Academic Appointments

All Publications

  • Assessing the Impact of a New Pediatric Healthcare Facility on Medication Administration: A Human Factors Approach. The Journal of nursing administration Godin, M. R., Nasr, A. S. 2023; 53 (6): 331-336


    OBJECTIVE: This observational descriptive study was designed to measure the effect a new evidence-based design (EBD) hospital has on pediatric medication safety.BACKGROUND: Medication safety is a priority for nurse leaders. Controlling system design by increasing the understanding of the impact human factors have could improve medication delivery.METHODS: Medication administration data from 2 studies conducted at the same hospital, 1 at an older facility in 2015 and the other at a new EBD facility in 2019, were compared using a similar research design.RESULTS: Results indicate that rates of distractions per 100 drug administrations were all statistically significant, favoring the 2015 data regardless of the EBD. No statistically significant differences were observed in error rates of any type when comparing the data collected in the older facility versus the newer EBD facility.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that EBD alone does not ensure the absence of medication errors. By comparing 2 data sets, unanticipated associations were found that could impact safety. Despite the new facility's contemporary design, distractions persisted that could inform nurse leaders in developing interventions to support a safer patient care environment using a human factors approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/NNA.0000000000001295

    View details for PubMedID 37219885

  • Usability and Utility of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Clinical Decision Support to Increase Knowledge and PrEP Initiations among Pediatric Providers. Applied clinical informatics Chan, C. T., Carlson, J., Lee, T. C., Vo, M., Nasr, A., Hart-Cooper, G. 2022


    OBJECTIVES: An effective clinical decision support system (CDSS) may address the current provider training barrier to offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study evaluated change in provider knowledge and likelihood to initiate PrEP after exposure to a PrEP CDSS. A secondary objective explored perceived provider utility of the CDSS and suggestions for improving CDSS effectiveness.METHODS: This was a prospective study using survey responses from a convenience sample of pediatric providers who launched the interruptive PrEP CDSS when ordering an HIV test. McNemar's test evaluated change in provider PrEP knowledge and likelihood to initiate PrEP. Qualitative responses on CDSS utility and suggested improvements were analyzed using Framework Analysis and were connected to quantitative analysis elements using the merge approach.RESULTS: Of the 73 invited providers, 43 had available outcome data and were included in the analysis. Prior to using the CDSS, 86% of participants had never prescribed PrEP. Compared to before CDSS exposure, there were significant increases in the proportion of providers who were knowledgeable about PrEP (p=0.0001), likely to prescribe PrEP (p<0.0001), and likely to refer their patient for PrEP (p<0.0001). Suggestions for improving the CDSS included alternative "triggers" for the CDSS earlier in visit workflows, having a non-interruptive CDSS, additional provider educational materials, access to patient-facing PrEP materials, and additional CDSS support for adolescent confidentiality and navigating financial implications of PrEP.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an interruptive PrEP CDSS attached to HIV test orders can be an effective tool to increase knowledge and likelihood to initiate PrEP among pediatric providers. Continual improvement of the PrEP CDSS based on provider feedback is required to optimize usability, effectiveness, and adoption. A highly usable PrEP CDSS may be a powerful tool to close the gap in youth PrEP access and uptake.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/a-1975-4277

    View details for PubMedID 36351546

  • Variability in qualifications for principal investigator status in research studies by nurses: A call for clarification. Journal of pediatric nursing Nasr, A. S., McCarthy, A. M., Manworren, R. C., Sorce, L. R., Ersig, A. L., Hinderer, K. A., Calamaro, C., Gettis, M. A., Hanrahan, K., Hayakawa, J., Heitschmidt, M., Middour-Oxler, B., Staveski, S. L., Mandrell, B. N., LaFond, C. M., Hernandez, T. L. 2022


