School of Medicine
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Hoda S. Abdel Magid
Instructor, Epidemiology and Population Health
BioMy research is focused on understanding how place affects health.
To understand why this is both interesting and important you need to know:
(1) Place affects health. Where individuals live, work, go to school shapes their individual health.
(2) Social determinants of health (e.g. income, employment) affect chronic disease behaviors. These include the ability to exercise, access nutritious food, receive mental health care.
(3) Social determinants of health affect chronic disease outcomes (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer, or obesity).
(4) Socially marginalized populations including individuals of low socioeconomic status and racially marginalized communities have the highest risk for many chronic disease behaviors and outcomes. This disproportionate risk is largely due to the contextual health influences of the physical and social environment.
Methodologically, I am currently working to develop a specific epidemiologic framework for utilizing electronic health records, survey, and geographic data with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial methods to reduce health disparities among socially marginalized populations. Merging clinical data with data on social determinants of health in a spatial epidemiology framework effectively allows us to ask and answer questions about how place affects health.
Alyce Sophia Adams
Stanford Medicine Innovation Professor and Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health, of Health Policy and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics (Endocrinology)
BioDr. Adams is the inaugural Stanford Medicine Innovation Professor and Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health and of Medicine (Primary Care and Outcomes Research), as well as Associate Director for Health Equity and Community Engagement in the Stanford Cancer Institute. Focusing on racial and socioeconomic disparities in chronic disease treatment outcomes, Dr. Adams' interdisciplinary research seeks to evaluate the impact of changes in drug coverage policy on access to essential medications, understand the drivers of disparities in treatment adherence among insured populations, and test strategies for maximizing the benefits of treatment outcomes while minimizing harms through informed decision-making. Prior to joining Stanford School of Medicine, Dr. Adams was Associate Director for Health Care Delivery and Policy and a Research Scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, as well as a Professor at the Bernard J. Tyson Kaiser Permanente School of Medicine. From 2000 to 2008, she was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Population Medicine (formerly Ambulatory Care and Prevention) at Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health care. She received her PhD in Health Policy and an MPP in Social Policy from Harvard University. She is Vice Chair of the Board of Directors for AcademyHealth and a former recipient of the John M. Eisenberg Excellence in Mentoring Award from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and an invited lecturer on racial disparities in health care in the 2014/2015 National Institute of Mental Health Director’s Innovation Speaker Series.
Associate Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsOur laboratory aims to develop and test innovative approaches to the diagnosis, treatment and control of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. We draw upon multiple fields including mathematical modeling, microbial genetics, field epidemiology, statistical inference and biodesign to work on challenging problems in infectious diseases, with an emphasis on tuberculosis and tropical diseases.
Themistocles (Tim) Assimes
Associate Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsGenetic Epidemiology, Genetic Determinants of Complex Traits related to Cardiovasular Medicine, Coronary Artery Disease related pathway analyses and integrative genomics, Mendelian randomization studies, risk prediction for major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular medicine related pharmacogenomics, ethnic differences in the determinants of Insulin Mediated Glucose Uptake, pharmacoepidemiology of cardiovascular drugs & outcomes
Brian T. Bateman
Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Professor and Professor, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
BioBrian T. Bateman, MD, MSc is the Stanford Medicine Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine and Chair of the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine.
Before coming to Stanford, Dr. Bateman served as the Vice Chair for Faculty Development and Chief of the Division of Obstetric Anesthesia in the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School and as Co-Director of the Harvard Program on Perinatal and Pediatric Pharmacoepidemiology in the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital.
Dr. Bateman’s scholarship focuses on the study of medication safety in pregnancy and on predictors and management of maternal morbidity. To address questions in these areas, Dr. Bateman and collaborators at Harvard helped pioneer the use of advanced epidemiological techniques applied to large, routinely collected healthcare utilization data. This research has been funded by multiple R01 grants from the NIH and by grants from the FDA and has been published in leading clinical journals including JAMA, NEJM, BMJ, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA Pediatrics, JAMA Psychiatry, and Obstetrics and Gynecology. Dr. Bateman’s bibliography contains over 200 publications. This research is frequently cited in clinical reviews and guidelines and has prompted both the FDA and EMA to make labelling changes to medications regarding use in pregnancy. Dr. Bateman is also a founding member of the International Pregnancy Safety Study Consortium (InPress) which is a collaborative effort between investigators from the US and each of the five Nordic countries to pool data for studies evaluating the safety of medications.
Dr. Bateman currently serves as Chairperson of FDA’s Anesthetic and Analgesic Drug Products Advisory Committee after having previously served a 4-year term (2015-2019) as a voting member of this Committee. He was a technical advisor for the recent revision of the Joint Commission’s pain management standards. He has served on expert panels and workshops sponsored by the National Academy of Medicine, the FDA, the NIH, the CDC, and the Department of Health and Human Services, and on multiple grant review committees for the NIH and other funders. He is an Editor for the journal, Anesthesiology, and the textbook, Chestnut’s Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice.
Dr. Bateman’s work has been recognized by a number of awards including his selection in 2017 by the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology as the Gerard Ostheimer lecturer and in 2018 by the American Society of Anesthesiologists as the James E. Cottrell Presidential Scholar Awardee, which is given to one clinical-scientist each year within 10 years of initial faculty appointment for accomplishment in research.
