- Cancer > Breast Cancer
- Breast Cancer
- Breast Cancer - Diagnostic Imaging
- Diagnostic Radiology
- breast density
- breast cancer needle biopsy
- breast cancer screening
- breast cancer mammography
- breast cancer ultrasound
- breast cancer magnetic resonance imaging
- breast cancer outcomes
- breast cancer tomosynthesis
Member, Stanford Cancer Institute
Director, Stanford University Breast Imaging section (1992 - Present)
Honors & Awards
Teacher of the Year, Stanford Radiology (1997)
Internship:U Michigan (1984)
Medical Education:University of Connecticut-School of Medicine (1983) CT
Fellowship:Swedish University (1988) Sweden
Board Certification: Diagnostic Radiology, American Board of Radiology (1987)
Fellowship:UCSF Medical Center (1987) CA
Residency:University of Michigan (1987) MI
MD, University of Connecticut, Medicine (1983)
Residency, University of Michigan, Radiology (1987)
Fellowship, UCSF, Mammography (1987)
Fellowship, Malmo General Hospital, Sweden, Mammography (1988)
Community and International Work
California SB 1538 Breast Density Notification Law
California SB 1538 Breast Density Notification Law
California Breast Density Information Broup
women undergoing breast cancer screening with mammography and their health care providers
Opportunities for Student Involvement
International Working Group on Breast MRI, American College of Radiology
NCI, ACR, Susan G. Komen Foundation
women with breast cancer
Opportunities for Student Involvement
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Our clinical and research interests are dedicated to improving the health and lives of women by breast cancer detection and diagnosis using imaging, in both development and testing of new imaging techniques, and transfer of new technology to the clinical arena.
I am Director of the Stanford Breast Imaging Section and Professor of Radiology. Our research program has produced publications in analog and digital mammography, computer-aided detection, breast ultrasound, breast cancer screening, high-resolution and dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), MRI-guided breast biopsy, MR spectroscopy, fine-needle aspiration cytology, stereotactic needle biopsy, partial breast irradiation sentinel lymph node biopsy, percutaneous tumor ablation including radiofrequency and other devices, outcomes, compliance and imaging of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Continuing research involves diagnosis with MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging. New research involves evaluation of breast density and breast density legislation, tomosynthesis, blood biomarkers and the genetics of breast cancer and the normal surrounding stroma, and repetitive stress injury in breast imagers.
The are many reasons that the Stanford Breast Imaging research program is successful. Stanford provides the optimum location in Silcon Valley for developing, researching and implementing new technology and transferring that technology to the clinical arena in our busy all-digital Breast Cancer Center which opened in 2004. Working with world-class basic science researchers, engineers,chemists and physicists at the Lucas Center for Magnetic Resonance Spectrocopy and Imaging (under the direction of Dr. Gary Glover) and at the Clark Center/ Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (under the the direction of Dr. Sanjiv Gamghir), the Stanford Breast Imaging service provides state-of-the-art imaging with access to the latest technologies and imaging modalities developed at these research labs. Specifically, both the Lucas Center (which now houses a cyclotron and wet lab) and the Clark Center are located within a block from the Medical Center and from each other. In addition, a Stanford Radiology Outcomes Section evaluates the impact of these new technologies on breast cancer patients. Thus, breast cancer imaging research is supported by a uniquely qualified team of Stanford Radiology Engineering, Physics and Medical faculty, postdoctoral candidates and graduate students from around the world. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of this team by our development, transfer and publication of MRI techniques to breast cancer imaging.
The Stanford Breast Imaging service has state-of-the-art imaging equipment to provide imaging research material, including all digital mammography units with CAD, PACS to correlate ultrasound, MRI and PET/CT images and a hosptial-wide patient computer information system. Research stems from clinical questions generated at the Breast Center, clinical dilmmas encountered during everyday practice, and implemenation oft new techniques generated at Stanford and in Silicon Valley to improve women's health.
Stanford is one of few USA Centers routinely using MRI-guided needle localization and vacuum assisted breast core biopsy; we do over 1000 diagnostic breast MRI studies/year. The Section also puts on outstanding post-grad courses for radiologists to learn MRI diganosis/biopsy, and digital mammography; each course is attended by over 400 participants. The critical mass of scientists, engineers and clinicians at Stanford provides a unique opportunity and platform to bring new diagnostic tools and detection methods to investigate both fundementals and clinical concerns in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, and to teach those new methods to the general radiologist.
Adjunctive Efficacy Study Of The SoftScan® Optical Breast Imaging System
The primary study endpoint -SoftScan adjunctive accuracy- will be used to test the hypothesis that the adjunctive combination of the SoftScan with x-ray mammography provides diagnostic accuracy that is significantly better than x-ray mammography alone.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Leslie Roche, (650) 724 - 5913.
Breast Density and the Role of Preoperative Mammography, Ultrasound, Elastography and MRI
To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of preoperative ultrasound, elastography, mammography and breast MRI in women with dense breast tissue diagnosed with breast cancer; to test whether elastography or MRI can improve upon routine mammogram and conventional ultrasound in women with dense breast tissue.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Leslie Roche, (650) 724 - 5913.
Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Following Lumpectomy for Breast Cancer
To determine whether an accelerated course of radiotherapy delivered to the lumpectomy cavity plus margin using IORT as a single dose, intracavitary brachytherapy with the MammoSite device over 5 days, partial breast 3-D CRT in 5 days, or stereotactic APBI over 4 days is a feasible and safe alternative to a six and a half week course of whole breast radiotherapy. The study will measure both short and long-term complications of radiation treatment, short and long-term breast cosmesis, local rates of in-breast cancer recurrence, regional recurrences, distant metastases, and overall survival.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sally Bobo, (650) 736 - 1472.
Independent Studies (6)
- Directed Reading in Radiology
RAD 299 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Early Clinical Experience in Radiology
RAD 280 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Graduate Research
RAD 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Medical Scholars Research
RAD 370 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Readings in Radiology Research
RAD 101 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Undergraduate Research
RAD 199 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Directed Reading in Radiology
3D T2-Weighted Spin Echo Imaging in the Breast
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2014; 39 (2): 332-338
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of 2D versus 3D T2-weighted spin echo imaging in the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2D and 3D T2-weighted images were acquired in 25 patients as part of a clinically indicated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam. Lesion-to-fibroglandular tissue signal ratio was measured in 16 identified lesions. Clarity of lesion morphology was assessed through a blinded review by three radiologists. Instances demonstrating the potential diagnostic contribution of 3D versus 2D T2-weighted imaging in the breast were noted through unblinded review by a fourth radiologist. RESULTS: The lesion-to-fibroglandular tissue signal ratio was well correlated between 2D and 3D T2-weighted images (R(2) = 0.93). Clarity of lesion morphology was significantly better with 3D T2-weighted imaging for all observers based on a McNemar test (P ≤ 0.02, P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.03). Instances indicating the potential diagnostic contribution of 3D T2-weighted imaging included improved depiction of signal intensity and improved alignment between DCE and T2-weighted findings. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, 3D T2-weighted imaging provided comparable contrast and improved depiction of lesion morphology in the breast in comparison to 2D T2-weighted imaging. Based on these results further investigation to determine the diagnostic impact of 3D T2-weighted imaging in breast MRI is warranted.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;00:000-000. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24151
View details for Web of Science ID 000329753400011
Defining an optimal role for breast magnetic resonance imaging when evaluating patients otherwise eligible for accelerated partial breast irradiation
RADIOTHERAPY AND ONCOLOGY
2013; 108 (2): 220-225
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pre-treatment breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a cohort of women prospectively evaluated for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are reviewed and characterized to determine the optimal use of MRI in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Candidates initially deemed eligible for a prospective APBI trial based on physical examination, mammography, and ultrasound (US) were further evaluated with breast MRI before treatment. All abnormal MRI findings were biopsied. RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2011, 180 women who met inclusion criteria for APBI underwent breast MRI prior to treatment (median age=59; range 38-86). 126 tumors (70%) were invasive carcinomas with or without associated DCIS, while 54 (30%) were pure DCIS. Breast MRI confirmed unifocal disease in 109 patients with 111 cancers (60.5% of MRI cohort). Multifocal disease was identified in 19 patients (10.5% of MRI cohort), while multicentric disease was present in 3 patients (1.6% of MRI cohort). Five patients (4%) had an MRI-detected contralateral cancer. False positive MRI findings were seen in 45 patients (25% of MRI cohort). Pre-menopausal patients and patients with tumors >2cm were more likely to have MRI-detected multifocal/multicentric disease. While there was no statistically significant correlation between multifocal/multicentric disease and breast density, tumor histology, grade, ER status, or Her2/Neu expression, numbers in each category were small, suggesting a lack of statistical power to detect differences that may be clinically meaningful. One hundred and fifty-two of the 180 patients (84.4%) successfully completed lumpectomy and APBI, while 6.7% of the cohort underwent mastectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Breast MRI identified additional disease in 12% of APBI candidates. Premenopausal women and patients with tumors >2cm were more likely to have MRI-detected multifocal/multicentric disease.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.radonc.2013.01.019
View details for Web of Science ID 000326139300007
View details for PubMedID 23597699
- Breast MRI without gadolinium: utility of 3D DESS, a new 3D diffusion weighted gradient-echo sequence. European journal of radiology 2012; 81: S24-6
Breast cancer risk factors differ between Asian and white women with BRCA1/2 mutations
2012; 11 (3): 429-439
The prevalence and penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations may differ between Asians and whites. We investigated BRCA1/2 mutations and cancer risk factors in a clinic-based sample. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were enrolled from cancer genetics clinics in Hong Kong and California according to standardized entry criteria. We compared BRCA mutation position, cancer history, hormonal and reproductive exposures. We analyzed DNA samples for single-nucleotide polymorphisms reported to modify breast cancer risk. We performed logistic regression to identify independent predictors of breast cancer. Fifty Asian women and forty-nine white American women were enrolled. BRCA1 mutations were more common among whites (67 vs. 42 %, p = 0.02), and BRCA2 mutations among Asians (58 vs. 37 %, p = 0.04). More Asians had breast cancer (76 vs. 53 %, p = 0.03); more whites had relatives with breast cancer (86 vs. 50 %, p = 0.0003). More whites than Asians had breastfed (71 vs. 42 %, p = 0.005), had high BMI (median 24.3 vs. 21.2, p = 0.04), consumed alcohol (2 drinks/week vs. 0, p < 0.001), and had oophorectomy (61 vs. 34 %, p = 0.01). Asians had a higher frequency of risk-associated alleles in MAP3K1 (88 vs. 59 %, p = 0.005) and TOX3/TNRC9 (88 vs. 55 %, p = 0.0002). On logistic regression, MAP3K1 was associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2, but not BRCA1 mutation carriers; breast density was associated with increased risk among Asians but not whites. We found significant differences in breast cancer risk factors between Asian and white BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Further investigation of racial differences in BRCA1/2 mutation epidemiology could inform targeted cancer risk-reduction strategies.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10689-012-9531-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000311025000016
View details for PubMedID 22638769
- MRI Enhancement Correlates With High Grade Desmoid Tumor of Breast BREAST JOURNAL 2012; 18 (4): 374-376
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Alters Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation.