    PURPOSE: To describe existing guidance for qualifications of principal investigator s (PI s) of human subjects research and explore how they are operationalized for pediatric nurse scientists and clinical nurses in children's hospitals.DESIGN AND METHODS: After reviewing federal regulations, accreditation guidelines, and the literature, a convenience sample of members of the National Pediatric Nurse Scientist Collaborative (NPNSC). Participants completed a 33-item survey that included questions about Institutional Review Board (IRB), guidelines, and policies for PI status at their affiliated children's hospitals.RESULTS: The survey was electronically disseminated to 179 members of NPNSC through the Collaborative's listserv. Of the 39 members who responded, 90% hold a PhD and 80% practice in a free-standing children's hospital, nearly all of which (93%) are recognized as Magnet hospitals. While the majority of respondents indicated that nurse scientists and other nurses were allowed to be PIs of research studies, educational requirements for PI status varied, with 3% requiring a PhD, 15% a baccalaureate degree, and 10% a graduate degree. 54% of respondents reported there was no degree requirement for PI status; however15% reported that even doctorally prepared nurse scientists cannot serve as PIs of research studies at their affiliated children''s hospitals.CONCLUSIONS: The survey identified substantial variability in requirements for PI status and potential barriers to pediatric nurses conducting independent research as PIs at children's hospitals.PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Operationalizing existing guidance will expand inclusion of nurse scientist expertise in human subjects research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pedn.2022.08.009

    View details for PubMedID 36328915

  • Assessing the Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults Receiving Cancer Treatment: A Mixed Methods Study. Journal of adolescent and young adult oncology Simon, P. J., Pyke-Grimm, K. A., Nasr, A. S. 2022


    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the most salient health care needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who undergo cancer treatment. Understanding their age-related needs helps providers offer appropriate support when support is vital: as they accept diagnosis and undergo treatment. Methods: A mixed methods design was used to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on the overall needs of AYA cancer patients. Participants, aged 16-29, who enrolled early in their cancer treatment, completed the Stanford Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer (SAYAC) Program survey and a subsequent one-on-one semistructured interview. Results: The quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately. The data revealed that AYAs adjusted and adapted to their cancer diagnosis to meet their health care needs. Three themes emerged from the data: acquisition of knowledge and experience, participation in decision-making and self-management behaviors, and gaining perspectives on life inside and outside of the hospital. The quantitative data revealed that the participants agreed or strongly agreed on the importance of being involved in the decision-making process, incorporating hopes and dreams into their treatment, and feeling supported by their family. Conclusion: Understanding the needs of AYAs who undergo cancer treatment is vital to their overall well-being. Using different data collection methods, including interviews, can clarify AYA needs and lead to improved individualized care.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/jayao.2021.0195

    View details for PubMedID 35575715

  • Understanding the long-term relationship of the parental live liver donor and the adolescent young adult dyad Nasr, A., Perez, D., Rehm, R. WILEY. 2022
  • The Impact of Volunteering at a Family Camp for Children and Adolescents With Cancer: The Experience of Pediatric Intensive Care Nurses. The Journal of nursing administration Butterworth, L., Nasr, A., Pyke-Grimm, K. A., Swisher, D., Johnson, K. 2021; 51 (10): 526-531


    OBJECTIVE: This study explored the experience of pediatric ICU (PICU) nurses who volunteered at a camp for families of children and adolescents with cancer.BACKGROUND: PICU nurses are at risk of developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, compassion fatigue, depression, and burnout due to exposure(s) to traumatic events. Spending time with patients, families, and nurse colleagues at camp may reduce the effects of this exposure.METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using content analysis. Fifteen nurse participants completed a precamp questionnaire and semistructured focus groups immediately following camp. Individual interviews were conducted 6 months after camp.RESULTS: Three categories emerged: 1) personal factors, changes in the nurses themselves; 2) patient and family factors, changes in how nurses perceived patients and families; and 3) work-related factors, relationships with colleagues.CONCLUSIONS: Supporting PICU nurses to participate with patients, families, and colleagues outside of the hospital may reduce burnout and support nurses' well-being.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/NNA.0000000000001058

    View details for PubMedID 34550106

  • Understanding the long-term impact of living-related liver transplantation on youth and young adults and their family. Journal of pediatric nursing Nasr, A. S., Rehm, R. S. 2020; 55: 217–23


