- Interventional Pulmonology
- Pulmonary Medicine
- Pleural Disease
- Lung Cancer
- Critical Care
- Pulmonary Disease
Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Pulmonary, Allergy & Critical Care Medicine
Unit-Based Medical Director - M6, Stanford University (2022 - Present)
Associate Program Director, Interventional Pulmonology Fellowship, Stanford University (2021 - Present)
Honors & Awards
Teaching Award, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy & Critical Care Medicine (2021)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Member, AABIP/AIPPD Joint Interventional Pulmonology Fellowship Accreditation Committee (2022 - Present)
Member, American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology (AABIP) (2019 - Present)
Fellowship: Cleveland Clinic Foundation (2020) OH
Board Certification, American Association of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology, Interventional Pulmonology (2021)
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Critical Care Medicine (2019)
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease (2018)
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2016)
Fellowship, Cleveland Clinic, Interventional Pulmonary Medicine (2020)
Fellowship, Stanford University, Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine (2019)
Residency, Stanford University, Internal Medicine (2016)
Medical Education, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) (2013)
POWER Study (Prospective Transbronchial Microwave + Robotic-Assisted Bronchoscopy)
This is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm study on transbronchial microwave ablation using the NEUWAVE FLEX Microwave Ablation System and Accessories on oligometastatic tumors in the peripheral lung, guided by the Auris MONARCH Platform for visualization and access while using cone beam CT (computed tomography) to confirm probe tip placement and final ablation zone. The primary endpoint is Technique Efficacy, assessed 30-days post-ablation via CT imaging.
Imaging in peripheral bronchoscopy.
Current opinion in pulmonary medicine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Historically the sampling of peripheral lung lesions via bronchoscopy has suffered from inferior diagnostic outcomes relative to transthoracic needle aspiration, and neither a successful bronchoscopic navigation nor a promising radial ultrasonographic image of one's target lesion guarantees a successful biopsy. Fortunately, many of peripheral bronchoscopy's shortcomings - including an inability to detect and compensate for computed tomography (CT)-body divergence, and the absence of tool-in-lesion confirmation - are potentially remediable through the use of improved intraprocedural imaging techniques.RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in intraprocedural imaging, including the integration of cone beam CT, digital tomosynthesis, and augmented fluoroscopy into bronchoscopic procedures have yielded promising results. These advanced imaging modalities may improve the outcomes of peripheral bronchoscopy through the detection and correction of navigational errors, CT-body divergence, and malpositioned biopsy instruments.SUMMARY: The incorporation of advanced imaging is an essential step in the improvement of peripheral bronchoscopic procedures.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MCP.0000000000001028
View details for PubMedID 37933680
Tracheal stenosis and airway complications in the Coronavirus Disease-19 era.
Annals of thoracic surgery short reports
Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is associated with prolonged intubation and its complications. Tracheal stenosis is one such complication that may require specialized surgical management. We aimed to describe the surgical management of post-COVID-19 tracheal stenosis.This case series describes consecutive patients with tracheal stenosis from intubation for severe COVID-19 infection at our single, tertiary academic medical center between January 1st, 2021, and December 31st, 2021. Patients were included if they underwent surgical management with tracheal resection and reconstruction, or bronchoscopic intervention. Operative through six-month, symptom-free survival and histopathological analysis of resected trachea were reviewed.Eight patients are included in this case series. All patients are female, and most (87.5%) are obese. Five patients (62.5%) underwent tracheal resection and reconstruction (TRR), while three patients (38.5%) underwent non-resection-based management. Among patients who underwent TRR, six-month symptom free survival is 80%; one patient (20%) required tracheostomy after TRR due to recurrent symptoms. Two of the three (66.7%) of patients who underwent non-resection-based management experienced durable relief from symptoms of tracheal stenosis with tracheal balloon dilation, and the remaining patient required laser excision of tracheal tissue prior to experiencing symptomatic relief.The incidence of tracheal stenosis may increase as patients recover from severe COVID-19 infection requiring intubation. Management of tracheal stenosis with TRR is safe and effective, with comparable rates of success to TRR for non-COVID-19 tracheal stenosis. Non-resection-based management is an option to manage tracheal stenosis in patients with less severe stenosis or in poor surgical candidates.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.atssr.2023.05.013
View details for PubMedID 37360840
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10246306
Immediate and Follow-up Imaging Findings after Cone-Beam CT-guided Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy.
