Cell-Surface Proteomic Profiling in the Fly Brain Uncovers Wiring Regulators.
Molecular interactions at the cellular interface mediate organized assembly of single cells into tissues and, thus, govern the development and physiology of multicellular organisms. Here, we developed a cell-type-specific, spatiotemporally resolved approach to profile cell-surface proteomes in intact tissues. Quantitative profiling of cell-surface proteomes of Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs) in pupae and adults revealed global downregulation of wiring molecules and upregulation of synaptic molecules in the transition from developing to mature PNs. A proteome-instructed invivo screen identified 20 cell-surface molecules regulating neural circuit assembly, many of which belong to evolutionarily conserved protein families not previously linked to neural development. Genetic analysis further revealed that the lipoprotein receptor LRP1 cell-autonomously controls PN dendrite targeting, contributing to the formation of a precise olfactory map. These findings highlight the power of temporally resolved in situ cell-surface proteomic profiling in discovering regulators of brain wiring.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2019.12.029
View details for PubMedID 31955847
Single-Cell Transcriptomes Reveal Diverse Regulatory Strategies for Olfactory Receptor Expression and Axon Targeting.
Current biology : CB
The regulatory mechanisms by which neurons coordinate their physiology and connectivity are not well understood. The Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) provide an excellent system to investigate this question. Each ORN type expresses a unique olfactory receptor, or a combination thereof, and sends their axons to a stereotyped glomerulus. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we identified 33 transcriptomic clusters for ORNs and mapped 20 to their glomerular types, demonstrating that transcriptomic clusters correspond well with anatomically and physiologically defined ORN types. Each ORN type expresses hundreds of transcription factors. Transcriptome-instructed genetic analyses revealed that (1) one broadly expressed transcription factor (Acj6) only regulates olfactory receptor expression in one ORN type and only wiring specificity in another type, (2) one type-restricted transcription factor (Forkhead) only regulates receptor expression, and (3) another type-restricted transcription factor (Unplugged) regulates both events. Thus, ORNs utilize diverse strategies and complex regulatory networks to coordinate their physiology and connectivity.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2020.01.049
View details for PubMedID 32059767
Cell-surface proteomic landscape of developing and mature olfactory projection neurons
AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC. 2019: S40
View details for Web of Science ID 000516535000051
Transsynaptic Fish-lips signaling prevents misconnections between nonsynaptic partner olfactory neurons.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Our understanding of the mechanisms of neural circuit assembly is far from complete. Identification of wiring molecules with novel mechanisms of action will provide insights into how complex and heterogeneous neural circuits assemble during development. In the Drosophila olfactory system, 50 classes of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) make precise synaptic connections with 50 classes of partner projection neurons (PNs). Here, we performed an RNA interference screen for cell surface molecules and identified the leucine-rich repeat-containing transmembrane protein known as Fish-lips (Fili) as a novel wiring molecule in the assembly of the Drosophila olfactory circuit. Fili contributes to the precise axon and dendrite targeting of a small subset of ORN and PN classes, respectively. Cell-type-specific expression and genetic analyses suggest that Fili sends a transsynaptic repulsive signal to neurites of nonpartner classes that prevents their targeting to inappropriate glomeruli in the antennal lobe.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1905832116
View details for PubMedID 31341080
Rescue of Fragile X Syndrome Neurons by DNA Methylation Editing of the FMR1 Gene
2018; 172 (5): 979-+
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common genetic form of intellectual disability in males, is caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene associated with hypermethylation of the CGG expansion mutation in the 5' UTR of FMR1 in FXS patients. Here, we applied recently developed DNA methylation editing tools to reverse this hypermethylation event. Targeted demethylation of the CGG expansion by dCas9-Tet1/single guide RNA (sgRNA) switched the heterochromatin status of the upstream FMR1 promoter to an active chromatin state, restoring a persistent expression of FMR1 in FXS iPSCs. Neurons derived from methylation-edited FXS iPSCs rescued the electrophysiological abnormalities and restored a wild-type phenotype upon the mutant neurons. FMR1 expression in edited neurons was maintained in vivo after engrafting into the mouse brain. Finally, demethylation of the CGG repeats in post-mitotic FXS neurons also reactivated FMR1. Our data establish that demethylation of the CGG expansion is sufficient for FMR1 reactivation, suggesting potential therapeutic strategies for FXS.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000425937100010
View details for PubMedID 29456084
Stepwise wiring of the Drosophila olfactory map requires specific Plexin B levels.
The precise assembly of a neural circuit involves many consecutive steps. The conflict between a limited number of wiring molecules and the complexity of the neural network impels each molecule to execute multiple functions at different steps. Here, we examined the cell-type specific distribution of endogenous levels of axon guidance receptor Plexin B (PlexB) in the developing antennal lobe, the first olfactory processing center in Drosophila. We found that different classes of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express PlexB at different levels in two wiring steps - axonal trajectory choice and subsequent target selection. In line with its temporally distinct patterns, the proper levels of PlexB control both steps in succession. Genetic interactions further revealed that the effect of high-level PlexB is antagonized by its canonical partner Sema2b. Thus, PlexB plays a multifaceted role in instructing the assembly of the Drosophila olfactory circuit through temporally-regulated expression patterns and expression level-dependent effects.
View details for PubMedID 30136927
RNA m(6)A methylation regulates the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response
2017; 543 (7646): 573-+
Cell proliferation and survival require the faithful maintenance and propagation of genetic information, which are threatened by the ubiquitous sources of DNA damage present intracellularly and in the external environment. A system of DNA repair, called the DNA damage response, detects and repairs damaged DNA and prevents cell division until the repair is complete. Here we report that methylation at the 6 position of adenosine (m6A) in RNA is rapidly (within 2 min) and transiently induced at DNA damage sites in response to ultraviolet irradiation. This modification occurs on numerous poly(A)+ transcripts and is regulated by the methyltransferase METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3) and the demethylase FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein). In the absence of METTL3 catalytic activity, cells showed delayed repair of ultraviolet-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine adducts and elevated sensitivity to ultraviolet, demonstrating the importance of m6A in the ultraviolet-responsive DNA damage response. Multiple DNA polymerases are involved in the ultraviolet response, some of which resynthesize DNA after the lesion has been excised by the nucleotide excision repair pathway, while others participate in trans-lesion synthesis to allow replication past damaged lesions in S phase. DNA polymerase κ (Pol κ), which has been implicated in both nucleotide excision repair and trans-lesion synthesis, required the catalytic activity of METTL3 for immediate localization to ultraviolet-induced DNA damage sites. Importantly, Pol κ overexpression qualitatively suppressed the cyclobutane pyrimidine removal defect associated with METTL3 loss. Thus, we have uncovered a novel function for RNA m6A modification in the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response, and our findings collectively support a model in which m6A RNA serves as a beacon for the selective, rapid recruitment of Pol κ to damage sites to facilitate repair and cell survival.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature21671
View details for Web of Science ID 000397018000056
View details for PubMedID 28297716
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5490984