Clinical Focus

  • Dermatology

Honors & Awards

  • Dermatology Chief Resident, Stanford (2018-2019)
  • Stanford MD Program Teaching Nomination, Stanford (2016)
  • Certificate of Merit Research Award, Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) (2013)
  • Clinical and Translational Science Award, Stanford (2013)
  • International Investigative Dermatology Travel Research Grant, Stanford (2013)
  • Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award, Institutional Training Grant (T32) by the NIH/NCRR (2013)
  • Stanford Medical Scholars Research Grant, Stanford (2012)
  • Stanford Medical Scholars Research Grant, Stanford (2011)
  • Dean's Award, Stanford (2010)
  • Honors in Human Biology, Stanford (2010)
  • Stanford Undergraduate Major Research Grant, Stanford (2009)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Dermatology, Dermatology (2019)
  • Residency: Stanford University Dermatology Residency (2019) CA
  • Internship: Santa Clara Valley Medical Center Dept of Medicine (2016) CA
  • Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (2015) CA
  • Residency, Stanford University, Dermatology (2019)
  • Internship, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, Internal Medicine (2016)
  • MD, Stanford University, Medical School (2015)
  • BA, Stanford University, Undergraduate (2010)

All Publications

  • Reversible cutaneous side effects of vismodegib treatment. Cutis Kwong, B. n., Danial, C. n., Liu, A. n., Chun, K. A., Chang, A. L. 2017; 99 (3): E19–E20

    View details for PubMedID 28398426

  • An Investigator-Initiated Open-Label Trial of Sonidegib in Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma Patients Resistant to Vismodegib CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Danial, C., Sarin, K. Y., Oro, A. E., Chang, A. L. 2016; 22 (6): 1325-1329


    To assess the tumor response to the smoothened (SMO) inhibitor, sonidegib (LDE225), in patients with an advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) resistant to treatment with vismodegib (GDC0449).Nine patients with an advanced BCC that was previously resistant to treatment with vismodegib were given sonidegib in this investigational, open-label study. Tumor response was determined using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. SMO mutations were identified using biopsy samples from the target BCC location.The median duration of treatment with sonidegib was 6 weeks (range, 3-58 weeks). Five patients experienced progressive disease with sonidegib. Three patients experienced stable disease and discontinued sonidegib either due to adverse events (n = 1) or due to election for surgery (n = 2). The response of one patient was not evaluable. SMO mutations with in vitro data suggesting resistance to Hh pathway inhibition were identified in 5 patients, and none of these patients experienced responses while on sonidegib.Patients with advanced BCCs that were previously resistant to treatment with vismodegib similarly demonstrated treatment resistance with sonidegib. Patients who have developed treatment resistance to an SMO inhibitor may continue to experience tumor progression in response to other SMO inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res; 22(6); 1325-9. ©2015 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1588

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373358900006

    View details for PubMedID 26546616

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4794361

  • Evaluation of Treatments for Pruritus in Epidermolysis Bullosa. Pediatric dermatology Danial, C., Adeduntan, R., Gorell, E. S., Lucky, A. W., Paller, A. S., Bruckner, A. L., Pope, E., Morel, K. D., Levy, M. L., Li, S., Gilmore, E. S., Lane, A. T. 2015; 32 (5): 628-634


    Pruritus is a common complication in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). There is limited published data about the treatments that individuals with EB use for pruritus. The objective of the current study was to determine quantitatively which treatments individuals with EB have used for pruritus and to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of these treatments in pruritus relief. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the treatments and therapies used for pruritus in patients of all ages and for all types of EB. Questions about bathing products, moisturizers, topical products, oral medications, dressings, and alternative therapies were included. A 5-point Likert scale (-2 = relieves itch a lot, -1 = relieves itch a little, 0 = no change, 1 = increases itch a little, 2 = increases itch a lot) was used to evaluate perceived effectiveness. Patients from seven North American EB centers were invited to participate. Greasy ointments (53.4%), lotions (45.2%), creams (40.4%), and oral hydroxyzine (39.0%) were the most frequently used treatments for pruritus. Treatments that were used frequently and perceived to be the most effective included creams (mean = -1.1), topical prescription corticosteroids (mean = -1.0), oils (mean = -0.9), oral hydroxyzine (mean = -0.9), topical diphenhydramine (mean = -0.9), and vaporizing rub (menthol, camphor, eucalyptus) (mean = -0.9). Systemic opioids (mean = 0.3), adherent bandages (mean = 0.3), and bleach baths (mean = 0.2) slightly increased pruritus. Randomized controlled trials of therapies will be necessary to develop evidence-based recommendations for control of pruritus in individuals with EB.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pde.12486