American journal of clinical oncology
OBJECTIVES:: To determine whether pretreatment contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alters patient selection for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Women aged 40 years or older with unifocal invasive or intraductal carcinoma ?2.5 cm on physical examination, mammography, and ultrasound (US) were evaluated with breast MRI before enrollment on an APBI trial using single-fraction intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) or fractionated 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Abnormal MRI findings were evaluated with US-guided or MRI-guided biopsy. RESULTS:: Between December 2002 and March 2005, 51 women (median age=61 y; range, 40 to 83 y) who met inclusion criteria underwent breast MRI before APBI. MRI demonstrated limited disease in 41 patients (80.4%): 34 received APBI using IORT (22) or 3DCRT (12), whereas 7 elected standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Ten of the 51 patients (19.6%) had indeterminate or suspicious enhancement patterns on MRI. Five of these 10 (9.8% of MRI cohort) underwent US-guided or MRI-guided biopsy revealing normal breast tissue without atypia: 3 were treated with APBI using IORT (5.9% of MRI cohort) and 2 underwent standard breast conservation therapy (3.9% of MRI cohort). The remaining 5 patients (9.8% of MRI cohort) had MRI findings revealing previously unsuspected pectoral fascia involvement (1), multifocal disease (3), or multicentric disease (1): 2 were treated with standard breast conservation therapy, whereas 3 underwent mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS:: Pretreatment breast MRI altered patient selection for APBI by identifying additional disease in 9.8% of the candidates, all of whom fit into the "cautionary" or "unsuitable" categories as defined by the American Society for Radiation Oncology APBI consensus guidelines. The clinical significance of these findings will be clarified with the results of ongoing randomized trials of APBI that do not incorporate breast MRI as part of the selection criteria.
View details for PubMedID 23275271
Updated breast MRI Lexicon.
European journal of radiology
2012; 81 Suppl 1: S63
View details for PubMedID 23083606
Molecular Imaging Using Light-Absorbing Imaging Agents and a Clinical Optical Breast Imaging System-a Phantom Study
MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY
2011; 13 (2): 232-238
The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of using a clinical optical breast scanner with molecular imaging strategies based on modulating light transmission.Different concentrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT; 0.8-20.0 nM) and black hole quencher-3 (BHQ-3; 2.0-32.0 µM) were studied in specifically designed phantoms (200-1,570 mm(3)) with a clinical optical breast scanner using four wavelengths. Each phantom was placed in the scanner tank filled with optical matching medium. Background scans were compared to absorption scans, and reproducibility was assessed.All SWNT phantoms were detected at four wavelengths, with best results at 684 nm. Higher concentrations (?8.0 µM) were needed for BHQ-3 detection, with the largest contrast at 684 nm. The optical absorption signal was dependent on phantom size and concentration. Reproducibility was excellent (intraclass correlation 0.93-0.98).Nanomolar concentrations of SWNT and micromolar concentrations of BHQ-3 in phantoms were reproducibly detected, showing the potential of light absorbers, with appropriate targeting ligands, as molecular imaging agents for clinical optical breast imaging.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-010-0356-3
View details for Web of Science ID 000288177700006
View details for PubMedID 20532642
Freehand MRI-Guided Preoperative Needle Localization of Breast Lesions After MRI-Guided Vacuum-Assisted Core Needle Biopsy Without Marker Placement
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2010; 32 (1): 101-109
To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided preoperative needle localization (PNL) of breast lesions previously sampled by MRI-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy (VACNB) without marker placement.We reviewed 15 women with 16 breast lesions undergoing MRI-guided VACNB without marker placement who subsequently underwent MRI-guided PNL, both on an open 0.5T magnet using freehand techniques. Mammograms and specimen radiographs were rated for lesion visibility; MRI images were rated for lesion visibility and hematoma formation. Imaging findings were correlated with pathology.The average prebiopsy lesion size was 16 mm (range 4-50 mm) with 13/16 lesions located in mammographically dense breasts. Eight hematomas formed during VACNB (average size 13 mm, range 8-19 mm). PNL was performed for VACNB pathologies of cancer (5), high-risk lesions (5), or benign but discordant findings (6) at 2-78 days following VACNB. PNL targeted the lesion (2), hematoma (4), or surrounding breast architecture (10). Wire placement was successful in all 16 lesions. Final pathology showed six cancers, five high-risk lesions, and five benign findings.MRI-guided PNL is successful in removing lesions that have previously undergone VACNB without marker placement by targeting the residual lesion, hematoma, or surrounding breast architecture, even in mammographically dense breasts.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22148
View details for Web of Science ID 000279439600013
View details for PubMedID 20575077
The ACR BI-RADS experience: learning from history.
Journal of the American College of Radiology
2009; 6 (12): 851-860
The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) initiative, instituted by the ACR, was begun in the late 1980s to address a lack of standardization and uniformity in mammography practice reporting. An important component of the BI-RADS initiative is the lexicon, a dictionary of descriptors of specific imaging features. The BI-RADS lexicon has always been data driven, using descriptors that previously had been shown in the literature to be predictive of benign and malignant disease. Once established, the BI-RADS lexicon provided new opportunities for quality assurance, communication, research, and improved patient care. The history of this lexicon illustrates a series of challenges and instructive successes that provide a valuable guide for other groups that aspire to develop similar lexicons in the future.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2009.07.023
View details for PubMedID 19945040
Breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography: a comparison of breast cancer visibility and BIRADS classification in a population of cancers with subtle mammographic findings
2008; 18 (12): 2817-2825
The main purpose was to compare breast cancer visibility in one-view breast tomosynthesis (BT) to cancer visibility in one- or two-view digital mammography (DM). Thirty-six patients were selected on the basis of subtle signs of breast cancer on DM. One-view BT was performed with the same compression angle as the DM image in which the finding was least/not visible. On BT, 25 projections images were acquired over an angular range of 50 degrees, with double the dose of one-view DM. Two expert breast imagers classified one- and two-view DM, and BT findings for cancer visibility and BIRADS cancer probability in a non-blinded consensus study. Forty breast cancers were found in 37 breasts. The cancers were rated more visible on BT compared to one-view and two-view DM in 22 and 11 cases, respectively, (p < 0.01 for both comparisons). Comparing one-view DM to one-view BT, 21 patients were upgraded on BIRADS classification (p < 0.01). Comparing two-view DM to one-view BT, 12 patients were upgraded on BIRADS classification (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the cancer visibility on BT is superior to DM, which suggests that BT may have a higher sensitivity for breast cancer detection.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00330-008-1076-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000260837300014
View details for PubMedID 18641998
MRI and H-1 MRS of The Breast: Presence of a Choline Peak as Malignancy Marker is Related to k21 Value of the Tumor in Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
2008; 14 (6): 574-580
To assess which specific morphologic features, enhancement patterns, or pharmacokinetic parameters on breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) could predict a false-negative outcome of Proton MR Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) exam in patients with invasive breast cancer. Sixteen patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast were prospectively included and underwent both, contrast-enhanced breast MRI and (1)H MRS examination of the breast. The MR images were reviewed and the lesions morphologic features, enhancement patterns and pharmacokinetic parameters (k21-value) were scored according to the ACR BI-RADS-MRI lexicon criteria. For the in vivo MRS studies, each spectrum was evaluated for the presence of choline based on consensus reading. Breast MRI and (1)H MRS data were compared to histopathologic findings. In vivo (1)H MRS detected a choline peak in 14/16 (88%) cancers. A false-negative (1)H MRS study occurred in 2/16 (14%) cancer patients. K21 values differed between both groups: the 14 choline positive cancers had k21 values ranging from 0.01 to 0.20/second (mean 0.083/second), whereas the two choline-negative cancers showed k21 values of 0.03 and 0.05/second, respectively (mean 0.040/second). Also enhancement kinetics did differ between both groups; typically both cancers that were choline-negative showed a late phase plateau (100%), whereas this was only shown in 5/14 (36%) of the choline positive cases. There was no difference between both groups with regard to morphologic features on MRI. This study showed that false-negative (1)H MRS examinations do occur in breast cancer patients, and that the presence of a choline peak on (1)H MRS as malignancy marker is related to the k21 value of the invasive tumor being imaged.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2008.00650.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000261085300011
View details for PubMedID 19000051
Estrogen receptor-negative invasive breast cancer: Imaging features of tumors with and without human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 overexpression
2008; 246 (2): 367-375
To prospectively determine if estrogen receptor (ER)-negative human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-positive and ER-negative HER2-negative breast cancers have distinguishing clinical and imaging features with use of retrospectively identified patients and tissue samples.This HIPAA-compliant study was institutional review board approved. Informed consent was obtained from living patients and waived for deceased patients. Mean patient age at diagnosis was 53 years (range, 31-84 years). Clinical history; histopathologic, mammographic, and breast sonographic findings; and HER2 status as determined with immunohistochemistry or fluorescent in situ hybridization were evaluated in 56 women with ER-negative breast cancer. Imaging appearances and clinicopathologic characteristics were correlated with tumor HER2 status. P < .05 indicated a significant difference.Lesion margins on mammograms (P = .028) and sonograms (P = .023), calcifications on mammograms (P = .003), and clinical cancer stage at diagnosis (P = .029) were significantly associated with HER2 status. In contrast to ER-negative HER2-negative tumors, ER-negative HER2-positive tumors were more likely to have spiculated margins (56% vs 15%), be associated with calcifications (65% vs 21%), and be detected at a higher cancer stage (74% vs 57%).Biologic diversity of cancers may manifest in imaging characteristics, and, conversely, studying the range of imaging features of cancers may help refine current molecular phenotypes.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radio1.2462070169
View details for Web of Science ID 000252796300005
View details for PubMedID 18180338
Mammographic screening in women at increased risk of breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease
2008; 14 (1): 39-48
Treatment regimens for Hodgkin's disease (HD) that have included radiation to lymph node regions in the thorax have contributed to high rates of long-term disease-free survival. However, incidental radiation exposure of breast tissue in young women has significantly increased the risk of breast cancer compared to expected rates in the general population. After informing patients about risks associated with previous treatment of HD, we studied screening mammograms and call-back rates in women at increased risk for developing breast cancer at a younger age. We contacted by mail a cohort of 291 women between 25 and 55 years of age who had received thoracic irradiation before 35 years of age for HD with or without chemotherapy. Subjects were offered information about risks identified after HD therapy with questionnaires to assess response to this information. Ten patients refused participation, 93 did not respond, and 21 were excluded after they reported a prior diagnosis of invasive (1) or in situ (2) breast cancer. One hundred and sixty seven women received information about secondary breast cancer risk and were advised to initiate or maintain mammographic screening. Available mammograms were reviewed by two radiologists and classified according to the ACR BI-RADS Mammography Lexicon. Abnormal findings were correlated to pathology results from biopsies. One hundred and fifteen subjects reported that they obtained new mammograms during the period of the study. Ninety-nine were available for secondary review. Patients were studied an average of 16.9 years after HD treatment (Range: 4.5-32.5 years) at an average of 41 years of age (range 25-55 years). High density breast tissue was identified in 60% (60/99). Seventeen of the women (17.2%) were recalled for further imaging. This was more common in women with heterogeneously dense breast tissue. Seven of those recalled (41%) were advised to undergo biopsies that identified ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in one and benign findings in the others. Among 16 women whose mammograms were unavailable for review, three were diagnosed with DCIS; two of these had microscopic evidence of invasive breast cancer. The four in situ or microinvasive cancers were diagnosed in the study participants at 25-40 years of age and from 5 to 23 years after HD therapy. Biopsies were performed because mammograms detected microcalcifications without palpable abnormality in three of these cases. Women who have had thoracic nodal irradiation for Hodgkin's disease have an increased risk of developing secondary breast cancer at an unusually young age. As expected in younger women, high density breast tissue was common on mammography, and the recall and biopsy rates were unusually high. However, early mammographic screening facilitated diagnosis of in situ and early invasive cancer in 3.5% of our subjects.