Faculty development and mentorship has been a central focus of Dr. Bateman’s career. He has mentored numerous trainees who have gone on to outstanding academic careers. As Division Chief and Vice Chair for Faculty Development at the Brigham, he worked particularly hard to advance the careers of women and underrepresented minorities in the Department and to create an environment where everyone is welcomed and has an opportunity to advance.
Dr. Bateman is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate Yale College and received his MD from Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, where he was a member of Alpha Omega Alpha and was awarded the Janeway Prize for the highest achievements and abilities in the graduating class. He completed an internship in internal medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and residency and chief residency in anesthesiology at the Massachusetts General Hospital. He completed a Masters in Epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health.
Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsOur research aims to improve population health by creating high quality evidence about what health interventions work in whom and where, when, and how to implement them. Most of our research is focused on environmentally-mediated infectious diseases, including malaria, diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminths, and influenza. Our focus is on improving the health of vulnerable populations from low-resource settings, both domestically and internationally. We use a variety of epidemiologic, computational, and statistical methods, including causal inference and machine learning methods.
Melissa L Bondy
Stanford Medicine Discovery Professor, Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsPrincipal Investigator, Discovery, Biology and Risk of Inherited Variants in Glioma, 1R01CA217105-01A1, NIH/NCI, 05/01/2018-06/30/2022, MPI (Contact PI)
Principal Investigator, Characterizing Germline and Somatic Alterations by Glioma Subtypes and Clinical Outcome, 1R01CA232754-01, 07/01/2019-06/30/2023, MPI (Contact PI)
Co-Leader (Project), SPORE in Brain Cancer, PI – Fred Lang (Sub with MD Anderson), 2 P50CA127001-11, 09/01/2019-08/31/2023
Co-Investigator, Stanford University Cancer Center, PI – Steve Artandi, P30 CA124435, NCI, 09/15/10-05/31/22
Co-Investigator, Ovarian Cancer Survival in African-American Women, PI, Joellen Schildkraut, R01 CA237318-01A1, NIH/NCI, 07/01/2020-06/31/2025
Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Neonatology), of Obstetrics & Gynecology (Maternal Fetal Medicine) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Carmichael is a perinatal and nutritional epidemiologist and Professor of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Her team is committed to finding ways to improve maternal and infant health outcomes and equity by leading research that identifies effective leverage points for change, from upstream 'macro' social and structural factors, to downstream clinical factors (eg, related to care and morbidities) through a collaborative research approach that integrates epidemiologic approaches with community engagement and systems thinking.
Exposure themes include social context, nutrition, care, environmental contaminants and genetics. Outcome themes include severe maternal morbidity, stillbirth, birth defects, and preterm delivery. She is particularly interested in understanding the intersectionality of these varied types of exposures and outcomes and how they interact to impact health and health disparities, for the mother-baby dyad.
Please see the team web-site for further information!
Glenn M. Chertow
Norman S. Coplon/Satellite Healthcare Professor of Medicine and Professor, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health and of Health Policy
Current Research and Scholarly Interestsclinical epidemiology, health services research, decision sciences, clinical trials in acute and chronic kidney disease
Manisha Desai (She/Her/Hers)
Kim and Ping Li Professor, Professor (Research) of Medicine (Quantitative Sciences Unit), of Biomedical Data Science and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Desai is the Director of the Quantitative Sciences Unit. She is interested in the application of biostatistical methods to all areas of medicine including oncology, nephrology, and endocrinology. She works on methods for the analysis of epidemiologic studies, clinical trials, and studies with missing observations.
Instructor, Epidemiology and Population Health
BioDr. Catherine Duarte is an IDEAL Provostial Fellow based in the Department of Epidemiology & Population Health at Stanford University’s School of Medicine. She received her PhD in Epidemiology from the University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health and her Master of Science in Social and Behavioral Sciences from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. As a doctoral student, Duarte was selected to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Health Policy Research Scholars Program - a national leadership training program bringing together scholars from across academic disciplines whose applied research seeks to contribute to building healthier and more equitable communities. Duarte’s work specifically focuses on examining how education and legal system policy and practices may shape racial health inequities throughout the life course. In so doing, her work aims to contribute to systems-level interventions designed to support health equity and wellbeing for collective thriving.
Paul Graham Fisher, MD
Beirne Family Professor of Pediatric Neuro-Oncology, Professor of Pediatrics and, by courtesy, of Neurosurgery and of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsClinical neuro-oncology: My research explores the epidemiology, natural history, and disease patterns of brain tumors in childhood, as well as prospective clinical trials for treating these neoplasms. Research interests also include neurologic effects of cancer and its therapies, and childhood headaches.
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
BioPascal Geldsetzer is an Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Primary Care and Population Health and, by courtesy, in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health. He is also affiliated with the Department of Biomedical Data Science, Department of Health Policy, King Center for Global Development, and the Stanford Centers for Population Health Sciences, Innovation in Global Health, and Artificial Intelligence in Medicine & Imaging.
Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health and of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health)
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI am interested in issues relating to the representation and measurement of evidence in medical research, and determinants of the truth of medical findings, using a Bayesian framework. I also do work in evidence synthesis, comparative effectiveness research, and the ethics of clinical research.
