Quantum-enabled millimetre wave to optical transduction using neutral atoms.
2023; 615 (7953): 614-619
Early experiments with transiting circular Rydberg atoms in a superconducting resonator laid the foundations of modern cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics1, and helped explore the defining features of quantum mechanics such as entanglement. Whereas ultracold atoms and superconducting circuits have since taken rather independent paths in the exploration of new physics, taking advantage of their complementary strengths in an integrated system enables access to fundamentally new parameter regimes and device capabilities2,3. Here we report on such a system, coupling an ensemble of cold 85Rb atoms simultaneously to an, as far as we are aware, first-of-its-kind optically accessible, three-dimensional superconducting resonator4 and a vibration-suppressed optical cavity in a cryogenic (5 K) environment. To demonstrate the capabilities of this platform, and with an eye towards quantum networking5, we leverage the strong coupling between Rydberg atoms and the superconducting resonator to implement a quantum-enabled millimetre wave (mmwave) photon to optical photon transducer6. We measured an internal conversion efficiency of 58(11)%, a conversion bandwidth of 360(20) kHz and added thermal noise of 0.6 photons, in agreement with a parameter-free theory. Extensions of this technique will allow near-unity efficiency transduction in both the mmwave and microwave regimes. More broadly, our results open a new field of hybrid mmwave/optical quantum science, with prospects for operation deep in the strong coupling regime for efficient generation of metrologically or computationally useful entangled states7 and quantum simulation/computation with strong non-local interactions8.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-023-05740-2
View details for PubMedID 36949338
View details for PubMedCentralID 4386362
Disorder-assisted assembly of strongly correlated fluids of light.
2022; 612 (7940): 435-441
Guiding many-body systems to desired states is a central challenge of modern quantum science, with applications from quantum computation1,2 to many-body physics3 and quantum-enhanced metrology4. Approaches to solving this problem include step-by-step assembly5,6, reservoir engineering to irreversibly pump towards a target state7,8 and adiabatic evolution from a known initial state9,10. Here we construct low-entropy quantum fluids of light in a Bose-Hubbard circuit by combining particle-by-particle assembly and adiabatic preparation. We inject individual photons into a disordered lattice for which the eigenstates are known and localized, then adiabatically remove this disorder, enabling quantum fluctuations to melt the photons into a fluid. Using our platform11, we first benchmark this lattice melting technique by building and characterizing arbitrary single-particle-in-a-box states, then assemble multiparticle strongly correlated fluids. Intersite entanglement measurements performed through single-site tomography indicate that the particles in the fluid delocalize, whereas two-body density correlation measurements demonstrate that they also avoid one another, revealing Friedel oscillations characteristic of a Tonks-Girardeau gas12,13. This work opens new possibilities for the preparation of topological and otherwise exotic phases of synthetic matter3,14,15.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-05357-x
View details for PubMedID 36517711