Radiology. Cardiothoracic imaging
2023; 5 (2): e220149
To evaluate findings after transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) using intraprocedural cone-beam CT (CBCT) and follow-up chest CT examinations.A single-center, prospective cohort study was performed with 14 participants (mean age, 65 years ± 13 [SD]; eight male participants) undergoing CBCT-guided TBLC between August 2020 and February 2021 who underwent follow-up chest CT imaging. Intraprocedural CBCT and follow-up chest CT images were interpreted for changes compared with baseline CT images. Statistical analyses were performed using independent samples t test and analysis of variance.A total of 62 biopsies were performed, with 48 in the field of view of CBCT immediately after biopsy. All 48 biopsy sites had evidence of postprocedural hemorrhage, and 17 (35%) had pneumatoceles at the biopsy site. Follow-up CT images showed resolution of these findings. Solid nodules developed at 18 of the 62 (29%) biopsy sites.Postbiopsy hemorrhage and pneumatoceles on intraprocedural CBCT images (which were clinically occult and resolved spontaneously) and new solid nodules on follow-up chest CT images were commonly observed after TBLC. These findings may help alleviate unnecessary follow-up imaging and tissue sampling.Keywords: Biopsy/Needle Aspiration, CT, Lungs, Lung Biopsy, Interventional Bronchoscopy© RSNA, 2023.
View details for DOI 10.1148/ryct.220149
View details for PubMedID 37124647
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10141444
- Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration of Primary Cardiac Synovial Sarcoma of the Left Ventricle. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2022
Malignant Central Airway Obstruction: What's New?
Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine
Malignant central airway obstruction (MCAO) is a debilitating and life-limiting complication that occurs in an unfortunately large number of individuals with advanced intrathoracic cancer. Although the management of MCAO is multimodal and interdisciplinary, the task of providing patients with prompt palliation falls increasingly on the shoulders of interventional pulmonologists. While a variety of tools and techniques are available for the management of malignant obstructive lesions, advancements and evolution in this therapeutic venue have been somewhat sluggish and limited when compared with other branches of interventional pulmonary medicine (e.g., the early diagnosis of peripheral lung nodules). Indeed, one pragmatic, albeit somewhat uncharitable, reading of this article's title might suggest a wry smile and shug of the shoulders as to imply that relatively little has changed in recent years. That said, the spectrum of interventions for MCAO continues to expand, even if at a less impressive clip. Herein, we present on MCAO and its endoscopic and nonendoscopic management-that which is old, that which is new, and that which is still on the horizon.
View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0042-1748187
View details for PubMedID 35654419
Systemic arterial gas embolism (SAGE) as a complication of bronchoscopic lung biopsy: a case report and systematic literature review.
Journal of thoracic disease
2021; 13 (11): 6439-6452
Systemic arterial gas embolism (SAGE) is a rare yet serious and underrecognized complication of bronchoscopic procedures. A recent case of presumed SAGE after transbronchial needle aspiration prompted a systematic literature review of SAGE after biopsy procedures during flexible bronchoscopy.We performed a systematic database search for case reports and case series pertaining to SAGE after bronchoscopic lung biopsy; reports or series involving only bronchoscopic laser therapy or argon plasma coagulation (APC) were excluded. Patient data were extracted directly from published reports.A total of 29 unique patient reports were assessed for patient demographics, specifics of the procedure, clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, and clinical outcomes. Cases of SAGE occurred after multiple types of bronchoscopic biopsy and under both positive and negative pressure ventilation. The most common clinical findings were neurologic, followed by cardiac manifestations; temporal patterns included acute onset of cardiac or neurologic emergencies immediately after biopsy, or delayed awakening post-procedure. There was a high mortality rate among cases (28%), with residual neurologic deficits also common (24%).SAGE is an underrecognized but severe adverse effect of bronchoscopic lung biopsy, which often presents with acute coronary or cerebral ischemia or delayed awakening from sedation. It is important for all physicians who perform bronchoscopic biopsies to be aware of the clinical manifestations and therapeutic management of SAGE in order to mitigate morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing these procedures.