Marron and Mary Elizabeth Kendrick Professor of Pediatrics and Professor, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health and of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsResearch focuses on developmental, cognitive and psychosocial factors involved in adolescents’ and young adults’ health-related decision-making, perceptions of risk and vulnerability, health communication and risk behavior. My research has focused on understanding and reducing health risk behaviors such as tobacco use, alcohol and marijuana use, risky driving, and risky sexual behavior.
Victor W. Henderson, MD, MS
Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health and of Neurology
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsResearch interests:
(1) Risk factors for age-associated cognitive decline and for dementia.
(2) Therapeutic strategies to improve cognitive abilities in aging and in dementia.
(3) Brain–behavior relations as they pertain to human cognition.
Professor of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics), of Biomedical Data Science, of Surgery and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy background and expertise is in the field of computational biology, with concentration in health services research. A key focus of my research is to apply novel methods and tools to large clinical datasets for hypothesis generation, comparative effectiveness research, and the evaluation of quality healthcare delivery. My research involves managing and manipulating big data, which range from administrative claims data to electronic health records, and applying novel biostatistical techniques to innovatively assess clinical and policy related research questions at the population level. This research enables us to create formal, statistically rigid, evaluations of healthcare data using unique combinations of large datasets.
Mark Hlatky, MD
Professor of Health Policy, of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy main research work is in "outcomes research", especially examining the field of cardiovascular medicine. Particular areas of interest are the integration of economic and quality of life data into randomized clinical trials, evidence-based medicine, decision models, and cost-effectiveness analysis. I am also interested in the application of novel genetic, biomarker, and imaging tests to assess risk and guide clinical management of coronary artery disease.
Professor (Research) of Medicine (Stanford Prevention Research Center/Cancer Institute) and of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsResearch Focus
• Epidemiology of prostate, hepatobiliary, and thyroid cancers
• Racial disparities in cancer
• Endogenous hormones/growth factors
• Circadian rhythms
• Chronic inflammation
• Genetic susceptibility
• Cancer prevention and control
• Global oncology and international studies
John P.A. Ioannidis
Professor of Medicine (Stanford Prevention Research), of Epidemiology and Population Health and by courtesy, of Statistics and of Biomedical Data Science
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMeta-research
Clinical and molecular epidemiology
Human genome epidemiology
Reporting of research
Empirical evaluation of bias in research
Statistical methods and modeling
Meta-analysis and large-scale evidence
Prognosis, predictive, personalized, precision medicine and health
Sociology of science
Esther M. John
Professor (Research) of Epidemiology and Population Health and of Medicine (Oncology)
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. John has extensive expertise in conducting population-based epidemiologic studies and has led as Principal Investigator multiple large-scale studies, including multi-center studies with a study site in the San Francisco Bay Area with its diverse population. Many of her studies and collaborations investigated cancer health disparities. Her research has focused on the role of modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., body size, physical activity, diet), hormonal factors, early-life exposures, genetic variants, and gene-environment interactions; differences in risk factors by race/ethnicity, breast cancer subtypes, and prostate cancer subtypes; risk factors for familial breast cancer and second primary breast cancer, as well as prognostic factors related to survival disparities.
As Principal Investigator, Dr. John has led a number of studies conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, including:
- the Northern California site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, an on-going prospective multi-generational cohort of over 13,000 families established in 1995 at six international sites;
- the Northern California site of the WECARE Study that investigates risk factors for second primary breast cancer;
- the California site of the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study that investigated genetic variability and breast cancer risk and survival in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations in the context of genetic admixture;
- the Breast Cancer Etiology in Minorities (BEM) Study, a pooled analysis of risk factors for breast cancer subtypes in racial/ethnic minorities;
- the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study in nearly 5,000 Hispanic, African American and non-Hispanic white women that investigated the role of modifiable lifestyle factors and other risk factors;
- the San Francisco Bay Area Prostate Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of lifestyle and genetic risk factors for advanced and localized disease.
These studies collected and pooled extensive data and biospecimens and continue to support numerous ancillary studies, collaborations and international consortia and have contributed to a better understanding of cancer risk and survival in racial/ethnic minority populations.
Dr. John is also a founding PI of the LEGACY Girls Study, an on-going prospective cohort established in 2011 that investigates early life exposures in relation to pubertal development outcomes, breast tissue characteristics, and behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in the context of having a family history or breast cancer.
Professor of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
BioDr. Kado is a board-certified, fellowship-trained doctor specializing in geriatrics. She serves as co-director of the Stanford Longevity Center. She is a professor of medicine and co-chief of the Geriatric Section of the Department of Medicine, Division of Primary Care and Population Health.
For each patient, Dr. Kado prepares a personalized care plan. Her objective is to help all individuals maintain the best possible health and quality of life as they age.
A special interest of Dr. Kado is bone health. She has conducted extensive research focused on osteoporosis and the related disorder hyperkyphosis.
Since joining the UCLA faculty in 2000, she has received continuous funding for her research from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
She has over 100 peer-reviewed publications of her research findings in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Osteoporosis International, Journal of Gerontology and Medical Sciences, Journal of Geriatric Oncology, Nature Communications, and other peer-reviewed journals.
In 2007, she defined hyperkyphosis as a new geriatric syndrome. Her discoveries in this field were first featured in the American College or Physician’s premier internal medicine journal Annals of Internal Medicine. Later, they also appeared in a dedicated chapter in UpToDate, the electronic resource providing evidence-based clinical decision support for doctors worldwide.
