Dr. Carl Preiksaitis is a Medical Education Fellow and Clinical Instructor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at Stanford University. Dr. Preiksaitis completed his medical training at New York University School of Medicine and a residency in emergency medicine at Stanford. His scholarly interests include digital media and medical education, reproductive healthcare in the emergency department, and heath-care innovation. He is currently pursuing a master's degree in medical education at the University of Cincinnati.
- Emergency Medicine
Clinical Instructor, Emergency Medicine
Acting Assistant Residency Program Director, Department of Emergency Medicine (2023 - Present)
Acting Assistant Clerkship Director, Department of Emergency Medicine (2022 - 2023)
Residency: Stanford University Emergency Medicine Residency (2022) CA
Medical Education: NYU Langone Medical Center (2018) NY
Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions of Generative Artificial Intelligence in Medical Education: Scoping Review.
JMIR medical education
2023; 9: e48785
Generative artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are increasingly being utilized across various fields, with considerable interest and concern regarding their potential application in medical education. These technologies, such as Chat GPT and Bard, can generate new content and have a wide range of possible applications.This study aimed to synthesize the potential opportunities and limitations of generative AI in medical education. It sought to identify prevalent themes within recent literature regarding potential applications and challenges of generative AI in medical education and use these to guide future areas for exploration.We conducted a scoping review, following the framework by Arksey and O'Malley, of English language articles published from 2022 onward that discussed generative AI in the context of medical education. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. We screened articles for inclusion, extracted data from relevant studies, and completed a quantitative and qualitative synthesis of the data.Thematic analysis revealed diverse potential applications for generative AI in medical education, including self-directed learning, simulation scenarios, and writing assistance. However, the literature also highlighted significant challenges, such as issues with academic integrity, data accuracy, and potential detriments to learning. Based on these themes and the current state of the literature, we propose the following 3 key areas for investigation: developing learners' skills to evaluate AI critically, rethinking assessment methodology, and studying human-AI interactions.The integration of generative AI in medical education presents exciting opportunities, alongside considerable challenges. There is a need to develop new skills and competencies related to AI as well as thoughtful, nuanced approaches to examine the growing use of generative AI in medical education.
View details for DOI 10.2196/48785
View details for PubMedID 37862079
- Ghost in the inbox: AI may help alleviate the burden of patient messages. Evidence-based nursing 2023
The evolving role of emergency medicine in family planning services.
Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
The emergency department serves as an essential access point for a variety of healthcare services. This review will examine the recent expansion of family planning and reproductive health services in the emergency department.An increasing number of patients present to emergency departments for early pregnancy loss (EPL), abortion care, and contraceptive management. Availability of comprehensive EPL management varies dramatically, possibly due to lack of provider knowledge or training. Particularly in remote settings, educational interventions - such as providing information about medication management and training in uterine aspiration - may standardize this management. Restrictive abortion laws raise concerns for changing and increased patient presentations to the emergency department for complications related to unsafe or self-managed abortion. Emergency medicine providers should anticipate that more patients will present without a prior ultrasound confirming intrauterine pregnancy prior to initiating no-touch or self-managed abortions. Particularly among pediatric patients, there may be a role for contraceptive counseling during an emergency department visit. Novel strategies, including web-based interventions and emergency department-based curricula for contraceptive counseling, may help reach those who otherwise may not seek reproductive healthcare in a clinic setting.The intersection of emergency medicine and reproductive healthcare is a promising frontier for providing immediate, patient-centered, family planning care. Continued research and provider education are necessary to refine these approaches, address disparities, and respond to the changing reproductive healthcare landscape.
View details for DOI 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000908
View details for PubMedID 37610990
Characteristics of Emergency Medicine ResidencyPrograms With Unfilled Positions inthe2023 Match.