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this mixed methods study was to better understand the long term impact of living-related liver donation (LRLD) on youth and young adult (YYA) recipients and their family.DESIGN AND METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with YYA, aged 11-18years, who received a living donation from a parent. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed to aggregate themes that represented the participants' views as live-liver recipients. An ethnographic process was conducted to understand the participants' social behavior. At interview, participants completed a demographics questionnaire and the Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Research Version (YQOL-R).RESULTS: Thirteen adolescents were interviewed; six were re-interviewed as key informants. Three major categories were created from the data: Developing Identity, Redefining Family Relationships, Feeling Gratitude to Donors. The overarching theme was Resiliency. Findings from the YQOL-R showed no difference in overall scores or separate domains when compared with a reference population with no chronic illness.CONCLUSION: Qualitative and quantitative data highlight the positive effect that LRLD can have on pediatric patients as they transition from childhood to adolescence to young adulthood.PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: As pediatric transplant centers in the United States soon mark 30years of performing live-liver donation, recipients are becoming adults and understanding more clearly that the long-term effects of such donations will lead to improvements in future care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pedn.2020.09.004

    View details for PubMedID 32966961

  • Comparing the Analgesic Effects of 4 Nonpharmacologic Interventions on Term Newborns Undergoing Heel Lance: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing Chang, J., Filoteo, L., Nasr, A. S. 2020


    This randomized trial compared the analgesic effect of 4 nonpharmacologic interventions (breastfeeding, oral sucrose, nonnutritive sucking, and skin-to-skin contact) on term newborns between 24 and 48 hours of age who underwent a heel lance. The Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale was used to evaluate pain. The newborns (N = 226) were assigned to one of 4 intervention groups (n = 176) or a control group without pain intervention (n = 50). The results indicate that all intervention groups showed decreased pain levels when compared with the control group (P < .01). The oral sucrose group experienced a superior analgesic effect when compared with the skin-to-skin contact group (P < .01), but no difference was observed when compared with the breastfeeding group (P > .05) or the nonnutritive sucking group (P > .05). All intervention groups showed a shortened crying time (P < .01) and reduced procedural duration (P < .01) compared with the control group. All of these interventions are clinically applicable and acceptable when caring for a newborn during a minor painful procedure.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JPN.0000000000000495

    View details for PubMedID 32804876

  • Parent Perceptions and Experiences Regarding Medication Education at Time of Hospital Discharge for Children With Medical Complexity. Hospital pediatrics Gold, J. M., Chadwick, W., Gustafson, M., Valenzuela Riveros, L. F., Mello, A., Nasr, A. 2020; 10 (8): 679–86


    BACKGROUND: Children with medical complexity (CMC) often require complex medication regimens. Medication education on hospital discharge should provide a critical safety check before medication management transitions from hospital to family. Current discharge processes may not meet the needs of CMC and their families. The objective of this study is to describe parent perspectives and priorities regarding discharge medication education for CMC.METHODS: We performed a qualitative, focus-group-based study, using ethnography. Parents of hospitalized CMC were recruited to participate in 1 of 4 focus groups; 2 were in Spanish. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and then coded and organized into themes by using thematic analysis.RESULTS: Twenty-four parents participated in focus groups, including 12 native English speakers and 12 native Spanish speakers. Parents reported a range of 0 to 18 medications taken by their children (median 4). Multiple themes emerged regarding parental ideals for discharge medication education: (1) information quality, including desire for complete, consistent information, in preferred language; (2) information delivery, including education timing, and delivery by experts; (3) personalization of information, including accounting for literacy of parents and level of information desired; and (4) self-efficacy, or education resulting in parents' confidence to conduct medical plans at home.CONCLUSIONS: Parents of CMC have a range of needs and preferences regarding discharge medication education. They share a desire for high-quality education provided by experts, enabling them to leave the hospital confident in their ability to care for their children once home. These perspectives could inform initiatives to improve discharge medication education for all patients, including CMC.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2020-0078