Prior to coming to Stanford, Dr. Kado practiced at UC San Diego where she started a dedicated osteoporosis clinic for patient care and research. She later broadened her research interests beyond musculoskeletal aging to study other aging-related topics such as the gut microbiome in older men and the effects of cancer treatments on aging in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.
Dr. Kado is a California native. She trained at UCSF and UCLA. She also earned a Master of Science degree in epidemiology at the UCLA School of Public Health, sponsored by the John Hartford Foundation.
She is a member of the American Geriatrics Society, American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, Gerontological Society of America, The Endocrine Society, and other professional organizations. She co-chairs the NIH National Institute on Aging Workshop for the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research. She also participates in the Bone Health Working Group of the Society for Women’s Health Research.
Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health (Epidemiology)
BioI am an assistant professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health. My research lies at the intersection of computational epidemiology and social epidemiology. Methodologically, my work revolves around combining disparate data sources in epidemiologically meaningful ways. For example, I work with individual-level, non-health data (e.g., GPS, accelerometer, and other sensor data from smartphones), traditional health data (e.g., survey, health systems, or death certificate data), and third-party data (e.g., cellphone providers or ad-tech data). To do this, I use a variety of methods such as joint Bayesian spatial models, traditional epidemiologic models, dynamical models, microsimulation, and demographic analysis. Substantively, my work focuses on socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequities. For example, recently, my work has examined inequities in COVID-19 vaccine distribution, cause-specific excess mortality, and drug poisonings. I have an NIDA-funded R00 examining equitable ways to improve treatment for opioid use disorder across structurally disadvantaged groups and am Co-I on a NIDA-funded R21 examining ways to use novel data sources (such as social media) to predict surges in opioid-related mortality.
Abby C. King
David and Susan Heckerman Professor and Professor of Epidemiology & Population Health and of Medicine (Stanford Prevention Research Center)
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy interests include applications of behavioral theory and social ecological approaches to achieve large scale changes impacting chronic disease prevention and control; expanding the reach and translation of evidence-based interventions through state-of-the-art technologies; exploring social and physical environmental influences on health; applying community participatory research perspectives to address health disparities; and policy-level approaches to health promotion/disease prevention.
Allison W. Kurian, M.D., M.Sc.
Professor of Medicine (Oncology) and of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI aim to understand cancer burden and improve treatment quality at the population level. I have a strong focus on genetic risk assessment and precision oncology. I lead epidemiologic studies of cancer risk factors, clinical trials of novel approaches to cancer risk reduction, and decision analyses of strategies to optimize cancer outcomes.
Professor (Teaching) of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research focuses on the physical and mental health of military service members.
Angelle Desiree LaBeaud
Professor of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases), Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment and Professor, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health and at the Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsArthropod-borne viruses are emerging and re-emerging infections that are spreading throughout the world. Our laboratory investigates the epidemiology of arboviral infections, focusing on the burden of disease and the long-term complications on human health. In particular, Dr. LaBeaud investigates dengue, chikungunya, and Rift Valley fever viruses in Kenya, where outbreaks cause fever, arthritis, retinitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Our main research questions focus on the risk factors for arboviral infections, the development of diagnostic tests that can be administered in the field to quickly determine what kind of arboviral infection a person has, and the genetic and immunologic investigation of why different people respond differently to the same infection. Our long-term goals are to contribute to a deeper understanding of arboviral infections and their long-term health consequences and to optimize control strategies to prevent these emerging infections. Our laboratory also investigates the effects of antenatal and postnatal parasitic infections on vaccine responses, growth, and development of Kenyan children.
My lab at Stanford supports the field work that is ongoing in Kenya, but we also have several projects that are based locally. We strive to improve diagnostics of arboviral infections and are using Luminex technology to build a new screening assay. We also have created a Luminex based platform to assess vaccine responses against multiple pathogens.
Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health
BioDr. Langston joined the faculty in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health in 2022. He received his PhD in Epidemiology from the University of Arizona’s College of Public Health followed by postdoctoral training in Cancer Prevention and Control at Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine. Dr. Langston focuses on the epidemiology of benign and malignant prostate conditions. His long-term goal is to harmonize molecular and clinical aspects of urological condition diagnoses to produce well-characterized outcomes for biomarker discovery and etiological investigation.
Associate Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI am a clinical scientist (PhD epidemiology), endocrinologist, and CMO at VAPA Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center. My group does pattern and prediction mapping along the life-course of interventions/outcomes and how healthcare system can positively impact health longitudinally. We use novel molecular epi, 'big' data like EHRs using multiple designs/methods/technologies. These interests cut across multiple complex chronic diseases and lifespan.
Arline and Pete Harman Professor and Professor of Medicine (Nephrology) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy multidisciplinary research program is focused on (1) the detrimental effects of glucocorticoids, sarcopenia and inflammation on bone development in pediatric diseases, (2) the long-term effects of childhood cancer on bone and muscle quality, (3) the assessment of renal osteodystrophy using novel micro-imaging techniques, (4) the effects of vitamin D deficiency on physical function and cardiovascular disease, and (5) the evaluation of biomechanical interventions as anabolic bone therapies.
Eleni Linos, MD, MPH, DrPH
Professor of Dermatology and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health at the Stanford University Medical Center
BioEleni Linos MD, MPH, DrPH, is Professor of Dermatology and Epidemiology at Stanford University.