Annals of emergency medicine
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The unprecedented number of unfilled emergency medicine post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1) residency positions in the 2023 National Resident Matching Program shocked the emergency medicine community. This study investigates the association between emergency medicine program characteristics and the likelihood of unfilled positions in the 2023 Match.METHODS: This cross-sectional, observational study examined 2023 National Residency Matching Program data, focusing on program type, length, location, size, proximity to other programs, previous American Osteopathic Association (AOA) accreditation, first accreditation year, and emergency department ownership structure. We constructed a generalized linear mixed model with a logistic linking function to determine predictors of unfilled positions.RESULTS: A total of 554 of 3,010 (18.4%) PGY-1 positions at 131 of 276 (47%) emergency medicine programs went unfilled in the 2023 Match. In our model, predictors included having unfilled positions in the 2022 Match (odds ratio [OR] 48.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.04 to 110.15), smaller program size (less than 8 residents, OR 18.39, 95% CI 3.90 to 86.66; 8 to 10 residents, OR 6.29, 95% CI 1.50 to 26.28; 11 to 13 residents, OR 5.88, 95% CI 1.55 to 22.32), located in the Mid Atlantic (OR 14.03, 95% CI 2.56 to 77.04) area, prior AOA accreditation (OR 10.13, 95% CI 2.82 to 36.36), located in the East North Central (OR 6.94, 95% CI 1.25 to 38.47) area, and corporate ownership structure (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 9.72).CONCLUSION: Our study identified 6 characteristics associated with unfilled emergency medicine residency positions in the 2023 Match. These findings may be used to guide student advising and inform decisions by residency programs, hospitals, and national organizations to address the complexities of residency recruitment and implications for the emergency medicine workforce.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.06.002
View details for PubMedID 37436344
- ChatGPT is not the solution to physicians' documentation burden. Nature medicine 2023
Teaching Principles of Medical Innovation and Entrepreneurship Through Hackathons: Case Study and Qualitative Analysis.
JMIR medical education
2023; 9: e43916
Innovation and entrepreneurship training are increasingly recognized as being important in medical education. However, the lack of faculty comfort with the instruction of these concepts as well as limited scholarly recognition for this work has limited the implementation of curricula focused on these skills. Furthermore, this lack of familiarity limits the inclusion of practicing physicians in health care innovation, where their experience is valuable. Hackathons are intense innovation competitions that use gamification principles to increase comfort with creative thinking, problem-solving, and interpersonal collaboration, but they require further exploration in medical innovation.To address this, we aimed to design, implement, and evaluate a health care hackathon with 2 main goals: to improve emergency physician familiarity with the principles of health care innovation and entrepreneurship and to develop innovative solutions to 3 discrete problems facing emergency medicine physicians and patients.We used previously described practices for conducting hackathons to develop and implement our hackathon (HackED!). We partnered with the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Stanford School of Biodesign, and the Institute of Design at Stanford (d.school) to lend institutional support and expertise in health care innovation to our event. We determined a location, time frame, and logistics for the competition and settled on 3 use cases for teams to work on. We planned to explore the learning experience of participants within a pragmatic paradigm and complete an abductive thematic analysis using data from a variety of sources.HackED! took place from October 1-3, 2022. In all, 3 teams developed novel solutions to each of the use cases. Our investigation into the educational experience of participants suggested that the event was valuable and uncovered themes suggesting that the learning experience could be understood within a framework from entrepreneurship education not previously described in relation to hackathons.Health care hackathons appear to be a viable method of increasing physician experience with innovation and entrepreneurship principles and addressing complex problems in health care. Hackathons should be considered as part of educational programs that focus on these concepts.
View details for DOI 10.2196/43916
View details for PubMedID 36826988
Creating a Safe Space for Simulation: Is it Time to Stop Calling Them Confederates?
Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Use of the term "confederate" is often used in research literature to describe an individual allied with the research team. Confederate is used in simulation research to describe participants allied with the simulation facilitator. Confederate can also refer to the Confederate States of America and has connotations of racial injustice and slavery. Use of this term in simulation may adversely affect psychological safety of learners. Use of the term within the literature is a potential driver of use during simulation sessions. We completed a rapid review of the health care simulation literature to determine the frequency of the term confederate. From 2000 to 2021, 2635 uses of confederate were identified in 765 articles. There seems to be an increased trend in use of this word. We argue that alternative terms exist and should be used to maximize psychological safety of learners.
View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000710
View details for PubMedID 36455290
- Reprint of: Approach to management of penetrating neck injuries: A case of multiple self-inflicted penetrating knife wounds. Disease-a-month : DM 2022: 101422
Identifying Social Media Competencies for Health Professionals: An International Modified Delphi Study to Determine Consensus for Curricular Design.
