Stanford Advisors


All Publications


  • Human-mediated impacts on biodiversity and the consequences for zoonotic disease spillover. Current biology : CB Glidden, C. K., Nova, N., Kain, M. P., Lagerstrom, K. M., Skinner, E. B., Mandle, L., Sokolow, S. H., Plowright, R. K., Dirzo, R., De Leo, G. A., Mordecai, E. A. 2021; 31 (19): R1342-R1361

    Abstract

    Human-mediated changes to natural ecosystems have consequences for both ecosystem and human health. Historically, efforts to preserve or restore 'biodiversity' can seem to be in opposition to human interests. However, the integration of biodiversity conservation and public health has gained significant traction in recent years, and new efforts to identify solutions that benefit both environmental and human health are ongoing. At the forefront of these efforts is an attempt to clarify ways in which biodiversity conservation can help reduce the risk of zoonotic spillover of pathogens from wild animals, sparking epidemics and pandemics in humans and livestock. However, our understanding of the mechanisms by which biodiversity change influences the spillover process is incomplete, limiting the application of integrated strategies aimed at achieving positive outcomes for both conservation and disease management. Here, we review the literature, considering a broad scope of biodiversity dimensions, to identify cases where zoonotic pathogen spillover is mechanistically linked to changes in biodiversity. By reframing the discussion around biodiversity and disease using mechanistic evidence - while encompassing multiple aspects of biodiversity including functional diversity, landscape diversity, phenological diversity, and interaction diversity - we work toward general principles that can guide future research and more effectively integrate the related goals of biodiversity conservation and spillover prevention. We conclude by summarizing how these principles could be used to integrate the goal of spillover prevention into ongoing biodiversity conservation initiatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2021.08.070

    View details for PubMedID 34637744

  • EXPLORING THE USE OF THE ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE AS AN INFLAMMATORY MARKER FOR FREE-RANGING WILDLIFE: A CASE STUDY IN AFRICAN BUFFALO (SYNCERUS CAFFER) JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE DISEASES Yarborough, E., Glidden, C., Coon, C., Couch, C., Sisson, D., Johns, J., Jolles, A., Beechler, B. 2022; 58 (2): 298-308

    Abstract

    Measuring inflammatory markers is critical to evaluating both recent infection status and overall human and animal health; however, there are relatively few techniques that do not require specialized equipment or personnel for detecting inflammation among wildlife. Such techniques are useful in that they help determine individual and population-level inflammatory status without the infrastructure and reagents that many more-specific assays require. One such technique, known as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), is a measure of how quickly erythrocytes (red blood cells) settle in serum, with a faster rate indicating a general, underlying inflammatory process is occurring. The technique is simple, inexpensive, and can be performed in the field without specialized equipment. We took advantage of a population of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), well studied from June 2014 to May 2017, to understand the utility of ESR in an important wildlife species. When ESR was compared with other markers of immunity in African buffalo, it correlated to known measures of inflammation. We found that a faster ESR was significantly positively correlated with increased total globulin levels and significantly negatively correlated with increased red blood cell count and albumin levels. We then evaluated if ESR correlated to the incidence of five respiratory pathogens and infection with two tick-borne pathogens in African buffalo. Our results suggest that elevated ESR is associated with the incidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection, parainfluenza virus, and Mannheimia haemolytica infections as well as concurrent Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale coinfection. These findings suggest that ESR is a useful field test as an inflammatory marker in individuals and herds, helping us better monitor overall health status in wild populations.

    View details for DOI 10.7589/JWD-D-21-001I4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000787191700005

    View details for PubMedID 35276000

  • Corrigendum: Global Patterns of the Fungal Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Support Conservation Urgency. Frontiers in veterinary science Olson, D. H., Ronnenberg, K. L., Glidden, C. K., Christiansen, K. R., Blaustein, A. R. 2022; 9: 825058

    Abstract

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2021.685877.].

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fvets.2022.825058

    View details for PubMedID 35211542

  • Global Patterns of the Fungal Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Support Conservation Urgency. Frontiers in veterinary science Olson, D. H., Ronnenberg, K. L., Glidden, C. K., Christiansen, K. R., Blaustein, A. R. 2021; 8: 685877

    Abstract

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a skin pathogen that can cause the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis in susceptible species. It has been considered one of the most severe threats to amphibian biodiversity. We aimed to provide an updated compilation of global Bd occurrences by host taxon and geography, and with the larger global Bd dataset we reanalyzed Bd associations with environmental metrics at the world and regional scales. We also compared our Bd data compilation with a recent independent assessment to provide a more comprehensive count of species and countries with Bd occurrences. Bd has been detected in 1,375 of 2,525 (55%) species sampled, more than doubling known species infections since 2013. Bd occurrence is known from 93 of 134 (69%) countries at this writing; this compares to known occurrences in 56 of 82 (68%) countries in 2013. Climate-niche space is highly associated with Bd detection, with different climate metrics emerging as key predictors of Bd occurrence at regional scales; this warrants further assessment relative to climate-change projections. The accretion of Bd occurrence reports points to the common aims of worldwide investigators to understand the conservation concerns for amphibian biodiversity in the face of potential disease threat. Renewed calls for better mitigation of amphibian disease threats resonate across continents with amphibians, especially outside Asia. As Bd appears to be able to infect about half of amphibian taxa and sites, there is considerable room for biosecurity actions to forestall its spread using both bottom-up community-run efforts and top-down national-to-international policies. Conservation safeguards for sensitive species and biodiversity refugia are continuing priorities.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fvets.2021.685877

    View details for PubMedID 34336978