Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Regulating the Use of Cognitive Enhancement: an Analytic Framework NEUROETHICS Jwa, A. S. 2019; 12 (3): 293–309
  • DIY tDCS: a need for an empirical look JOURNAL OF RESPONSIBLE INNOVATION Jwa, A. 2018; 5 (1): 103–8
  • Early adopters of the magical thinking cap: a study on do-it-yourself (DIY) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) user community. Journal of law and the biosciences Jwa, A. 2015; 2 (2): 292-335


    Among currently available technologies, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one of the most promising neuroenhancements because it is relatively effective, safe, and affordable. Recently, lay people have begun to build-or purchase-the tDCS device to use it at home for treatment or as a cognitive enhancer. The tDCS device is currently not covered by the existing regulatory framework, but there are still significant potential risks of misusing this device, and its long-term effects on the brain have not been fully explored. Thus, researchers have argued the need for regulations or official guidelines for the personal use of tDCS. However, until now, no systematic research on the do-it-yourself (DIY) tDCS user community has been done. The present study explores the basic demographic characteristics of DIY tDCS users as well as why and how they are using this device through a questionnaire survey, in-depth interviews, and a content analysis of web postings on the use of tDCS. This preliminary but valuable picture of the DIY tDCS user community will shed light on future studies and policy analysis to craft sound regulations and official guidelines for the use of tDCS.

    View details for PubMedID 27774197