View details for Web of Science ID 000252124800006
View details for PubMedID 18186864
- Does size matter? Likelihood of cancer in MRI-detected lesions less than 5 mm AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY 2007; 188 (6): W571-W571
Water-selective spectral-spatial contrast-enhanced breast MRI for cancer detection in patients with extracapsular and injected free silicone
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2006; 24 (10): 1363-1367
This study investigates the use of contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, water-selective spectral-spatial 3D gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetization transfer (3DSSMT) for detecting breast cancer in patients with intraparenchymal silicone.Water-selective 3DSSMT provides superior fat and silicone suppression in patients with free silicone as compared with conventional fat saturation. It enables direct, high-quality, high-spatial-resolution, T1-weighted breast MRI of contrast enhancement without the need for subtraction processing and aids diagnosis of cancer in the breast with free silicone.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mri.2006.08.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000242946800011
View details for PubMedID 17145408
American College Of Radiology/Society of Breast Imaging curriculum for resident and fellow education in breast imaging.
Journal of the American College of Radiology
2006; 3 (11): 879-884
The ACR and the Society of Breast Imaging have revised the curriculum for resident and fellow education in breast imaging on the basis of substantial changes in breast imaging practice since the initial curriculum was published in 2000. This curriculum provides guidance to academic chairs, residency program directors, and academic section chiefs in assessing and improving their residency and fellowship training programs and indicates to residents and breast imaging fellows the topics they need to learn and the experience they should try to acquire during their training. Radiologists already in practice also may find the curriculum useful in outlining the material they need to know to remain up to date in the practice of breast imaging.
View details for PubMedID 17412188
MRI-guided needle localization of suspicious breast lesions: results of a freehand technique
2006; 16 (8): 1811-1817
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect clinically and mammographically occult breast lesions. In this study we report the results of MRI-guided needle localization of suspicious breast lesions by using a freehand technique. Preoperative MRI-guided single-needle localization was performed in 220 patients with 304 MRI-only breast lesions at our hospital between January 1997 and July 2004. Procedures were performed in an open 0.5-T Signa-SP imager allowing real-time monitoring, with patient in prone position, by using a dedicated breast coil. MRI-compatible hookwires were placed in a noncompressed breast by using a freehand technique. MRI findings were correlated with pathology and follow-up. MRI-guided needle localization was performed for a single lesion in 150 patients, for two lesions in 56 patients, and for three lesions in 14 patients. Histopathologic analysis of these 304 lesions showed 104 (34%) malignant lesions, 51 (17%) high-risk lesions, and 149 (49%) benign lesions. The overall lesion size ranged from 2.0-65.0 mm (mean 11.2 mm). No direct complications occurred. Follow-up MRI in 54 patients showed that two (3.7%) lesions were missed by surgical biopsy. MRI-guided freehand needle localization is accurate and allows localization of lesions anterior in the breast, the axillary region, and near the chest wall.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00330-006-0214-5
View details for Web of Science ID 000238860700022
View details for PubMedID 16683117
Cost-effectiveness of screening BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with breast magnetic resonance imaging
JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
2006; 295 (20): 2374-2384
Women with inherited BRCA1/2 mutations are at high risk for breast cancer, which mammography often misses. Screening with contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects cancer earlier but increases costs and results in more false-positive scans.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of screening BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with mammography plus breast MRI compared with mammography alone.A computer model that simulates the life histories of individual BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, incorporating the effects of mammographic and MRI screening was used. The accuracy of mammography and breast MRI was estimated from published data in high-risk women. Breast cancer survival in the absence of screening was based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database of breast cancer patients diagnosed in the prescreening period (1975-1981), adjusted for the current use of adjuvant therapy. Utilization rates and costs of diagnostic and treatment interventions were based on a combination of published literature and Medicare payments for 2005.The survival benefit, incremental costs, and cost-effectiveness of MRI screening strategies, which varied by ages of starting and stopping MRI screening, were computed separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.Screening strategies that incorporate annual MRI as well as annual mammography have a cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained ranging from less than 45,000 dollars to more than 700,000 dollars, depending on the ages selected for MRI screening and the specific BRCA mutation. Relative to screening with mammography alone, the cost per QALY gained by adding MRI from ages 35 to 54 years is 55,420 dollars for BRCA1 mutation carriers, 130,695 dollars for BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 98,454 dollars for BRCA2 mutation carriers who have mammographically dense breasts.Breast MRI screening is more cost-effective for BRCA1 than BRCA2 mutation carriers. The cost-effectiveness of adding MRI to mammography varies greatly by age.
View details for Web of Science ID 000237734400023
View details for PubMedID 16720823
Promising techniques for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and staging using non-ionizing radiation imaging techniques
2006; 21: 7-10
Traditional imaging for the diagnosis and staging of breast cancer has relied on the tissue morphology of cancers in the background of normal patterns of fibroglandular breast tissue. X-ray mammography and ultrasound have been the primary modalities for the diagnosis and the work-up of breast cancer. New modalities have been validated including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). New pulse sequences in MRI combined with contrast enhancement kinetic perfusion curves have greatly enhanced detection of mammographically occult cancers. New modalities on the horizon include optical imaging, exploiting again the differential perfusion properties of cancers in a background of normal glandular tissue. Even more specificity can be ach eved with the addition of ductal or intravenous introduction of optical probes specific to tumor associated antigens such as the HER-2/neu receptor in aggressive breast cancers. Quantum dots and other fluorescent dyes coupled to peptides or other probes will greatly enhance our ability to detect cancers earlier and without ionizing radiation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000245817500005
View details for PubMedID 17645984
Mainstream breast cancer radiology perspective
2006; 21: 4-6
Clinical breast-imaging tests must be fast, sensitive, specific, add information not otherwise available to clinicians at a reasonable cost, and be biopsy-capable. Mammography, breast ultrasound and imaging guided breast core biopsies and preoperative needle localizations are most often used in breast imaging facilities around the world. This article will describe mammography and breast ultrasound in current clinical practice for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, staging, image-guided biopsy, and for evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
View details for Web of Science ID 000245817500004
View details for PubMedID 17645983
The lactating breast: Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging of normal tissue and cancer
2005; 237 (2): 429-436
To retrospectively describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of normal breast tissue and breast cancer in the setting of lactation.The HIPAA-compliant study was exempt from institutional approval, and informed consent was not required. Unilateral MR imaging of 10 breasts was performed in seven lactating patients aged 27-42 years. For the three patients in whom both breasts were imaged, each breast was imaged on a separate day. Nonenhanced T1-weighted and fat-saturated T2-weighted images and contrast material-enhanced dynamic three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted spiral gradient-echo images interleaved with T1-weighted high-spatial-resolution 3D gradient-echo images (2.0 x 1.0 x 0.4-mm voxels) were obtained. Three readers in consensus assessed the glandular density, T2-weighted signal intensity, milk duct appearance, and contrast enhancement in normal and tumor-containing breast regions. The pharmacokinetic contrast enhancement parameters of tumors were compared with those of normal tissue by using Student t and Mann-Whitney tests.MR findings of normal breast tissue in the seven women included increased glandular density in six women, high T2-weighted signal intensity in six, dilated central ducts in seven, and rapid initial glandular contrast enhancement in seven. MR findings of invasive ductal carcinoma in five women, compared with findings of the normal glandular tissue, included lower T2-weighted signal intensity in five women, more avid and rapid contrast enhancement in five, and early contrast enhancement washout in four. One minute after contrast agent injection, tumor signal intensity increased significantly more than normal lactating tissue signal intensity (153% vs 60% from baseline, P = .016). The median two-compartment model K(21) exchange rate in the tumors, 0.078 sec(-1), was significantly faster than the K(21) exchange rate in normal tissue, 0.011 sec(-1) (P = .03).Normal lactating glands have increased density, high T2-weighted signal intensity, and rapid moderate contrast enhancement. Breast cancers are visible during lactation owing to their lower signal intensity and more intense initial contrast enhancement with early washout compared with normal breast tissue.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2372040837
View details for Web of Science ID 000232743300008
View details for PubMedID 16244250
Pathologic correlates of false positive breast magnetic resonance imaging findings: which lesions warrant biopsy?
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY
2005; 190 (4): 633-640
Contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive for breast cancer. However, adoption of breast MRI is hampered by frequent false positive (FP) findings. Though ultimately proven benign, these suspicious findings require biopsy due to abnormal morphology and/or kinetic enhancement curves that simulate malignancy on MRI. We hypothesized that analysis of a series of FP MRI findings could reveal a pattern of association between certain "suspicious" lesions and benign disease that might help avoid unnecessary biopsy of such lesions in the future.A retrospective chart review identified women undergoing breast MRI between June 1995 and March 2002 with FP findings identified by MRI alone. Lesions were retrospectively characterized according to an MRI Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System lexicon and matched to pathology.Twenty-two women were identified with 29 FP lesions. Morphology revealed 1 focus (3.5%), 5 masses less than 5 mm (17%), 11 masses greater than 5 mm (38%), 1 (3.5%) linear enhancement, and 11 (38%) non-mass-like enhancement. Kinetic curves were suspicious in 15 (52%). Histology demonstrated 20 (69%) variants of normal tissue and 9 (31%) benign masses. MRI lesions less than 5 mm (n = 6, 20.5%) were small, well-delineated nodules of benign breast tissue.Suspicious MRI lesions less than 5 mm often represent benign breast tissue and could potentially undergo surveillance instead of biopsy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2005.06.030
View details for Web of Science ID 000232189600028
View details for PubMedID 16164938
Contrast-enhanced MRI of ductal carcinoma in situ: Characteristics of a new intensity-modulated parametric mapping technique correlated with histopathologic findings
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2005; 22 (4): 520-526
To identify morphologic and dynamic enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by using a new intensity-modulated parametric mapping technique, and to correlate the MRI features with histopathologic findings.Fourteen patients with pure DCIS on pathology underwent conventional mammography and contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI using the intensity-modulated parametric mapping technique. The MR images were reviewed and the lesions were categorized according to morphologic and kinetic criteria from the ACR BI-RADS-MRI Lexicon, with BI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions classified as suspicious.With the use of a kinetic curve shape analysis, MRI classified seven of 14 lesions (50%) as suspicious, including four with initial-rapid/late-washout and three with initial-rapid/late-plateau. Using morphologic criteria, MRI classified 10/14 (71%) as suspicious, with the most prominent morphologic feature being a regional enhancement pattern. Using the intensity modulated parametric mapping technique, MRI classified 12/14 cases (86%) as suspicious. Parametric mapping identified all intermediate- and high-grade DCIS lesions.The intensity-modulated parametric mapping technique for breast MRI resulted in the highest detection rate for the DCIS cases. Furthermore, the parametric mapping technique identified all intermediate- and high-grade DCIS lesions, suggesting that a negative MRI using the parametric mapping technique may exclude intermediate- and high-grade DCIS. This finding has potential clinical implications.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20405
View details for Web of Science ID 000232317700010
View details for PubMedID 16142701
Computer-aided detection with screening mammography in a university hospital setting
2005; 236 (2): 451-457
To prospectively assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on screening mammogram interpretation in an academic medical center to determine if the outcome is different than that previously reported for community practices.Institutional review board approval was granted, and informed consent was waived. During a 19-month period, 8682 women (median age, 54 years; range, 33-95 years) underwent screening mammography. Each mammogram was interpreted by one of seven radiologists, followed by immediate re-evaluation of the mammogram with CAD information. Each recalled case was classified as follows: radiologist perceived the finding and CAD marked it, radiologist perceived the finding and CAD did not mark it, or CAD prompted the radiologist to perceive the finding and recall the patient. Lesion type was also recorded. Recalled patients were tracked to determine the effect of CAD on recall and biopsy recommendation rates, positive predictive value (PPV) of biopsy, and cancer detection rate. A 95% confidence interval was calculated for cancer detection rate. Pathologic examination was performed for all cancers.Of 8682 patients, 863 (9.9%) with 960 findings were recalled for further work-up (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 0). After further diagnostic imaging, it was recommended that biopsy or aspiration be performed for 181 of 960 findings (19%); 165 interventions were confirmed to have been performed. Twenty-nine cancers were found in this group, with a PPV for biopsy of 18% (29 of 165 findings) and a cancer detection rate of 3.3 per 1000 screening mammograms (29 of 8682 patients). CAD-prompted recalls contributed 8% (73 of 960 findings) of total recalled findings and 7% (two of 29 lesions) of cancers detected. Of 29 cancers (59%), 17 manifested as masses and 12 (41%) were microcalcifications. Ten (34%) cancers were ductal carcinoma in situ, and the remaining cancers had an invasive component. Both cancers found with CAD manifested as masses, and both were invasive ductal carcinoma.Prospective clinical use of CAD in a university hospital setting resulted in a 7.4% increase (from 27 to 29) in cancers detected. Both cancers were nonpalpable masses.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2362040864
View details for Web of Science ID 000230670200012
View details for PubMedID 16040901
- MRI features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in the breast AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY 2005; 185 (1): 199-202
Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of fibrocystic change of the breast
2005; 40 (7): 436-441
The objective of this study was to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of fibrocystic change (FCC) of the breast.Fourteen patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of solitary FCC of the breast underwent x-ray mammography and MRI of the breast. Three experienced breast imaging radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MRI findings and categorized the lesions on morphologic and kinetic criteria according to the ACR BI-RADS-MRI Lexicon.The most striking morphologic feature of fibrocystic change was nonmass-like regional enhancement found in 6 of 14 (43%) FCC lesions. Based on morphologic criteria alone, 12 of 14 (86%) lesions were correctly classified as benign. According to analysis of the time-intensity curves, 10 of 14 (71%) FCC lesions were correctly classified as benign.Although FCC has a wide spectrum of morphologic and kinetic features on MRI, it most often presents as a mass or a nonmass-like regional enhancing lesion with benign enhancement kinetics.