    View details for PubMedID 25557557

  • Case 220: Neurocutaneous Melanosis RADIOLOGY Danial-Mamlouk, C., Mamlouk, M. D., Handwerker, J., Hasso, A. N. 2015; 276 (2): 609-613


    History A 3-month-old boy presented with new onset of seizure that subsided when he arrived at our institution. There was no reported fever or family history of seizure. Physical examination did not reveal any neurologic abnormalities. Multiple skin lesions of varying sizes were identified on the scalp, trunk, and extremities and were reported to have been present since birth. Laboratory test results were normal. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain was performed.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2015131288

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359796900032

    View details for PubMedID 26203712

  • Prevalence and characterization of pruritus in epidermolysis bullosa. Pediatric dermatology Danial, C., Adeduntan, R., Gorell, E. S., Lucky, A. W., Paller, A. S., Bruckner, A., Pope, E., Morel, K. D., Levy, M. L., Li, S., Gilmore, E. S., Lane, A. T. 2015; 32 (1): 53-59


    Qualitative data suggest that pruritus is a burdensome symptom in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB), but the prevalence of pruritus in children and adults with EB and factors that contribute to pruritus are unknown. The objective of the current study was to quantitatively identify and to characterize pruritus that EB patients experience using a comprehensive online questionnaire. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate pruritus in all ages and all types of EB. Questions that characterize pruritus were included and factors that aggravate symptoms were investigated. Patients from seven North American EB centers were invited to participate. One hundred forty-six of 216 questionnaires were completed (response rate 68%; 73 male, 73 female; median age 20.0 years). Using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = often, 5 = always), itchiness was the most bothersome EB complication (mean 3.3). The average daily frequency of pruritus increased with self-reported EB severity. Pruritus was most frequent at bedtime (mean 3.8) and interfered with sleep. Factors that aggravated pruritus included healing wounds, dry skin, infected wounds, stress, heat, dryness, and humidity. Pruritus is common in individuals with EB and can be bothersome. Future studies will need to investigate the most effective treatments given to individuals with EB for pruritus.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pde.12391

    View details for PubMedID 25236506

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4315706

  • An open-label study to evaluate sildenafil for the treatment of lymphatic malformations. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Danial, C., Tichy, A. L., Tariq, U., Swetman, G. L., Khuu, P., Leung, T. H., Benjamin, L., Teng, J., Vasanawala, S. S., Lane, A. T. 2014; 70 (6): 1050-1057


    Lymphatic malformations can be challenging to treat. Mainstay interventions including surgery and sclerotherapy are invasive and can result in local recurrence and complications.We sought to assess the effect of 20 weeks of oral sildenafil on reducing lymphatic malformation volume and symptoms in children.Seven children (4 boys, 3 girls; ages 13-85 months) with lymphatic malformations were given oral sildenafil for 20 weeks in this open-label study. The volume of the lymphatic malformation was calculated blindly using magnetic resonance imaging performed before and after 20 weeks of sildenafil. Lymphatic malformations were assessed clinically on weeks 4, 12, 20, and 32. Both the physician and parents evaluated the lymphatic malformation in comparison with baseline.Four subjects had a lymphatic malformation volume decrease (1.0%-31.7%). In 2 subjects, despite a lymphatic malformation volume increase (1.1%-3.7%), clinical improvement was noted while on sildenafil. One subject had a 29.6% increase in lymphatic malformation volume and no therapeutic response. Lymphatic malformations of all 6 subjects who experienced a therapeutic response on sildenafil softened and became easily compressible. Adverse events were minimal.A randomized controlled trial will be necessary to verify the effects of sildenafil on lymphatic malformations.Sildenafil can reduce lymphatic malformation volume and symptoms in some children.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.02.005

    View details for PubMedID 24656411

  • Overall and progression-free survival in metastatic basosquamous cancer: A case series. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Zhu, G. A., Danial, C., Liu, A., Li, S., Su Chang, A. L. 2014; 70 (6): 1145-1146

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.03.003

    View details for PubMedID 24831322

  • Markedly improved overall survival in 10 consecutive patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY Danial, C., Lingala, B., Balise, R., Oro, A. E., Reddy, S., Colevas, A., Chang, A. L. 2013; 169 (3): 673-676