Dr. Linos' work focuses on the use of technology in health, dermatology, public health, cancer prevention and the care of older adults. Dr. Linos is dually trained in epidemiology and dermatology and is the principal investigator of several NIH funded studies aimed at improving the lives of patients. She received her medical degree from Cambridge and Oxford universities in the UK, then trained in epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health and completed her residency at Stanford.
Professor of Biomedical Data Science and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsBiostatistics, clinical trials, statistical evaluation of medical diagnostic tests, radiology, osteoporosis, meta-analysis, medical decision making
Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute and the Freeman Spogli Institute and Professor, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Luby’s research interests include identifying and interrupting pathways of infectious disease transmission in low income countries.
Mitchell R. Lunn, MD, MAS, FACP, FASN
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Nephrology) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsLGBTQ health
Lucile Salter Packard Professor of Pediatrics and Professor, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
BioDr David M. Maahs is the Lucile Salter Packard Professor of Pediatrics, Division Chief of Pediatric Endocrinology, and Associate Chair for Academic Affairs in Pediatrics at Stanford University and the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital. He earned his MD followed by Pediatric Residency at the University of New Mexico. After 3 years on New Mexico’s faculty, Dr. Maahs completed a Pediatric Endocrinology fellowship and a concurrent PhD in Epidemiology at the University of Colorado. He remained on Colorado’s faculty for 10 years, advancing to Professor of Pediatrics before moving to Stanford. Prior to his medical career, Dr. Maahs received a BA and MA in English from the University of Kansas and was inspired to pursue a medical career after serving in the Peace Corps with assignments in Tunisia and the Central African Republic.
Dr. Maahs’ leadership experiences include being a past co-Chair (2013-16) for Protocols and Publications with the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange for which he continues as Director of International Collaborations. This complements his role as President-elect for the International Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD, 2021-25) and Editor-in-Chief for the 2018 ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines. He served on the Professional Practice Committee for the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2016-18), which writes the annual ADA Standards of Care. Previously, he served on the ADA Scientific Sessions committee representing the Council on Youth. He has also served on national committees for the American Heart Association, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, and multiple journal editorial boards and review committees.
His scholarly interest is improving care and preventing complications in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Along with Dr Peter Chase, he is author of the 12th and 13th editions of Understanding Diabetes, or ‘Pink Panther,’ which are the most widely used educational books for children newly diagnosed with T1D, distributed internationally by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Fund (JDRF). More specifically, he has conducted epidemiologic studies that help generate hypotheses for clinical studies, including trials to develop artificial pancreas systems to improve glucose control, lower disease burden, prevent the complications of diabetes, and reduce disparities in diabetes care. He is author or co-author of over 350 research publications. His multi-disciplinary research has been funded by the JDRF, the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), the Helmsley Charitable Trust, and the National Science Foundation (NSF).
Dr Maahs is Associate Director for the recently formed and NIDDK P30 funded Stanford University Diabetes Research Center (https://sdrc.stanford.edu). His collaborations extend to his role as Principal Investigator (PI) or steering committee member for NIH funded multi-center clinical trials including the FLEX, PERL, and ACTION studies as well as multiple Artificial Pancreas clinical trials. Education, mentorship, and training leadership includes being Program Director with Dr. Georgeanna Klingensmith on the Barbara Davis Center T32 and K12 training grants in Pediatric Endocrinology while at the University of Colorado. He is the PI on the Stanford NIH funded K12 "Training Research Leaders in Type 1 Diabetes.' Dr Maahs is also the Associate Chair for Academic Affairs for the Department of Pediatrics.
While in the Peace Corps, David met his wife, Christine Walravens, who is also a Pediatrician at Stanford. They enjoy outdoor activities and traveling with their adult children.
Senior Associate Dean, Faculty Development and Diversity, Taube Professor of Global Health and Infectious Diseases, Professor of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research focuses on epidemiologic aspects of viral vaccines and perinatal HIV infection. This includes the molecular epidemiology of factors affecting the immunogenicity of oral polio vaccine (OPV) in developing areas of the world, and now the epidemiology of transmission and circulation of vaccine derived polioviruses in order to assist in global eradication of polio. I also work in development of methods to prevent breastfeeding transmission of HIV in Africa.
Assistant Professor (Research) of Pediatrics, of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsSynthesizing evidence across studies while accounting for biases
Kari Nadeau, MD, PhD
Professor - University Medical Line, Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Kari Nadeau’s laboratory and clinical research is focused on understanding the role of genes and the environment, including climate change, on the rising incidence of allergies and asthma. By understanding the genetic, epigenetic, cellular, and humoral factors that mediate immune tolerance or allergy to foods, aeroallegens, and air pollutants (e.g., diesel emissions and wildfires), her research is laying the groundwork for potential future therapies to prevent and cure allergies and asthma.
Lorene Nelson, PhD
Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Population HealthOn Partial Leave from 09/01/2022 To 08/31/2023
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsPrimary research interests:
- genetic, environmental and lifestyle determinants of neurodegenerative disorders
(amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, migraine)
- innovative study design and data ecosystems in clinical and public health
Primary educational interests:
- Training of next generation scientists in advanced data science and analytic methods
in population, social, and behavioral health sciences.
