) tDCS user community has been done. The present study explores the basic demographic characteristics of DIY tDCS users as well as why and how they are using this device through a questionnaire survey, in-depth interviews, and a content analysis of web postings on the use of tDCS. This preliminary but valuable picture of the DIY tDCS user community will shed light on future studies and policy analysis to craft sound regulations and official guidelines for the use of tDCS.

    View details for PubMedID 27774197