Annals of emergency medicine
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The use of social media by health professionals is widespread. However, there is a lack of training to support the effective use of these novel platforms that account for the nuances of an effective health and research communication. We sought to identify the competencies needed by health care professionals to develop an effective social media presence as a medical professional, with the goal of building a social media curriculum.METHODS: We conducted a modified Delphi study, utilizing Kraiger's Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes framework to identify appropriate items for inclusion in a social media curriculum targeted at health care professionals. Experts in this space were defined as health care professionals who had delivered workshops, published papers, or developed prominent social media tools/accounts. They were recruited through a multimodal campaign to complete a series of 3 survey rounds designed to build consensus. In keeping with prior studies, a threshold of 80% endorsement was used for inclusion in the final list of items.RESULTS: Ninety-eight participants met the expert criteria and were invited to participate in the study. Of the 98 participants, 92 (94%) experts completed the first round; of the 92 experts who completed the first round, 83 (90%) completed the second round; and of the 83 experts who completed the second round, 81 (98%) completed the third round of the Delphi study. Eighteen new items were suggested in the first survey and incorporated into the study. A total of 46 items met the 80% inclusion threshold.CONCLUSION: We identified 46 items that were believed to be important for health care professionals using social media. This list should inform the development of curricular activities and objectives.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2022.02.016
View details for PubMedID 35339286
Symptomatic Respiratory Virus Infection and Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
2016; 62 (3): 313-319
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is a major cause of allograft loss post-lung transplantation. Prior studies have examined the association between respiratory virus infection (RVI) and CLAD were limited by older diagnostic techniques, study design, and case numbers. We examined the association between symptomatic RVI and CLAD using modern diagnostic techniques in a large contemporary cohort of lung transplant recipients (LTRs).We retrospectively assessed clinical variables including acute rejection, cytomegalovirus pneumonia, upper and lower RVI, and the primary endpoint of CLAD (determined by 2 independent reviewers) in 250 LTRs in a single university transplantation program. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to analyze the relationship between RVI and CLAD in a time-dependent manner, incorporating different periods of risk following RVI diagnosis.Fifty patients (20%) were diagnosed with CLAD at a median of 95 weeks post-transplantation, and 79 (32%) had 114 episodes of RVI. In multivariate analysis, rejection and RVI were independently associated with CLAD (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]) 2.2 (1.2-3.9), P = .01 and 1.9 (1.1-3.5), P = .03, respectively. The association of RVI with CLAD was stronger the more proximate the RVI episode: 4.8 (1.9-11.6), P < .01; 3.4 (1.5-7.5), P < .01; and 2.4 (1.2-5.0), P = .02 in multivariate analysis for 3, 6, and 12 months following RVI, respectively.Symptomatic RVI is independently associated with development of CLAD, with increased risk at shorter time periods following RVI. Prospective studies to characterize the virologic determinants of CLAD and define the underlying mechanisms are warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/civ871
View details for PubMedID 26565010
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4706632
A patient self-collection method for longitudinal monitoring of respiratory virus infection in solid organ transplant recipients.
Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
2015; 62: 98-102
Methods for the longitudinal study of respiratory virus infections are cumbersome and limit our understanding of the natural history of these infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients.To assess the feasibility and patient acceptability of self-collected foam nasal swabs for detection of respiratory viruses in SOT recipients and to define the virologic and clinical course.We prospectively monitored the course of symptomatic respiratory virus infection in 18 SOT patients (14 lung, 3 liver, and 1 kidney) using patient self-collected swabs.The initial study sample was positive in 15 patients with the following respiratory viruses: rhinovirus (6), metapneumovirus (1), coronavirus (2), respiratory syncytial virus (2), parainfluenza virus (2), and influenza A virus (2). One hundred four weekly self-collected nasal swabs were obtained, with a median of 4 samples per patient (range 1-17). Median duration of viral detection was 21 days (range 4-77 days). Additional new respiratory viruses detected during follow-up of these 15 patients included rhinovirus (3), metapneumovirus (2), coronavirus (1), respiratory syncytial virus (1), parainfluenza virus (1), and adenovirus (1). Specimen collection compliance was good; 16/18 (89%) patients collected all required specimens and 79/86 (92%) follow-up specimens were obtained within the 7 ± 3 day protocol-defined window. All participants agreed or strongly agreed that the procedure was comfortable, simple, and 13/14 (93%) were willing to participate in future studies using this procedure.Self-collected nasal swabs provide a convenient, feasible, and patient-acceptable methodology for longitudinal monitoring of upper respiratory virus infection in SOT recipients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.10.021
View details for PubMedID 25464966
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4629250
- Correspondence on the paper by Bridevaux et al. Thorax 2014; 69 (1): 82