    View details for PubMedID 32737165

  • Return to learn: An ethnographic study of adolescent young adults returning to school post-concussion. Journal of clinical nursing Wan, A. n., Nasr, A. S. 2020


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 3.8 million concussions occur in the United States each year. Concussion symptoms can negatively impact the academic performance of adolescents after they return to school. The purpose of this study was to better understand the perceptions of parent-adolescent dyads as male and female adolescents returned to learn after sustaining a concussion.A qualitative ethnographic study of 10, English-speaking, parent-adolescent dyads was conducted, following the adolescents return to school after a recent concussion. Dyads were recruited from a Concussion Clinic in Menlo Park, California between October 2018- October 2019. Adolescents were aged 14-16 years old. Each dyad participated in a semistructured interview. Interviews were subsequently transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. This qualitative study design utilized COREQ. (Supplemental File 1) . This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and ethics committee.Three categories were identified: adolescents feeling misunderstood by school staff about their injuries, adolescents feeling overwhelmed by their injuries, and academic accommodations lacking clarity and implementation. The overarching theme that emerged was clear: Parents and adolescents lacked consistent guidelines for the adolescents' return to learn after a concussion.Post-concussion syndrome as a result of head injury is a complex condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. This treatment should be individualized and appropriately adjusted to provide the adolescent with the most optimal environment for recovery. This study provides data to suggest that more guidance from the medical provider or treatment team is needed for teachers and school administrators in order to create an ideal return to learn environment for the adolescent who is recovering from a head injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jocn.15617

    View details for PubMedID 33351994

  • Parental live liver donation: a transformational experience. Progress in transplantation Nasr, A. S., Rehm, R. S. 2014; 24 (1): 69-75


    Background-Parental live liver donation is an attractive alternative to deceased donation for pediatric patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD), yet very little has been published about the long-term emotional consequences of live liver donations on donors and their families.Objectives-To better understand the impact that a parental live liver donation has on the everyday life of the donor.Method-Thirteen living parental donors from 2 West Coast transplant centers participated. Data included semistructured interviews, observations, and field notes about the donors and their physical, emotional, and familial lives since their donation. The perceived impact of donation on parental donors and their intrafamilial relationships are reviewed and the social and emotional context of parental liver donation, including impacts on the predonation decisions and life after donation are analyzed.Results-Thematic analysis was used to analyze this set of interviews, and after open coding, 3 major categories emerged: a self-awareness process, a clarification of familial relationships, and a change in perspectives on community. The overarching theme that was constructed from the interviews suggested that the impact the donation had on the donors' lives was one of transformation.

    View details for DOI 10.7182/pit2014286

    View details for PubMedID 24598568

  • Living-related donors' quest for information before donation PROGRESS IN TRANSPLANTATION Nasr, A. S., Rehm, R. S. 2009; 19 (1): 53-58


    Providing potential living-related liver donors with all the necessary information before donation can be challenging. What information donors need and are not getting during the evaluation phase has not been defined.To increase understanding of the everyday life of living-related liver donors and to suggest educational strategies that could be used by transplant centers during the evaluation process.An interpretive ethnographic study based on a symbolic interactionism approach. All participants were interviewed; some were reinterviewed in order to better understand their experience as a donor.Interviews took place in the clinic, the donor's home, the donor's workplace, and in coffee shops depending on each donor's preference.A total of 13 parents who had donated the left lower lobe of their liver to their son or daughter at least 1 year ago.Interviews were analyzed by using qualitative research methods of coding, summarizing, and discussing concepts.The donors viewed the donation as a life-changing event, and 11 of 13 donors described seeking further information in addition to the information given to them by the transplant center. Searching the Internet, reading research articles, and speaking to other donors were activities demonstrated by the participants.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264255200007

    View details for PubMedID 19341063

  • Mortality rate correlated with the number of pediatric liver transplants performed at a center 18th World Congress of the Transplantation-Society Cox, K., Rodriguez-Baez, N., Nasr, A., Esquivel, C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2001: 1512–13

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167629900707

    View details for PubMedID 11267400