View details for Web of Science ID 000230018100007
View details for PubMedID 15973135
Rates of reexcision for breast cancer after magnetic resonance imaging-guided bracket wire localization
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS
2005; 200 (4): 527-537
We performed this study to determine rates of close or transected cancer margins after magnetic resonance imaging-guided bracket wire localization for nonpalpable breast lesions.Of 243 women undergoing MRI-guided wire localizations, 26 had MRI bracket wire localization to excise either a known cancer (n = 19) or a suspicious MRI-detected lesion (n = 7). We reviewed patient age, preoperative diagnosis, operative intent, mammographic breast density, MRI lesion size, MRI enhancement curve and morphology, MRI Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment code, number of bracket wires, and pathology size. We analyzed these findings for their relationship to obtaining clear margins at first operative excision.Twenty-one of 26 (81%) patients had cancer. Of 21 patients with cancer, 12 (57%) had negative margins at first excision and 9 (43%) had close/transected margins. MRI size > or = 4 cm was associated with a higher reexcision rate (7 of 9, 78%) than those < 4 cm (2 of 12, 17%) (p = 0.009). MRI BI-RADS score, enhancement curve, morphology, and preoperative core biopsy demonstrating ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were not predictive of reexcision. The average number of wires used for bracketing increased with lesion size, but was not associated with improved outcomes. On pathology, cancer size was smaller in patients with negative margins (12 patients, 1.2 cm) than in those with close/transected margins (9 patients, 4.6 cm) (p < 0.001). Reexcision was based on close/transected margins involving DCIS alone (6, 67%), infiltrating ductal carcinoma and DCIS (2, 22%), or infiltrating ductal carcinoma alone (1, 11%). Reexcision pathology demonstrated DCIS (3, 33%), no residual cancer (5, 55%), and 1 patient was lost to followup (1, 11%). Interestingly, cancer patients who required reexcision were younger (p = 0.022), but breast density was not associated with reexcision.To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI-guided bracket wire localization. Patients with MRI-detected lesions less than 4 cm had clear margins at first excision; larger MRI-detected lesions were more likely to have close/transected margins. Reexcision was often because of DCIS and was the only pathology found at reexcision, perhaps because MRI is more sensitive for detecting invasive carcinoma than DCIS.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2004.12.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000228085200005
View details for PubMedID 15804466
- In vivo sonography through an open MRI breast coil to correlate sonographic and MRI findings AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY 2005; 184 (3): S49-S52
Magnetic resonance imaging of suspicious breast masses seen on one mammographic view.
2004; 10 (5): 416-422
The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying lesions unidentified on the craniocaudal projection. The authors reviewed five patients with suspicious mammographic lesions not imaged on the craniocaudal mammogram who were referred for contrast-enhanced MRI and underwent subsequent preoperative needle localization in four of the five cases. Five patients, ages 56 to 69 years, had suspicious lesions identified on mediolateral oblique (MLO) or mediolateral (ML) projections only. Ultrasound did not identify the lesion in any of these cases. MRI identified suspicious breast lesions measuring 5 to 12 mm in size. These were located high on the chest wall or in the upper inner quadrant. Suspicious lesions seen only on the MLO or ML projections may reside high on the chest wall or in the upper inner quadrant. Lesions in these locations may be typically excluded on the craniocaudal projection during mammography. Breast MRI has the advantage of imaging the entire breast and is particularly useful for these lesions. In this series, MRI prevented delay in breast cancer diagnosis.
View details for PubMedID 15327495
Computer-aided detection output on 172 subtle findings on normal mammograms previously obtained in women with breast cancer detected at follow-up screening mammography
2004; 230 (3): 811-819
To evaluate, by using a computer-aided detection (CAD) program, the nonspecific findings on normal screening mammograms obtained in women in whom breast cancer was later detected at follow-up screening mammography.Four hundred ninety-three mammogram pairs-an initial negative screening mammogram and a subsequently obtained screening mammogram showing cancer-were collected. The mean interval between examinations was 14.6 months. In 169 cases, in which 172 cancers were later depicted, findings on the initial mammogram were subtle enough that either none or only one or two of five blinded radiologists recommended screening recall. On the initial negative mammograms, of the 172 areas where cancer later developed, 137 (80%) had subtle nonspecific findings and were retrospectively judged as having a benign or normal appearance. The mammograms with these subtle findings were evaluated with a commercially available CAD program, and the numbers of CAD marks on these nonspecific findings were analyzed.Of the 172 cancers, 129 (75%) were invasive and 43 (25%) were ductal carcinoma in situ. The CAD program marked 72 (42%) of the 172 findings that subsequently developed into cancer: 24 (29%) of 82 findings recalled by none, 25 (49%) of 51 findings recalled by one, and 23 (59%) of 39 findings recalled by two of the five radiologists. Among the 137 areas with nonspecific normal or benign findings, 41 (30%) areas where cancer subsequently developed were marked by the CAD program.A subset of cancers have perceptible but nonspecific mammographic findings that may be marked by a CAD program, even when the findings do not warrant recall as judged at blinded and unblinded radiologist review. The authors believe failure to act on such nonspecific but CAD-marked findings prospectively does not constitute interpretation below a reasonable standard of care.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2303030254
View details for Web of Science ID 000189186500031
View details for PubMedID 14764891
Circular tomosynthesis: Potential in imaging of breast and upper cervical spine - Preliminary phantom and in vitro study
2003; 228 (2): 569-575
Phantom and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate the potential application of digital circular tomosynthesis in imaging of the breast and upper cervical spine. A prototype volumetric x-ray system was used to image a mammographic phantom, a fresh mastectomy specimen, and a head phantom containing the upper cervical spine. Results show that breast tissue visualization is improved by the ability to produce sectional images that blur overlying structures and yield three-dimensional information about calcification clusters. In upper cervical spine imaging, digital circular tomosynthesis effectively blurs overlying jaw and skull structures so that C1 and C2 can be visualized in a standard anteroposterior view.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2282020295
View details for Web of Science ID 000184381100041
View details for PubMedID 12821770
Analysis of 172 subtle findings on prior normal mammograms in women with breast cancer detected at follow-up screening
2003; 226 (2): 494-503
To retrospectively review nonspecific findings on prior screening mammograms to determine what features were most often deemed normal or benign despite the development of breast cancer in the same location detected at follow-up screening.Four hundred ninety-three pairs of consecutive mammographic findings were collected from 13 institutions, consisting of initial normal screening findings and a subsequent finding of cancer at screening (mean interval between examinations, 14.6 months). One designated radiologist reviewed each pair of mammograms and determined that 286 findings were judged visible at prior examination in locations where cancer later developed. Five blinded radiologists independently reviewed the prior findings in these 286 cases, identifying 169 mammograms (172 cancers) with findings so subtle that none or only one or two of the five radiologists recommended screening recall. Two unblinded radiologists reviewed the initial and subsequent findings and recorded descriptors and assessments for each finding and subjective factors influencing why, although the lesion was perceptible, it might have been undetected or not recalled.Of 172 cancers, 129 (75%) were invasive (112 T1 tumors and 17 T2 tumors or higher; median diameter, 10 mm), and 43 (25%) were ductal carcinoma in situ (median size, 10 mm). On the prior mammograms, 80% (137 of 172) of these cancers had subtle nonspecific findings where cancer later developed, and most were assessed as being normal or benign in appearance.There is a subset of cancers that display perceptible but nonspecific mammographic findings that do not warrant recall, as judged by both a majority of blinded radiologists and by unblinded reviewers. We believe failure to act on these nonspecific findings prospectively does not necessarily constitute interpretation below a reasonable standard of care.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2262011634
View details for Web of Science ID 000180657000029
View details for PubMedID 12563145
Atypical ductal hyperplasia: Can some lesions be defined as probably benign after stereotactic 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy, eliminating the recommendation for surgical excision?
2002; 224 (2): 548-554
To determine if a subset of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) lesions diagnosed at 11-gauge, directional, vacuum-assisted, prone, stereotactic biopsy fit the "probably benign" definition of a less than 2% chance of being carcinoma at subsequent surgical excision.Clinical, mammographic, and stereotactic biopsy features in 104 consecutive nonpalpable ADH lesions were correlated with the presence of carcinoma at lumpectomy. The results were analyzed with chi(2) statistic, with P <.05 indicative of significant difference.Surgical excision revealed carcinoma in 22 (21%) of 104 ADH lesions. The lowest incidences of carcinoma (each P <.02) were 16% (15 of 92) in patients with no personal history of breast carcinoma, 13% (nine of 67) when maximum lesion diameter was less than 10 mm, and 8% (three of 36) when 100% of the mammographic lesion was removed at stereotactic biopsy.No clinical, mammographic, or biopsy features alone or in combination could be used to define a substantial subset of probably benign lesions with a less than 2% chance of carcinoma at lumpectomy.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2242011528
View details for Web of Science ID 000177025400036
View details for PubMedID 12147855
Ethical issues in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging screening for breast cancer.
Topics in magnetic resonance imaging
2002; 13 (2): 79-84
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening has been shown to detect early breast cancer. The main challenge ahead for breast MRI screening is to prove its effectiveness in reducing breast cancer mortality. While this challenge is commonly viewed as a scientific, technological, and clinical one, it also carries ethical components. This article is concerned with the risks and benefits of MRI screening that should be explained to screening participants and discusses the evidence needed by policy makers who ultimately will determine a just allocation of health care resources to MRI breast cancer screening.
View details for PubMedID 12055452
Breast cancer: Variables affecting sentinel lymph node visualization at preoperative lymphoscintigraphy
2001; 220 (1): 47-53
To compare patients with visualized sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and patients with nonvisualized SLNs, with a focus on variables affecting SLN visualization at preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and on nodal drainage basins as related to tumor location.One hundred thirty-six patients who had breast cancer underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy before SLN biopsy. Patients with visualized and nonvisualized SLNs were compared for age; tumor site, size, and histologic findings; injection guidance method; diagnostic biopsy type; interval between biopsy and lymphoscintigraphy; intraoperative identification method; and surgical identification rate. Visualized SLN drainage basins were noted.Ninety-nine patients had visualized and 37 had nonvisualized SLNs, without statistically significant differences in tumor site, size, and histologic findings; injection guidance method; diagnostic biopsy type; and interval between biopsy and lymphoscintigraphy. Ninety-nine (73%) of the 136 SLNs were visualized at lymphoscintigraphy; 30 (81%) of the 37 nonvisualized SLNS were identified at surgery. Of the seven SLNs not identified at surgery, five were mapped with radiocolloid only. Patients with nonvisualized SLNs were older than those with visualized SLNs. Eleven (46%) of 24 tumors with internal mammary drainage were in the outer part of the breast.Patients with and those without visualization differed in age, SLN identification at surgery, and surgical identification method. Nonvisualized status does not preclude axillary metastasis. In older patients with nonvisualized SLNs, blue dye may aid in SLN detection, as compared with isotope-only localization.