Mindie H. Nguyen, MD, MAS, AGAF, FAASLD
Professor of Medicine (Gastroenterology and Hepatology) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsWe conduct clinical trials and epidemiological, translational, and real-world studies of liver cancer, fatty liver (NASH, NAFLD), viral hepatitis B and C, liver cirrhosis, and liver transplant. We focus on risk identification for disease prevention and treatment for improvement of survival. We focus on sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities. We specialize in clinical trials, large international real-world consortium registry data, and large public/semi-public databases.
Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
BioJuno Obedin-Maliver, MD, MPH, MAS, FACOG, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Stanford University School of Medicine.
Dr. Juno Obedin-Maliver is a board-certified obstetrician/gynecologist who provides excellent clinical care and strives to advance scientific knowledge through her research.
She practices full-spectrum gynecology including outpatient, in-patient, operative, and emergency care services. This specifically includes collaborative management of cervical dysplasia and abnormal pap smears, abnormal uterine bleeding, contraception and family planning, pelvic pain, abnormal discharge, sexually transmitted infection testing and treatment, and more. She specializes in the gynecological and reproductive health care needs of sexual and gender minority people which include but are not limited to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning (LGBTQ+) people. This interest and experience drives her research interests towards promoting the health and well-being and equity of LGBTQ people.
Dr. Obedin-Maliver, is the Co-Director of The PRIDE Study (pridestudy.org), a multi-site online prospective longitudinal cohort of sexual and gender minority individuals based at Stanford. She also serves on the medical advisory board of the University of California San Francisco Center of Excellence for Transgender Health and is helping to author the next version of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) Standards of Care. Dr. Obedin-Maliver has also been active in health policy including involvement in helping to legally redefine consideration of sexually intimate partner status and to remove the Medicare Non-Coverage Determination ruling on gender -affirming surgeries.
For more information about her research and career please see: pridestudy.org and http://med.stanford.edu/obedin-maliver.html
Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMultilevel - from cells to society - epidemiologic study of healthy aging
Latha Palaniappan, MD, MS
Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Palaniappan has published over 200 peer reviewed manuscripts, abstracts, and book chapters over the last 20 years in the areas of chronic disease prevention and treatment in diverse populations. She has expertise in epidemiological research using big data, use of electronic health records for research, and clinical trials.
George DeForest Barnett Professor of Medicine and Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI am an infectious diseases epidemiologist who has done large field studies in both the US and developing countries. We research the long-term consequences of chronic interactions between the human host and the microbial world. My lab has done fundamental work establishing the role of H. pylori in causing disease and understanding its epidemiology. Currently, our research dissects how and when children first encounter microbes and the long term effects of these exposures on health.
Anisha I Patel
Associate Professor of Pediatrics (General Pediatrics) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Patel's research interests focus on reducing socioeconomic disparities in chronic diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the past 10 years, Dr. Patel has led numerous studies to encourage healthy beverage intake among children and adolescents. These studies include analyses of large national data sets, conduct of randomized controlled trials in schools, child care, and community settings to examine how interventions to increase children’s intake of water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages impact child health, and the evaluation of policy efforts to improve the healthfulness of beverages offered in schools and community settings.
Dr. Patel has a diverse funding portfolio ranging from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Healthy Eating Research Program, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Patel has presented her research to local, national and international audiences. She has also been recognized for her research with awards from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill School of Public Health.
Clinical Associate Professor, Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research interest focuses on the epidemiology of Parkinsons disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, specifically evaluating the genetic and environmental contributions to these neurodegenerative disorders. I am also interested in studying the relation of cognition, estradiol exposure (endogenous and exogenous), and genetic factors.
Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health, of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and, by courtesy, of Sociology and of Pediatrics
BioI am a social epidemiologist and serve as an Associate Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health and in the Department of Medicine in the Division of Primary Care and Population Health. I joined the faculty at Stanford School of Medicine in 2011.
I am currently the co-director of the Stanford Center for Population Health Sciences. In this position I am committed to making high value data resources available to researchers across disciplines in order to better enable them to answer their most pressing clinical and population health questions.
My own research is focused on understanding the health implications of the myriad decisions that are made by corporations and governments every day - decisions that profoundly shape the social and economic worlds in which we live and work. While these changes are often invisible to us on a daily basis, these seemingly minor actions and decisions form structural nudges that can create better or worse health at a population level. My work demonstrates the health implications of corporate and governmental decisions that can give the public and policy makers evidence to support new strategies for promoting health and well-being. In all of his work, I have a focus on the implications of these exposures for health inequalities.
Since often policy and programmatic changes can take decades to influence health, my work also includes more basic research in understanding biological signals that may act as early warning signs of systemic disease, in particular accelerated aging. I examine how social and economic policy changes influence a range of early markers of disease and aging, with a particular recent focus on DNA methylation. I am supported by several grants from the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities to develop new more sensitive ways to understand the health implications of social and economic policy changes.
The Irving Schulman, M.D. Professor of Child Health, Professor of Medicine (Stanford Prevention Research Center) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Robinson originated the solution-oriented research paradigm and directs the Stanford Solutions Science Lab. He is known for his pioneering obesity prevention and treatment research, including the concept of stealth interventions. His research applies social cognitive models of behavior change to behavioral, social, environmental and policy interventions for children and families in real world settings, making the results relevant for informing clinical and public health practice and policy.