    BACKGROUND: Metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a rare but life-threatening condition. Prior estimates of overall survival (OS) from time of diagnosis of distant metastasis to death are approximately 8-14 months. However, these estimates are based on analyses of case reports published prior to 1984. OBJECTIVES: To assess a more updated OS in metastatic BCC patients at a single academic institution. METHODS: Using patients from 1997 to 2011, a retrospective chart review was performed on biopsy-confirmed cases of distant metastatic BCC at Stanford University School of Medicine. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine OS and progression free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Ten consecutive cases of distant metastatic BCC were identified. Median OS was 7.3 (95% confidence interval, CI; 1.6, ∞) years; median PFS was 3.4 (95% CI; 1.1, 5.2) years. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that OS in patients with distant metastaticBCC may be more favorable than previously reported.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bjd.12333

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323700000027

  • The chondrotoxicity of single-dose corticosteroids KNEE SURGERY SPORTS TRAUMATOLOGY ARTHROSCOPY Dragoo, J. L., Danial, C. M., Braun, H. J., Pouliot, M. A., Kim, H. J. 2012; 20 (9): 1809-1814


    Corticosteroids are commonly injected into the joint space. However, studies have not examined the chondrotoxicity of one-time injection doses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Decadron), methylprednisolone acetate (Depo-Medrol), betamethasone sodium phosphate and betamethasone acetate (Celestone Soluspan), and triamcinolone acetonide (Kenalog) on human chondrocyte viability in vitro.Single-injection doses of each of the corticosteroids were separately delivered to human chondrocytes for their respective average duration of action and compared to controls using a bioreactor containing a continuous infusion pump constructed to mimic joint fluid metabolism. A 14-day time-controlled trial was also performed. A live/dead reduced biohazard viability/cytotoxicity assay was used to quantify chondrocyte viability.Over their average duration of action, betamethasone sodium phosphate/acetate solution and triamcinolone acetonide caused significant decreases in chondrocyte viability compared to control media (19.8 ± 2.9% vs. 5.2 ± 2.1%, P = 0.0025 and 10.2 ± 1.3% vs. 4.8 ± 0.9%, P = 0.0049, respectively). In the 14-day trial, only betamethasone sodium phosphate/acetate solution caused a significant decrease in chondrocyte viability compared to control media (21.5% vs. 4.6%, P < 0.001).A single-injection dose of betamethasone sodium phosphate and betamethasone acetate solution illustrated consistent and significant chondrotoxicity using a physiologically relevant in vitro model and should be used with caution. Given the observed chondrotoxicity of triamcinolone acetonide in a single trial, there may be some evidence that this medication is chondrotoxic. However, at 14 days, betamethasone sodium phosphate and betamethasone acetate was the only condition that caused significant cell death.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00167-011-1820-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307816500022

    View details for PubMedID 22186921

  • Retrospective analysis of anesthetic interventions for obese patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA Butwick, A., Carvalho, B., Danial, C., Riley, E. 2010; 22 (7): 519-526


    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), perioperative times, and anesthetic interventions in patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery.Retrospective chart review.University-affiliated hospital.All patients were ranked according to BMI (kg/m(2)) at the time of delivery. The BMI groups were designated a priori: ≤ 29.9 kg/m(2) (Group C); 30-34.9 kg/m(2) (Group I); 35-39.9 kg/m(2) (Group II), and ≥ 40 kg/m(2) (Group III). One hundred patients (25 pts per group) underwent elective cesarean delivery. Data collected included anesthetic technique, perioperative times, anesthesia-related costs, and neonatal outcomes.A higher percentage of Group III patients (60%) received combined spinal-epidural (CSE) anesthesia than did Group C or Group I (18% and 16%, respectively; P < 0.05). The total intraoperative period was significantly longer in Group III (101 min) compared with Groups C, I, and II (81 min, 90 min, and 92 min, respectively; P < 0.05). Total intraoperative time increased significantly with BMI (R = 0.394 kg/m(2); P < 0.001). The highest anesthesia-related costs during the study were generated by patients with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2).Our single-center experience showed that choice of anesthetic technique (CSE vs. spinal anesthesia) varies according to obesity class. Longer intraoperative periods must be considered in deciding upon the mode of anesthesia for patients with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) who undergo elective cesarean delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2010.01.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284791000006

    View details for PubMedID 21056808