View details for Web of Science ID 000169468400007
View details for PubMedID 11425971
Potential role of magnetic resonance imaging and other modalities in ductal carcinoma in situ detection.
Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America
2001; 9 (2): 345-?
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) is the earliest form of ductal cancer, with a high rate of care if treated early. This article outlines the use of breast imaging in DCIS diagnosis, including mammography, MR imaging, and nuclear medicine studies. While MR imaging and nuclear medicine show great promise in DCIS diagnosis, mammography remains the mainstay of DCIS detection by the presence of microcalcifications in early tumors on the mammogram.
View details for PubMedID 11493424
Progress report from the American College of Radiology Breast MR Imaging Lexicon Committee.
Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America
2001; 9 (2): 295-?
Given the wide variety of terms for abnormal findings on contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging studies, the United States Public Health Services' Office on Women's Health, the Susan G. Komen Foundation for Breast Cancer Research, and the American College of Radiology, funded a committee (or "working group") of international experts to develop a standard language for breast MR imaging reporting. During the last three years, the group members have developed a preliminary Breast MR Imaging Lexicon to describe abnormal contrast-enhancing findings in the breast on MR imaging studies, with a special focus on lesion morphology on high-resolution scans and kinetic curve data descriptions. The initial version of the Breast MR Imaging Lexicon has undergone preliminary testing and is undergoing further development and refinement based on test results. Future work on the new Breast MR Imaging Lexicon includes continued lexicon development, accumulation of a breast MR imaging case set for lexicon testing, and planning for subsequent education for general radiologists on the new lexicon.
View details for PubMedID 11493420
Non-visualization of sentinel lymph node in patients with breast cancer
NUCLEAR MEDICINE COMMUNICATIONS
2001; 22 (1): 25-32
Histological evaluation of the first draining lymph node (sentinel node) in the axilla of patients with breast cancer has dramatically altered the surgical approach to these patients, with sparing of the axilla if no tumour cells are identified. In a fraction of patients imaged after peri-tumoural injection of the breast, there is no visualization of the sentinel node. We retrospectively analysed the status of patients whose nodes were visualized and of patients whose nodes failed to visualize, to define the variables associated with non-visualization of the sentinel node. Seventy-four breast cancer patients were imaged following peri-tumoural injection of filtered 99Tc(m)-sulfur colloid, immediately and up to 5.5 h post-injection. The scintigraphic data were analysed with reference to the patient's age, histology, grade, site and size of tumour, previous diagnostic procedure and time interval to scan, using univariate analysis and a logistic regression model. A sentinel node was visualized in 53 of 74 women (72%). Comparison of patients with non-visualized versus visualized sentinel nodes disclosed no statistically significant univariate relation to age of the patients (P = 0.10), size of tumour (P = 0.46), site (P = 0.26), histology [invasive ductal carcinoma in 16 of 20 (80%) non-visualized cases, and in 43 of 53 (81%) visualized patients], prior excision biopsy (P = 0.36) and time interval to surgery (P = 0.29). Tumour grade was the only significant variable on univariate analysis (P = 0.03), though multivariate analysis showed that none of the independent parameters were statistically significant. In 39 patients with an upper outer quadrant tumour, the location of the sentinel node was not limited to the axilla and even crossed the midline of the breast. Our results show that none of the independent variables is associated with non-visualization of sentinel lymph node on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy of patients with breast cancer, though the tumour grade may have contributed to non-visualization of this node. The non-axillary drainage from upper outer quadrant tumours suggests the routine use of lymphoscintigraphy prior to axillary dissection.
View details for Web of Science ID 000166925500004
View details for PubMedID 11233548
Intensity-modulated parametric mapping for simultaneous display of rapid dynamic and high-spatial-resolution breast MR imaging data
2001; 21 (1): 217-226
Contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast has variable specificity for differentiation of breast cancer from other enhancing conditions. Two principal strategies to improve its specificity are rapid dynamic MR imaging and high-spatial-resolution MR imaging. A method was developed of combining contemporaneously acquired dynamic and high-spatial-resolution MR imaging data into a single integrated display. Whole-breast rapid dynamic data were condensed into a color map by using pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetic results were combined with the high-spatial-resolution images with a new technique that preserves underlying morphologic details. This new method was evaluated by five radiologists for eight breast lesions, and the results were compared with those of the standard method of overlaying parametric map data. The radiologists' ratings showed a statistically significant preference for the intensity-modulated parametric map display method over the overlaid parametric display method for 10 of the 12 evaluation criteria. The new method enabled simultaneous visualization of pharmacokinetic and morphologic information, facilitated assessment of lesion extent, and improved the suppression of noise in the pharmacokinetic data. The ability to simultaneously assess both dynamic and high-spatial-resolution features may ultimately improve the specificity of breast MR imaging.
View details for Web of Science ID 000170928100018
View details for PubMedID 11158656
Milk of calcium in the breast: appearance on prone stereotactic imaging.
2001; 7 (1): 53-55
Microcalcifications discovered by mammography require careful analysis, occasionally leading to core biopsy to exclude associated breast cancer. We report unrecognized milk of calcium layering on small field of view prone digital stereotactic images. We illustrate important features on prone digital images attributed to milk of calcium which can exclude breast neoplasm, suggest this diagnosis, and prevent unnecessary biopsy.
View details for PubMedID 11348416
Magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer: Clinical indications and breast MRI reporting system
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2000; 12 (6): 975-983
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well suited to the investigation of breast cancer by virtue of its noninvasive nature and its multiplanar imaging abilities. MRI investigations showed high sensitivity but modest specificity for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Most early studies tested the ability of MRI to evaluate and diagnose findings in the breast discovered by other imaging tests or by breast physical examination (1-4). When it was discovered that MRI identified small breast cancers undetected by mammography or breast ultrasound, MRI was used to estimate breast cancer extent in known cancer cases for surgical planning (5,6). These investigations led to the use of MRI in a multitude of breast imaging applications, raising further questions about the use of MRI in everyday practice: What are the indications for breast MRI in general practice? What is its role in light of other imaging tests? What are its benefits and limitations in each setting? How do I report these studies? The purpose of this article is to review the clinical background regarding indications for the use of MRI and relevant cases in which MRI can impact patient management in breast disease, and to describe new developments in reporting breast MRI studies. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2000;12:975-983.
View details for Web of Science ID 000171295600024
View details for PubMedID 11105039
New bilateral microcalcifications at mammography in a postlactational woman: Case report
2000; 217 (1): 247-250
A 33-year-old woman with a strong family history of breast cancer who was referred for mammography 5 weeks after completing lactation was found to have new diffuse bilateral microcalcifications in the breast ducts. Contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast showed bilateral patchy areas of abnormal enhancement. Large-core needle biopsy showed diffuse calcifications within expanded benign ducts in a background of lactational change, without evidence of malignancy. To the authors' knowledge, these calcifications have not been previously reported and are possibly related to milk stasis or apoptosis associated with lactation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000089452500038
View details for PubMedID 11012452
Society of Breast Imaging Residency and Fellowship Training Curriculum
RADIOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
2000; 38 (4): 915-?
A recently developed Society of Breast Imaging curriculum for residency training is intended to provide guidance to residents and their mentors, and to practicing radiologists who want to keep up to date in screening, diagnosis, and interventional procedures. The curriculum contains lists of key concepts in 14 subject areas: epidemiology; anatomy; pathology, and physiology; equipment and technique; quality control; interpretation; problem-solving mammography; ultrasound; interventional procedures; reporting and medicolegal aspects; screening; MR imaging; therapeutic considerations; and patient management principles. The curriculum also makes recommendations about residency training, including the number of examinations the resident should interpret, and the time the resident should spend in breast imaging. Recommendations for fellowship training are also discussed.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088747800020
View details for PubMedID 10943286
Characterization of breast lesion morphology with delayed 3DSSMT: An adjunct to dynamic breast MRI
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2000; 11 (2): 87-96
The purpose of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of various morphologic criteria in distinguishing malignant from benign breast lesions using a new sequence (3DSSMT) performed immediately after dynamic breast MRI. 3DSSMT combines a water-selective spectral-spatial excitation and an on-resonance magnetization transfer pulse with three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo imaging. Morphologic features of 87 pathologically confirmed lesions were analyzed. The presence of either skin thickening, or a combination of a spiculated or microlobulated border, with a rim, ductal, linear, or clumped enhancement pattern was 94% specific and 54% sensitive for malignancy. Conversely, the presence of either a perfectly smooth border, a well-defined margin, non-enhancing internal septations, or a macrolobulated border was 97% specific and 35% sensitive for a benign diagnosis. In conclusion, delayed 3DSSMT discriminates a significant number of benign and malignant breast lesions; it has the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic breast MRI.
View details for Web of Science ID 000086078100003
View details for PubMedID 10713939
- Lesion Diagnosis Working Group report JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING 1999; 10 (6): 982-990
Silicone breast implant rupture: Pitfalls of magnetic resonance imaging and relative efficacies of magnetic resonance, mammography, and ultrasound
PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY
1999; 104 (7): 2054-2062
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative efficacies of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, ultrasonography, and mammography in implant rupture detection and to illustrate pitfalls in MR image interpretation. Thirty patients referred by plastic surgeons with suspected breast implant rupture were prospectively evaluated using MR, ultrasonography, and mammography. Imaging examinations were interpreted independently and blindly for implant rupture and correlated to operative findings. Surgical correlation in 16 patients (53 percent) with 31 implants showed 13 (42 percent) were intact, 5 (16 percent) had severe gel bleed, and 13 (42 percent) were ruptured. MR sensitivity was 100 percent and specificity was 63 percent. Accuracy for rupture was 81 percent with MR, higher than with ultrasonography and mammography (77 and 59 percent, respectively). We describe a specific pitfall in MR interpretation, the "rat-tail" sign, composed of a medial linear extension of silicone along the chest wall. Seen in eight cases (four intact, three ruptures, one gel bleed), the rat-tail sign may lead to misdiagnosis of implant rupture if seen in isolation. Magnetic resonance imaging is more accurate and sensitive than ultrasonography and mammography in detecting breast implant rupture. We describe a new sign (rat-tail sign) composed of medial compression of the implant simulating silicone extrusion as a potential false-positive MR finding for rupture. This article presents clinical experience with magnetic resonance, mammography, and ultrasound in the diagnosis of implant rupture and defines and illustrates potential pitfalls of MR interpretation, including the new rat-tail sign.