Patricia Rodriguez Espinosa
Instructor, Epidemiology and Population Health
BioDr. Patricia Rodriguez Espinosa, PhD., MPH, is a native of Habana, Cuba, and clinical psychologist by training. She is an Instructor in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health and also serves as the Associate Director of Research for the Office of Community Engagement at Stanford Medicine. The ultimate goal of her research is to decrease health inequities among racial/ethnic minority populations, particularly Latinxs and immigrant communities, through transdisciplinary and community-engaged scholarship. Her research aims to understand factors that create and maintain health inequities (e.g., racial residential segregation) and use these insights to develop novel multi-level interventions and health promotion programs to address the inequity gap and that include multi-sectoral collaborations. Dr. Rodriguez Espinosa's research has also centered around developing the science of Community-Based Participatory Research, citizen science, and other participatory research approaches.
Lisa Goldman Rosas
Assistant Professor (Research) of Epidemiology and Population Health and of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics
BioLisa Goldman Rosas, PhD MPH is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health and the Department of Medicine, Division of Primary Care and Population Health at Stanford School of Medicine. An epidemiologist by training, Dr. Goldman Rosas’ research focuses on addressing disparities in chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, depression, and cancer among racial/ethnic minority families. This research features rigorous quantitative and qualitative methodologies, participatory qualitative approaches, and shared leadership with patient and community partners. She is passionate about integrating patients, caregivers, community organizations, and other key stakeholders in the research process in order to affect the greatest improvements in health and well-being. As a reflection of this passion, Dr. Goldman Rosas serves as the Faculty Director for the School of Medicine Office of Community Engagement, Co-Director of Community-Engaged Research for the Office of Cancer Health Equity, and Director of the Outreach, Recruitment and Engagement Core for the Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. In these roles, she supports other faculty and patient and community partners to develop sustainable and meaningful partnerships to support transformative research. In addition to research, she teaches at the undergraduate and graduate levels and has a special focus on increasing diversity in biomedical research.
Kristin Sainani (n e Cobb)
Professor (Teaching) of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsScience writing, science communication, biostatistics. Research areas: osteoporosis, stress fractures, sports injuries, female athlete triad.
Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH
Professor of Pediatrics (General Pediatrics), of Health Policy and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population HealthOn Partial Leave from 01/09/2023 To 03/31/2023
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI conduct interdisciplinary research to understand literacy as potentially modifiable lens for addressing maternal and child health disparities from birth through early adulthood. Applying mixed methods approaches (health-services, epidemiology, ethnography), I have been principal investigator on extramurally-funded research projects (NIH, PCORI, FDA) that aim to examine "natural experiments" in policy and/or to design, implement and test novel system-level interventions.
Gary M. Shaw
NICU Nurses Professor and Professor (Research), by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health and of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Maternal Fetal Medicine)
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsPrimary research interests include 1) epidemiology of birth defects, 2) gene-environment approaches to perinatal outcomes, and 3) nutrition and reproductive outcomes.
Julia Fridman Simard
Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health, of Medicine (Immunology & Rheumatology) and, by courtesy, of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Maternal Fetal Medicine)
BioJulia Fridman Simard, ScD, is an Associate Professor of Epidemiology & Population Health, and, by courtesy, of Medicine in Immunology and Rheumatology and Obstetrics and Gynecology in Maternal Fetal Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine.
Dr. Simard earned her Masters and Doctorate of Science in Epidemiology degrees at the Harvard School of Public Health. During that time she trained with investigators at the Section of Clinical Sciences, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. In 2008, Dr. Simard relocated to Sweden to begin a Postdoctoral Fellowship in Clinical Epidemiology at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. She became an Assistant Professor in their Clinical Epidemiology Unit in 2011, and was later honored with a Karolinska Institutet Teaching Award. Leveraging the population-based registers of Sweden, Dr. Simard initiated a national register linkage study to examine the utility of registers in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) research and develop an extensive data repository for future epidemiologic investigations.
While maintaining a close collaboration with the Karolinska Institutet, she joined Stanford’s Epidemiology faculty in 2013. Dr. Simard studies outcomes such as malignancy, stroke, infection, and mortality, in patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases with a focus on systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently her primary research focus has shifted to the intersection between reproductive epidemiology and rheumatic disease fueled by a K01 career development award from the NIH (NIAMS) to study maternal and fetal outcomes in systemic lupus pregnancy. This led to collaborations with colleagues at Stanford, throughout the US, and abroad, and a series of projects focused on the diagnosis of preeclampsia and associated risks in pregnant women with systemic lupus. Dr. Simard was awarded a Peter Joseph Pappas Research Grant from the Preeclampsia Foundation for her lab's work examining preeclampsia risk in high-risk populations, and a McCormick Faculty Award from Stanford Medicine to take important steps towards disentangling preeclampsia from lupus nephritis. Dr. Simard is leading an international study of hydroxychloroquine in lupus pregnancy leveraging mixed methods in partnership with qualitative researchers, patients, clinicians, and epidemiologists in Sweden, Canada, and in the United States.
In addition to these issues of misclassification in reproductive rheumatology questions, Dr. Simard's lab is also interested in how misclassification, missed opportunities, and misdiagnosis contribute to disparities in complex conditions such as systemic lupus. In addition to methodologic issues around misclassification and bias and the largely clinical epidemiology focus of her work, Dr. Simard's work examines social determinants of health and health disparities. Dr. Simard was recently awarded an R01 from NIH (NIAID) to study the role of cognitive and unconscious bias in clinical decision making for female-predominant diseases including lupus.