View details for DOI 10.21037/jtd-21-717
View details for PubMedID 34992823
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8662492
Prospective validation of an 11-gene mRNA host response score for mortality risk stratification in the intensive care unit.
2021; 11 (1): 13062
Several clinical calculators predict intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, however these are cumbersome and often require 24h of data to calculate. Retrospective studies have demonstrated the utility of whole blood transcriptomic analysis in predicting mortality. In this study, we tested prospective validation of an 11-gene messenger RNA (mRNA) score in an ICU population. Whole blood mRNA from 70 subjects in the Stanford ICU Biobank with samples collected within 24h of Emergency Department presentation were used to calculate an 11-gene mRNA score. We found that the 11-gene score was highly associated with 60-day mortality, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.68 in all patients, 0.77 in shock patients, and 0.98 in patients whose primary determinant of prognosis was acute illness. Subjects with the highest quartile of mRNA scores were more likely to die in hospital (40% vs 7%, p<0.01) and within 60days (40% vs 15%, p=0.06). The 11-gene score improved prognostication with a categorical Net Reclassification Improvement index of 0.37 (p=0.03) and an Integrated Discrimination Improvement index of 0.07 (p=0.02) when combined with Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. The test performed poorly in the 95 independent samples collected>24h after emergency department presentation. Tests will target a 30-min turnaround time, allowing for rapid results early in admission. Moving forward, this test may provide valuable real-time prognostic information to improve triage decisions and allow for enrichment of clinical trials.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-91201-7
View details for PubMedID 34158514
- "I Now Walk Into the Wild": Atelectasis During Peripheral Bronchoscopy Under General Anesthesia. Chest 2020; 158 (6): 2268–69
What is the value of electromagnetic navigation in lung cancer and to what extent does it require improvement?
Expert review of respiratory medicine
2020; 14 (7): 655-669
Lung nodules are being identified with increasing frequency. With this growing burden of nodules comes a growing need for diagnostic technologies extending beyond the current reach of conventional bronchoscopy. One such method for diagnosing peripheral lung lesions is electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB), which comprises a set of tools designed to aid the bronchoscopist in identifying, accessing, and sampling peripheral lung lesions under virtual guidance.Herein we present an in-depth review of ENB, including commercially available electromagnetic navigation platforms, factors influencing diagnostic yield, adjunctive imaging and biopsy tools, potential risks, cost, technical shortcomings, and competing technologies. A review of the scientific literature was conducted primarily through PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar, and pertinent publications and abstracts from the inception of electromagnetic navigation through early 2020 were considered. We also share our perspective on the future of ENB from both a diagnostic and a therapeutic standpoint.ENB is currently a leading tool in the diagnostic evaluation of peripheral lung lesions. The future of ENB rests not only on its potential to expand into the therapeutic realm but also on its ability to keep pace with competing diagnostic and therapeutic technologies.
View details for DOI 10.1080/17476348.2020.1748012
View details for PubMedID 32216487
- Atypical Blastomycosis Masquerading as Lofgren Syndrome. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2020
A generalizable 29-mRNA neural-network classifier for acute bacterial and viral infections.
2020; 11 (1): 1177
Improved identification of bacterial and viral infections would reduce morbidity from sepsis, reduce antibiotic overuse, and lower healthcare costs. Here, we develop a generalizable host-gene-expression-based classifier for acute bacterial and viral infections. We use training data (N=1069) from 18 retrospective transcriptomic studies. Using only 29 preselected host mRNAs, we train a neural-network classifier with a bacterial-vs-other area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.92 (95% CI 0.90-0.93) and a viral-vs-other AUROC 0.92 (95% CI 0.90-0.93). We then apply this classifier, inflammatix-bacterial-viral-noninfected-version 1(IMX-BVN-1), without retraining, to an independent cohort (N=163). In this cohort, IMX-BVN-1 AUROCs are: bacterial-vs.-other 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.93), and viral-vs.-other 0.85 (95% CI 0.76-0.93). In patients enrolled within 36h of hospital admission (N=70), IMX-BVN-1 AUROCs are: bacterial-vs.-other 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-0.99), and viral-vs.-other 0.91 (95% CI 0.82-0.98). With further study, IMX-BVN-1 could provide a tool for assessing patients with suspected infection and sepsis at hospital admission.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-020-14975-w
View details for PubMedID 32132525