View details for Web of Science ID 000083854900017
View details for PubMedID 11149768
Treatment of breast abscesses with US-guided percutaneous needle drainage without indwelling catheter placement
1999; 213 (2): 579-582
To assess ultrasonographically (US) guided needle aspiration of breast abscesses as an alternative to surgical incision and drainage or indwelling catheter placement.The authors reviewed hospital records from 1995 to 1997 for patients undergoing US-guided aspiration of breast abscesses. Two radiologists reviewed the US, mammographic, and US-guided aspiration studies for the size, appearance, and drainage of abscesses. The medical records were reviewed for follow-up data.Thirteen patients aged 15-69 years underwent US-guided percutaneous aspiration of 13 breast abscesses. All patients presented with a palpable mass, nine of which were retroareolar. At US, four abscesses were oval, nine (including three with septa) were irregularly shaped, and five had a thick rind. Of seven abscesses 2.4 cm or smaller, two were almost completely drained and five were completely aspirated. All seven abscesses resolved without surgery. Of six women with incompletely aspirated abscesses larger than 2.4 cm (one 3 cm, four 4 cm, one 7 cm), five required surgical referral; one of these cases was referred after repeat aspiration had been performed.Percutaneous aspiration of breast abscesses can enable diagnosis of abscesses and be used to treat small abscesses if they are completely drained. Partial drainage of abscesses larger than 3 cm may be palliative, but incision and drainage still may be necessary for definitive treatment.
View details for Web of Science ID 000083308900041
View details for PubMedID 10551245
Radiofrequency ablation of breast cancer - First report of an emerging technology
ARCHIVES OF SURGERY
1999; 134 (10): 1064-1068
Radiofrequency (RF) energy applied to breast cancers will result in cancer cell death.Prospective nonrandomized interventional trial.A university hospital tertiary care center.Five women with locally advanced invasive breast cancer, aged 38 to 66 years, who were undergoing surgical resection of their tumor. One patient underwent preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy, 3 patients received preoperative chemotherapy, and 1 had no preoperative therapy. All patients completed the study.While patients were under general anesthesia and just before surgical resection, a 15-gauge insulated multiple-needle electrode was inserted into the tumor under sonographic guidance. Radiofrequency energy was applied at a low power by a preset protocol for a period of up to 30 minutes. Only a portion of the tumor was treated to evaluate the zone of RF ablation and the margin between ablated and nonablated tissue. Immediately after RF ablation, the tumor was surgically resected (4 mastectomies, 1 lumpectomy). Pathologic analysis included hematoxylin-eosin staining and enzyme histochemical analysis of cell viability with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase (NADH-diaphorase) staining of snap-frozen tissue to assess immediate cell death.Cancer cell death as visualized on hematoxylin-eosin-stained paraffin section and NADH-diaphorase cell viability stains.There was evidence of cell death in all patients. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed complete cell death in 2 patients. In 3 patients there was a heterogeneous pattern of necrotic and normal-appearing cells within the ablated tissue. The ablated zone extended around the RF electrode for a diameter of 0.8 to 1.8 cm. NADH-diaphorase cell viability stains of the ablated tissue showed complete cell death in 4 patients. The fifth patient had a single focus of viable cells (<1 mm) partially lining a cyst. There were no perioperative complications related to RF ablation.Intraoperative RF ablation results in invasive breast cancer cell death. Based on this initial report of the use of RF ablation in breast cancer, this technique merits further investigation as a percutaneous minimally invasive modality for the local treatment of breast cancer.
View details for Web of Science ID 000083020900010
View details for PubMedID 10522847
Breast disease: Dynamic spiral MR imaging
1998; 209 (2): 499-509
To compare various subjective, empiric, and pharmacokinetic methods for interpreting findings at dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast.Dynamic spiral breast MR imaging was performed in 52 women suspected of having or with known breast disease. Gadolinium-enhanced images were obtained at 12 locations through the whole breast every 7.8 seconds for 8.5 minutes after bolus injection of contrast material. Time-signal intensity curves from regions of interest corresponding to 57 pathologically proved lesions were analyzed by means of a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model, and the diagnostic performance of various parameters was analyzed.Findings included invasive carcinoma in 17 patients, isolated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in six, and benign lesions in 34. Although some overlap between carcinomas and benign diagnoses was noted for all parameters, receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the exchange rate constant had the greatest overall ability to discriminate benign and malignant disease. The elimination rate constant and washout were the most specific parameters. The exchange rate constant, wash-in, and extrapolation point were the most sensitive parameters. DCIS was not consistently distinguished from benign disease with any method.Dynamic spiral breast MR imaging proved an excellent method with which to collect contrast enhancement data rapidly enough that accurate comparisons can be made between many analytic methods.
View details for Web of Science ID 000076618000034
View details for PubMedID 9807580
Breast lesion localization: A freehand, interactive MR imaging-guided technique
1998; 207 (2): 455-463
To evaluate interactive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided preoperative needle localization and hookwire placement in the noncompressed breast in patients in the prone position.Nineteen MR imaging-guided breast lesion localization procedures were performed in 17 patients aged 38-70 years (mean age, 48 years) by using an open-platform breast coil in either a 1.5-T, closed-bore imager (n = 14) or a 0.5-T, open-bore imager (n = 5). Rapid imaging (fast spin-echo, water-selective fast spin-echo, or water-specific three-point Dixon gradient-echo) was alternated with freehand manipulation of an MR-compatible needle to achieve accurate needle placement.Up to three manipulations of the needle were required during an average of 9 minutes to reach the target lesion. MR imaging findings confirmed the final needle position within 9 mm of the target in all cases. The accuracy of 10 localizations was independently corroborated either at mammography or at ultrasonography. Nine lesions were visible on MR images only.Interactive MR imaging-guided, freehand needle localization is simple, accurate, and requires no special stereotactic equipment. Lesions throughout the breast, including those in the anterior part of the breast and those near the chest wall, which can be inaccessible with standard grid or compression-plate techniques, can be localized. A variety of needle trajectories in addition to the horizontal path are possible, including circumareolar approaches and tangential needle paths designed to avoid puncture of implants.
View details for Web of Science ID 000073204300031
View details for PubMedID 9577495
Three-dimensional shaded-surface rendering of MR images of the breast: technique, applications, and impact on surgical management of breast disease.
1998; 18 (2): 483-496
Contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is reported to be the most accurate modality for determining the extent of breast cancer before surgery. Three-dimensionally rendered MR images can be used as an adjunct in planning breast surgery. Semiautomated methods are used to isolate the breast tissue within high-resolution MR images and to render the skin with a shaded-surface method. Cut-away views reveal lesions in the interior of the breast. Cut-plane shaded-surface display provides the surgeon with information on the size, extent, and spatial relationships of a breast lesion in a simple, intuitive format. This technique can help the surgeon plan a breast biopsy, lumpectomy, or mastectomy that will maximize local control of breast cancer while minimizing cosmetic damage to the unaffected portions of the breast. In a review of 15 clinical cases, cut-plane shaded-surface rendering aided surgical planning in 10 cases.
View details for PubMedID 9536491
Compliance with recommended follow-up after percutaneous breast core biopsy
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
1998; 170 (1): 89-92
The purpose of this study was to use information from an established patient tracking system to evaluate patient outcome and assess patient compliance with recommended follow-up after percutaneous breast core biopsy.All breast core biopsies performed from January 1994 through February 14, 1996, that used stereotaxic or sonographic guidance were reviewed. Clinical, imaging, and pathologic findings were correlated with patient outcomes established by recommended surgical and nonsurgical follow-up.Of 160 core biopsies in 153 women, 30 biopsies were performed on the basis of clinical complaints. One hundred thirty lesions were detected by mammography or sonography or both. Of the 70 lesions recommended for surgical excision, 52 (74%) had documented surgical outcomes. Mammographic surveillance was recommended for 90 lesions, of which 10 (11%) had resolved at the time of this study, 49 (54%) were on track toward 3-year lesion stability, 21 (23%) were being followed up elsewhere, four (4%) were lost to physicians, and six (7%) were lost to follow-up for other reasons.Known compliance with follow-up recommendations among these 153 patients who underwent breast core biopsy was higher for patients receiving surgical recommendation (74%) than for patients receiving imaging surveillance recommendation (54%). Problems tracking patients were caused both by loss of patients to follow-up and by incomplete reporting from referring physicians.
View details for Web of Science ID 000071081000025
View details for PubMedID 9423606
Interactive MR-guided, 14-gauge core-needle biopsy of enhancing lesions in a breast phantom model
1997; 4 (7): 508-512
The authors attempted to determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided core-needle biopsy performed with a titanium biopsy needle in a breast phantom.Eight 6-7-mm lesions were created at random positions in a lard breast phantom. Each 0.2-mL lesion contained 0.118 mg of gadopentetate dimeglumine, 0.0025 mL of methylene blue dye, and 23.8 mg of gelatin. Rapid fast spin-echo MR imaging was used to guide placement of a 14-gauge titanium core-biopsy needle. A 1.5-T MR imager was used with an open-platform phased-array breast coil.Visualization of blue dye in core specimens confirmed successful biopsy in 16 of 16 attempts. One (n = 13) or two (n = 3) passes through the "skin" of the phantom were necessary for biopsy. The needle trajectory was adjusted less than three times for each pass through the "skin" in 15 of 16 biopsies. Cores that contained lesion material were obtained in the first sample in 15 of 16 biopsies. On T1-weighted images, needles cast 7-mm-diameter artifacts.MR imaging can be used accurately to guide core-needle biopsy of 6-7-mm lesions in a breast phantom.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XG51800009
View details for PubMedID 9232171
Image compression in digital mammography: Effects on computerized detection of subtle microcalcifications
1996; 23 (8): 1325-1336
Our previous receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study indicated that the detection accuracy of microcalcifications by radiologists is significantly reduced if mammograms are digitized at 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. Our recent study also showed that detection accuracy by computer decreases as the pixel size increases from 0.035 mm x 0.035 mm. It is evident that very large matrix sizes have to be used for digitizing mammograms in order to preserve the information in the image. Efficient compression techniques will be needed to facilitate communication and archiving of digital mammograms. In this study, we evaluated two compression techniques: full frame discrete cosine transform (DCT) with entropy coding and Laplacian pyramid hierarchical coding (LPHC). The dependence of their efficiency on the compression parameters was investigated. The techniques were compared in terms of the trade-off between the bit rate and the detection accuracy of subtle microcalcifications by an automated detection algorithm. The mean-square errors in the reconstructed images were determined and the visual quality of the error images was examined. It was found that with the LPHC method, the highest compression ratio achieved without a significant degradation in the detectability was 3.6:1. The full frame DCT method with entropy coding provided a higher compression efficiency of 9.6:1 at comparable detection accuracy. The mean-square errors did not correlate with the detection accuracy of the microcalcifications. This study demonstrated the importance of determining the quality of the decompressed images by the specific requirements of the task for which the decompressed images are to be used. Further investigation is needed for selection of optimal compression technique for digital mammograms.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VC62400002
View details for PubMedID 8873029
Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast
SOUTHERN MEDICAL JOURNAL
1996; 89 (5): 511-515
Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare cancer. Published reports of prognosis are variable, and most studies are case reports of one or a few patients. We report an additional case of squamous cell carcinoma of the breast occurring in a 53-year-old black woman. In reviewing the reported cases of this tumor over the past 20 years, we compared features of this cancer with those of the more common breast adenocarcinoma with squamous metaplasia. When squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is encountered, a skin primary lesion and metastasis from a distant site should be excluded. Prognosis is determined largely by stage and does not differ significantly from the prognosis in breast adenocarcinoma with squamous metaplasia.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UJ52200013
View details for PubMedID 8638180
Diagnosis of silicone gel breast implant rupture by ultrasonography
PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY
1996; 97 (1): 104-109
To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of ruptured silicone gel breast implants, 98 patients (192 implants) underwent preoperative breast ultrasonography prior to silicone gel breast implant removal. The prevalence of implant rupture confirmed at surgery in this group of patients was 62 of the 192 implants (32 percent). Of the 60 implants diagnosed as ruptured by ultrasonography, 46 were confirmed as having visible defects at surgery (true positive) for a positive predictive value of 77 percent. Of the 132 implants diagnosed as intact by ultrasonography, 116 were confirmed as intact at surgery (true negative) for a negative predictive value of 88 percent. Overall, the sensitivity of ultrasonography for implant rupture was 74 percent, and the specificity was 89 percent. These findings demonstrate that ultrasonography is an effective imaging modality for the diagnosis of silicone gel breast implant rupture. Compared with mammography, ultrasonography appears to offer superior sensitivity and specificity without radiation exposure or discomfort. Although magnetic resonance imaging has shown considerable promise in the diagnosis of implant rupture, ultrasonography provides comparable sensitivity at a fraction of MRI's cost.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996TN30400017
View details for PubMedID 8532766
DIGITIZATION REQUIREMENTS IN MAMMOGRAPHY - EFFECTS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION OF MICROCALCIFICATIONS
1994; 21 (7): 1203-1211
We have developed a computerized method for detection of microcalcifications on digitized mammograms. The program has achieved an accuracy that can detect subtle microcalcifications which may potentially be missed by radiologists. In this study, we evaluated the dependence of the detection accuracy on the pixel size and pixel depth of the digitized mammograms. The mammograms were digitized with a laser film scanner at a pixel size of 0.035 mm x0.035 mm and 12-bit gray levels. Digitization with larger pixel sizes or fewer number of bits was simulated by averaging adjacent pixels or by eliminating the least significant bits, respectively. The SNR enhancement filter and the signal-extraction criteria in the computer program were adjusted to maximize the accuracy of signal detection for each pixel size. The overall detection accuracy was compared using the free response receiver operating characteristic curves. The results indicate that the detection accuracy decreases significantly as the pixel size increases from 0.035 mm x 0.035 mm to 0.07 mm x 0.07 mm (P < 0.007) and from 0.07 mm x 0.07 mm to 0.105 mm x 0.105 mm (P < 0.002). The detection accuracy is essentially independent of pixel depth from 12 to 9 bits and decreases significantly (P < 0.003) from 9 to 8 bits; a rapid decrease is observed as the pixel depth decreases further from 8 to 7 bits (P < 0.03) or from 7 to 6 bits (P < 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NY97200023
View details for PubMedID 7968855
- ABNORMAL MAMMOGRAM AFTER STEERING WHEEL INJURY WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 1993; 159 (4): 504-506
PAGET DISEASE OF THE NIPPLE - RADIOLOGIC-PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION
1993; 189 (1): 89-94
To correlate the range of clinical presentations with mammographic and histologic findings in patients with Paget disease of the nipple.The clinical, pathologic, and mammographic records of 58 patients who had biopsy-proved Paget disease of the nipple were retrospectively reviewed. The results of two previous studies were also included.Among 34 patients who had typical findings of Paget disease, the mammograms of 17 (50%) showed normal findings, those of 10 (29%) showed nipple, areolar, or subareolar abnormalities, and those of seven (21%) showed evidence of masses or calcifications. Of the mammograms of 24 women with Paget disease but without clinical findings, 19 (79%) showed evidence of suspicious masses or calcifications, four (17%) showed nipple or areolar abnormalities, and one was negative.Nonspecific findings of nipple-areolar complex thickening should be correlated with findings at breast physical examination to confirm or exclude Paget disease.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LY02300018
View details for PubMedID 8396786
HETEROZYGOUS FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA - DETECTION OF XANTHOMAS IN THE ACHILLES-TENDON WITH US
1993; 188 (2): 567-571
Prospective sonographic evaluation of 44 Achilles tendons in 22 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) was performed with linear-array transducers with high frequency and high resolution. Intratendinous hypoechoic regions believed to represent xanthomas, ranging from single hypoechoic nodules to diffusely enlarged tendons that were heterogeneously hypoechoic, were seen in 40 of the 44 tendons (91%) and 21 of the 22 patients (95%). In addition, focal xanthomas were seen in two of three patients whose Achilles tendons were either normal or questionably abnormal at palpation. The direct visualization of xanthomas in most of these patients contrasts with findings from previously published studies, in which sonographically detected involvement was based on secondary tendon enlargement alone. The improved sonographic visualization of tendon xanthomas in FH, rather than the secondary tendon enlargement caused by them, therefore, suggests a new role for ultrasound in the early diagnosis and follow-up of these cases.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LM84900051
View details for PubMedID 8327717
RUPTURED GEL-FILLED SILICONE BREAST IMPLANTS - SONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN 19 CASES
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
1992; 159 (4): 711-716
The purpose of this study was to describe and illustrate the sonographic appearances of 19 ruptured silicone gel breast implants.We retrospectively reviewed the sonograms of 16 patients with 19 ruptured silicone gel implants from two institutions. The ruptured implant was confirmed at surgery in 17 cases and by mammographic and clinical findings of a ruptured implant combined with biopsy findings of a silicone granuloma in two cases. Breast sonograms were available for review in all patients. The clinical presentation of each patient was recorded. The sonograms and mammograms were reviewed, and the findings were correlated with the surgical findings. In 16 of the 19 ruptured implants, mammographic findings suggested rupture, including lobulation of the contour of the implant and/or silicone extrusion into the breast parenchyma or axilla. In two ruptured implants, mammographic findings were normal, and in one case, no mammogram was available. In those three patients, palpable masses and clinical findings were suggestive of rupture.Sonography showed a unique echogenic appearance called echo-dense noise, in 17 of the 19 ruptured implants; in 10 of the 17, sonograms showed hypoechoic masses of extruded silicone also. In two ruptured implants, sonograms showed only the hypoechoic masses of extruded silicone gel.Our experience suggests that echogenic noise is a unique sonographic sign of ruptured silicone gel breast implants and may be caused by phase aberration related to the speed of sound being slower in silicone than in soft tissue.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JQ07900005
View details for PubMedID 1529833
SOLITARY BREAST PAPILLOMA - COMPARISON OF MAMMOGRAPHIC, GALACTOGRAPHIC, AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
1992; 159 (3): 487-491
Our purpose was to determine the mammographic/galactographic features of solitary breast papillomas and to correlate these features with the pathologic findings.Retrospective review of pathology files revealed 72 women in whom breast biopsy reports described a solitary papilloma. All patients with additional pathologic abnormalities were excluded from this study. Patients meeting the pathologic criteria and for whom mammograms, galactograms, or both were available and had been obtained within 6 months before biopsy were included. Twenty-four women met these criteria and form the basis of this study. Presenting clinical signs and symptoms were reviewed. Abnormal mammographic/galactographic findings were correlated with pathologic features.Nipple discharge was present in 21 (88%) of 24 patients, two (8%) of 24 patients had abnormal findings on screening mammography, and one patient had a palpable mass that was visible on mammograms. Eight (42%) of 19 mammograms had abnormal findings, including dilated duct(s) in five cases (26%), nodules in two cases (11%), and microcalcifications in one case (5%). All technically adequate galactograms (13/15) had abnormal findings, with 12 (92%) of 13 showing an intraluminal filling defect. The other technically adequate galactogram (8%) showed only a solitary obstructed duct. Ductal dilatation was greatest at or central to the papilloma on 12 (92%) of 13 galactograms. Imaging features correlated well with the histologic findings.Patients with solitary papillomas most commonly have nipple discharge, normal mammographic findings, and a galactographic filling defect. Galactography is useful for localizing papillomas.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JJ98300009
View details for PubMedID 1503011
INTERVAL CARCINOMAS IN THE MALMO MAMMOGRAPHIC SCREENING TRIAL - RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE AND PROGNOSTIC CONSIDERATIONS
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
1992; 159 (2): 287-294
Interval carcinoma is the term used to describe malignant breast tumors that are detected in the intervals between mammographic screenings. These tumors are important because they contribute significantly to breast cancer mortality in the screened population.Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the mammograms of the 96 interval carcinomas (17% of all malignant neoplasms in the screened group) that were detected during the 10-year Malmö Mammographic Screening Trial in Malmö, Sweden (average time between screenings, 21 months), including one sarcoma, 75 invasive carcinomas, and 20 noninvasive carcinomas. We recorded the interval between screening and detection, and noted the tumor's appearance on the prior screening mammogram and at the time of diagnosis; these data were correlated with histologic tumor type and the patients' mortality. The doubling time for tumor volume of the invasive carcinomas was estimated.Excluding the sarcoma, 72 carcinomas (75%) were detected within 18 months of screening. Retrospective review of the available preceding screening mammograms (94 cases) indicated that 10 tumors were missed (observer's error), 63 studies showed no tumor (true interval carcinomas), and 21 studies showed subtle signs of malignancy, mostly nonspecific densities or asymmetries (unrecognized sign). Of 66 invasive carcinomas in which doubling times for tumor volume could be calculated, 27 (41%) had doubling times of less than 100 days. At the end of the study, 20 of the 96 patients had died of breast cancer.Interval carcinomas in this series were dominated by comedo, medullary, and mucinous carcinomas that often had a nonspecific appearance (when present) on prior screening mammograms. The interval carcinomas also contained a subset of rapidly growing tumors with a grave prognosis.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992JE56700011
View details for PubMedID 1632342
THE ROLE OF FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION AND PNEUMOCYSTOGRAPHY IN THE TREATMENT OF IMPALPABLE BREAST CYSTS
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
1992; 158 (6): 1239-1241
Prior studies have suggested that the recurrence rate is lower in breast cysts treated by pneumocystography (injection of air into cyst cavities after cyst aspiration) than in cysts treated by fine-needle aspiration alone. To determine if this is the case for impalpable breast cysts, we reviewed the hospital records and mammograms of 38 women with 41 impalpable cysts. Mammograms obtained immediately after aspiration show that pneumocystography was successful in 18 and unsuccessful in 20 of the 41 cysts. Four cysts were excluded from the study: one cyst that recurred after aspiration and was sampled by biopsy and three cysts for which immediate post-aspiration mammograms were unavailable but which had recurred or persisted 3 years after aspiration. Review of follow-up mammograms made 4 months to 3 years after the aspiration showed that three (17%) of 18 cysts in the group with successful pneumocystography recurred and 11 (58%) of 19 cysts in the unsuccessful group recurred (p = .02). No difference was found in the number of recurrent cysts in relation to estrogen therapy or menopausal status. Our results indicate that impalpable breast cysts treated by pneumocystography are less likely to recur than are cysts treated by aspiration alone.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HV27300009
View details for PubMedID 1590114
FIBROSARCOMA OF THE BREAST - MAMMOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN 5 CASES
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
1992; 158 (5): 993-995
The mammographic features of fibrosarcoma of the breast, a rare malignant tumor, have not been described. Accordingly, we reviewed the mammograms, pathology reports, and medical records of five women with this tumor. All cases had surgical biopsies and a diagnosis made by histologic evaluation. The age of the patients ranged from 48 to 79 years. Histologically, three of the five fibrosarcomas were thought to have arisen from phyllodes tumor, and four were palpable. On mammograms, the tumors were dense masses with largely indistinct margins, ranging from 1.5 to 7.0 cm in diameter. One contained calcified osseous elements suggesting osseous trabeculae. Although the osseous trabeculae in that tumor strongly suggested sarcoma, most of the tumors had a nonspecific appearance on mammograms. Fibrosarcomas of the breast have a nonspecific mammographic appearance. Surgical biopsy and histologic evaluation are necessary for definitive diagnosis.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HQ19300010
View details for PubMedID 1314479
LOCALIZATION AND NEEDLE ASPIRATION OF BREAST-LESIONS - COMPLICATIONS IN 370 CASES
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
1991; 157 (4): 711-714