Marcia L. Stefanick, Ph.D.
Professor (Research) of Medicine (Stanford Prevention Research Center), of Obstetrics and Gynecology and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMarcia L. Stefanick, Ph.D is a Professor of Medicine Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and by courtesy, Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Stefanick’s research focuses on chronic disease prevention (particularly, heart disease, breast cancer, osteoporosis, and dementia) in both women and men. She is currently the Principal Investigator the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Extension Study, having been the PI of the Stanford Clinical Center of the landmark WHI Clinical Trials and Observational Study since 1994 and Chair of the WHI Steering and Executive Committees from 1998-2011, as well as PI of the WHI Strong and Healthy (WHISH) Trial which is testing the hypothesis that a DHHS-based physical activity intervention, being delivered to a multi-ethnic cohort of about 24,000 WHI participants across the U.S., aged 68-99 when the trial started in 2015, will reduce major cardiovascular events over 8 years, compared to an equal number of “usual activity” controls. Dr. Stefanick is also PI of the Osteoporotic Study of Men (MrOS) which is continuing to conduct clinical assessments of bone and body composition in survivors of an original cohort of nearly 6000 men aged 65 and over in 2001. As founding Director of the Stanford Women’s Health and Sex Differences in Medicine (WHSDM, “wisdom”) Center, she plays a major role in promoting research and teaching on Sex and Gender in Human Physiology and Disease, Women’s Health and Queer Health and Medicine. Dr. Stefanick also plays major leadership roles at the Stanford School of Medicine, including as co-leader of the Population Sciences Program of the Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford’s NCI-funded comprehensive cancer center.
Dr. Stefanick obtained her B.A. in biology from the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (1974), then pursued her interest in hormone and sex difference research at the Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, after which she obtained her PhD in Physiology at Stanford University, focusing on reproductive physiology and neuroendocrinology, with exercise physiology as a secondary focus. Her commitment to human research led to a post-doctoral fellowship in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention at the Stanford Prevention Research Center, which has been her academic home for nearly 40 years.
Associate Professor of Medicine (General Medical Disciplines) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research focuses on ethical issues in genetics and genomics, specifically return of results and translation for exome and whole genome sequencing and translation of genomic sequencing into the clinical setting. I also conduct research on ethical issues in clinical care and research for patients and families with autism and other developmental and cognitive disabilities.
Tainayah Whitney Thomas
Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health (Epidemiology)
BioTainayah Thomas, PhD, MPH is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Population Health. Her research focuses on primary care improvement and diabetes prevention and management among racially and ethnically diverse populations. Dr. Thomas's research seeks to leverage delivery science research methodology to promote the integration of evidence-based research into clinical practice. Dr. Thomas is dedicated to transforming research into action by engaging community, health system, and policy stakeholders in adapting, implementing, and sustaining interventions that address health disparities and promote health equity.
Dee W. West
Professor of Health Research and Policy, Emeritus
Current Research and Scholarly Interests- Cancer etiology (diet, familial, genetic), especially breast, prostate and colon cancer
- Cancer surveillance (Cancer registration, cancer patterns)
- Cancer outcomes (Survival, quality of life, quality of care)
Alice S Whittemore
Professor of Health Research and Policy (Epidemiology) and of Biomedical Data Science, Emerita
Professor Emerita, Epidemiology and Population Health
Current Research and Scholarly InterestsCancers of the prostate, breast and ovary account for a major proportion of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in the U.S. each year. Our recent research focus has been on developing improved statistical methods for the design and conduct of studies involving hereditary predisposition and modifiable lifestyle characteristics in the etiologies of site-specific cancers.
Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health, of Biomedical Data Science and, by courtesy, of Genetics
BioDr. Witte joined the Stanford community in July 2021. In addition to serving as Vice Chair and professor in the Department of Epidemiology & Population Health, and as a professor of Biomedical Data Science and, by courtesy, of Genetics, he will also serve as a member of the Stanford Cancer Institute.
Dr. Witte is an internationally recognized expert in genetic epidemiology. His scholarly contributions include deciphering the genetic and environmental basis of prostate cancer and developing widely used methods for the genetic epidemiologic study of disease. His prostate cancer work has used comprehensive genome-wide studies of germline genetics, transcriptomics, and somatic genomics to successfully detect novel variants underlying the risk and aggressiveness of this common disease. A key aspect of this work has been distinguishing genetic factors that may drive increased prostate cancer risk and mortality among African American men. Providing an avenue to determine which men are more likely to be diagnosed with clinically relevant prostate cancer and require additional screening or specific treatment can help reduce disparities in disease prevalence and outcomes across populations. Dr. Witte has also developed novel hierarchical and polygenic risk score modeling for undertaking genetic epidemiology studies. These advances significantly improve our ability to detect disease-causing genes and to translate genetic epidemiologic findings into medical practice.
Dr. Witte has received the Leadership Award from the International Genetic Epidemiology Society (highest award), and the Stephen B. Hulley Award for Excellence in Teaching. His extensive teaching portfolio includes a series of courses in genetic and molecular epidemiology. He has mentored over 50 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, serves on the executive committees of multiple graduate programs, and has directed a National Institutes of Health funded post-doctoral training program in genetic epidemiology for over 20 years. Recently appointed to the National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Counselors, Dr. Witte has been continuously supported by the National Institutes of Health.