A prospective study of the immediate complications of 370 consecutive breast-imaging procedures (203 wire localizations and 167 radiographically or sonographically guided fine-needle aspirations) is reported. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 27 (7%) of 370 cases, ranging in severity from syncope (four of 370, 1%) to mild light-headedness. These vasovagal reactions were independent of procedure type or use of local anesthesia, but were more common in younger patients. Other complications included prolonged (5 min or longer) bleeding (three of 370, 1%) and extreme pain (two of 370, 1%). One patient was found to have malignant hypertension. We conclude that wire localizations and imaging-guided aspirations are generally well tolerated procedures. However, vasovagal reactions are frequent enough to warrant close observation of patients. Radiologists and breast-imaging personnel should be able to recognize and treat vasovagal reactions.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991GF74300007
View details for PubMedID 1892023
QUANTITATIVE SONOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS AS A MEANS OF DISTINGUISHING BREAST CANCERS FROM BENIGN SOLID BREAST MASSES
JOURNAL OF ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE
1991; 10 (9): 505-508
Ultrasound examinations of solid breast masses were reviewed retrospectively to determine whether quantitative data of their dimensions could distinguish benign from malignant tumors. Forty-nine fibroadenomas and 30 carcinomas with cytologic or histologic proof were identified. No significant difference was found between carcinomas and fibroadenomas when comparing the average ratio of length to anteroposterior (L/AP) diameter or the mean ratio of anteroposterior diameter to transverse diameter (AP/T). In this limited series, quantification of the degree of mass elongation along the natural breast tissue planes had low sensitivity in distinguishing malignant from benign tumors.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991GD38200008
View details for PubMedID 1920593
ATYPICAL HYPERPLASIA OF THE BREAST - MAMMOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE AND HISTOLOGIC CORRELATION
1991; 179 (3): 759-764
The mammograms and histologic slides of 58 cases of atypical hyperplasia (AH) of the breast were retrospectively reviewed to determine the geographic correlation (direct, near, or remote) between mammographic abnormalities (if present) and the histologic findings. A direct mammographic-histologic correlation was found in 24 of the 58 cases (41%), near correlation in 15 (26%), and remote correlation in 19 (33%). Clustered microcalcifications were the most common mammographic abnormality that was directly correlated with AH at histologic examination. Atypical ductal hyperplasia was much more frequently associated with a direct mammographic-histologic correlation than was atypical lobular hyperplasia (48% vs 9%). The authors conclude that, although no pathognomonic appearance of AH was discovered, mammographic abnormalities similar to those of small cancers could be directly correlated with histologic findings in 41% of cases. Since AH has been shown to be associated with a five- to tenfold increased risk of subsequent invasive carcinoma, frequent clinical and at least yearly mammographic follow-up is suggested once AH is discovered.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991FM91000036
View details for PubMedID 2027988
- NONPALPABLE, PROBABLY BENIGN BREAST-LESIONS - FOLLOW-UP STRATEGIES AFTER INITIAL DETECTION ON MAMMOGRAPHY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY 1990; 155 (6): 1195-1201
RADIAL SCLEROSING LESION OF THE BREAST - MAMMOGRAPHIC FEATURES
1990; 176 (3): 737-740
The authors present the clinical, mammographic, and pathologic findings in seven patients with radial sclerosing lesions (RSLs) who had a nonpalpable stellate lesion at mammography. Although the radiographic findings were suggestive of RSL in six of seven patients, diagnostic excisional biopsy was recommended for all. One RSL had associated microcalcifications localized in contiguous adenosis. The authors did not find this a useful criterion to differentiate RSL from carcinoma. Similarly, the presence of either a lucent or dense central core was not radiographically diagnostic. Surgical excision of these stellate lesions is therefore required.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DV57900030
View details for PubMedID 2389032
BREAST-CARCINOMA IN YOUNG-WOMEN PREVIOUSLY TREATED FOR HODGKIN DISEASE
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
1990; 155 (1): 39-42
The increased risk of a second malignant neoplasm developing after treatment for Hodgkin disease is well documented. Subsequent development of breast cancer in women who have been treated for Hodgkin disease is a relatively rare association. To date, no reports of the mammographic detection of breast cancer in this group of women have been published. We report six patients who developed seven breast cancers after treatment for Hodgkin disease. The average age of the women at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer was 33.5 years; diagnosis was made 10-23 years after treatment. There appears to be an increased prevalence of breast carcinoma in women who have been treated for Hodgkin disease. This association should receive further study to evaluate appropriate modifications in routine breast cancer screening for these women.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DK48700007
View details for PubMedID 2112862
- TERM INFANT WITH PROGRESSIVE TACHYPNEA INVESTIGATIVE RADIOLOGY 1990; 25 (1): 79-81
PARAFFIN TISSUE BLOCK RADIOGRAPHY - ADJUNCT TO BREAST SPECIMEN RADIOGRAPHY
1989; 173 (3): 695-696
Radiography of specimens is an essential step in confirming excision of nonpalpable breast lesions. On occasion, however, the pathologist may not identify the lesion histologically. The authors report five cases in which suspicious microcalcifications were included in the excised tissue but were not identified by the pathologist. In all five, paraffin tissue block radiography enabled identification of the specific blocks containing the microcalcifications. The correct tissue blocks were then sectioned again, and the microcalcifications were identified histopathologically. In one case, the initial diagnosis of intraductal hyperplasia was changed to intraductal carcinoma with focal invasion. When the pathologist cannot identify the calcifications on initial histopathologic sections, this technique may assist in identification of the mammographic abnormality.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989CA08100023
View details for PubMedID 2682773
DUCTAL CARCINOMA INSITU - ATYPICAL MAMMOGRAPHIC APPEARANCES
1989; 172 (3): 661-666
The authors retrospectively analyzed the mammograms of 190 women with biopsy-proved ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Excluded from the current study were 117 (62%) women whose radiographs showed suspicious clustered microcalcifications, a well-known finding in DCIS. Of the remaining 73 (38%) women, 30 (16%) had negative mammograms, and 43 (23%) had mammographic manifestations of breast malignancy other than microcalcifications. Of the latter 43, 15 had circumscribed masses, and 12 had various focal nodular patterns. The remaining 16 patients showed other mammographic signs of malignancy, including asymmetry (n = 1); dilated retroareolar ducts (n = 2); ill-defined, rounded tumor (n = 2); focal architectural distortion (n = 4); subareolar mass (n = 3); and developing density (n = 4). Of the 73 women in the study, 60 presented with clinical findings related to the tumor. Since DCIS has a high survival rate with proper treatment, radiologists should be aware of the unusual radiographic manifestations of this disease.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989AM01500018
View details for PubMedID 2549563
THE DETECTION OF ADRENAL-TUMORS AND HYPERPLASIA IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY ALDOSTERONISM - COMPARISON OF SCINTIGRAPHY, CT, AND MR IMAGING
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY
1989; 153 (2): 301-306
We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies in 17 proved cases of primary aldosteronism to determine the value of the procedures used to detect adrenal tumors or adrenal hyperplasia. The procedures included CT with 3-, 5-, and/or 10-mm-thick sections (17 patients), 131I-6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) scintigraphy (16 patients), and MR imaging (six patients). Proof of the adrenal abnormality was established in cases of tumor (seven adenomas, one carcinoma) by surgery and in cases of adrenal hyperplasia by surgery (three cases); venous sampling (three cases); or combined clinical, biochemical, and imaging data (three cases). Both CT and scintigraphy detected six of the seven adenomas and the adrenal carcinoma (88%). Regarding hyperplasia, CT was correct in five of six and scintigraphy was correct in two of four cases proved by surgery or venous sampling. CT and NP-59 were concordant and suggested the diagnosis of hyperplasia in the remaining three cases without surgical or venous sampling proof. MR detected both cases of adenoma in which it was performed and showed evidence of hyperplasia in one of the four cases of hyperplasia in which it was performed. Although the number of patients in this series is too small to have much statistical power, these results suggest that CT and NP-59 scintigraphy are equivalent in the detection of adrenal abnormalities in patients with primary aldosteronism. The value of MR in the detection of small adrenal contour abnormalities was limited by slice thickness capabilities.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989AG02100017
View details for PubMedID 2665450
- MAMMOGRAPHIC DEMONSTRATION OF PECTORAL MUSCLE MICROCALCIFICATIONS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY 1988; 151 (3): 475-476
2ND-SCREENING MAMMOGRAPHY - ONE VERSUS 2 VIEWS PER BREAST
1988; 168 (3): 651-656
To compare the advantages of one-view versus two-view second-screening (follow-up) mammography, oblique and craniocaudal projection mammograms from 1,000 consecutive asymptomatic women who had prior normal baseline studies were reviewed retrospectively, first with only the oblique images, then with the oblique and craniocaudal views. In women with dense breasts, one-view (oblique only) readings resulted in abnormal interpretations four times more frequently (53 cases, 5.3%) than two-view readings (13 cases, 1.3%). The induced cost from these abnormal interpretations would have more than offset the small savings in operating expense associated with one-view screening. In contrast, four times fewer abnormal one-view interpretations (13 cases, 1.3%) were made in women with primarily fatty breasts, in whom superimposition of dense tissue on images is not as frequently a problem. In these women, considering only cost, it may be reasonable to obtain a single mediolateral oblique projection for follow-up screening mammography. However, the issue of whether to implement such an approach remains unresolved, because the sensitivity of one-view versus two-view second screening in the detection of breast cancer has not yet been determined.
View details for Web of Science ID A1988P738600013
View details for PubMedID 3406393
THE ROLE OF TRYPTOPHAN IN ASPARTATE-TRANSCARBAMYLASE
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
1980; 255 (11): 5154-5158
Replacement of 7-azatryptophan for tryptophan in two positions on the catalytic chain of aspartate transcarbamylase results in changes in the enzyme's homotropic and heterotropic interactions although there is no change in the enzyme's specific activity. The extent of azatryptophan incorporation was quantitated by amino acid analysis which showed that 85% of the tryptophan residues had been replaced. The substituted enzyme is activated by ATP and inhibited by CTP to a greater extent than is the native enzyme. The aspartate saturation curve in the presence of ATP is identical for the two enzymes, but the curve in the presence of CTP and without effectors is shifted toward higher aspartate concentrations for the azatryptophan-substituted enzyme. At low aspartate concentrations, the native enzyme is activated to a greater extent by the substrate analog succinate. These data suggest that the substitution renders the low substrate affinity conformational state of the enzyme less catalytically efficient. This interpretation is in agreement with possible side chain interactions observed in the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme.
View details for Web of Science ID A1980JV40800035
View details for PubMedID 6989823
Freehand iMRI-guided large-gauge core needle biopsy: A new minimally invasive technique for diagnosis of enhancing breast lesions
JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2001: 896-902
The lack of reliable methods for minimally invasive biopsy of suspicious enhancing breast lesions has hindered the utilization of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. In this study, a freehand method was developed for large-gauge core needle biopsy (LCNB) guided by intraprocedural MRI (iMRI). Twenty-seven lesions in nineteen patients were biopsied using iMRI-guided LCNB without significant complications. Diagnostic tissue was obtained in all cases. Nineteen of the 27 lesions were subsequently surgically excised. Histopathologic analysis confirmed that iMRI-guided LCNB correctly distinguished benign lesions from malignancy in 18 of the 19 lesions. The histology revealed by core biopsy was partially discrepant with surgical biopsy in 2 of the other 19 lesions. Freehand iMRI-guided LCNB of enhancing breast lesions is promising. Larger studies are needed to determine the smallest lesion that can be sampled reliably and to precisely measure the accuracy of iMRI-guided LCNB as a minimally invasive tool to diagnose suspicious lesions found by breast MRI. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:896-902.
View details for Web of Science ID 000171296500013
View details for PubMedID 11382950
Development, standardization, and testing of a lexicon for reporting contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging studies
JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2001: 889-895
The purpose of this study was to develop, standardize, and test reproducibility of a lexicon for reporting contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. To standardize breast MRI lesion description and reporting, seven radiologists with extensive breast MRI experience developed consensus on technical detail, clinical history, and terminology reporting to describe kinetic and architectural features of lesions detected on contrast-enhanced breast MR images. This lexicon adapted American College of Radiology Breast Imaging and Data Reporting System terminology for breast MRI reporting, including recommendations for reporting clinical history, technical parameters for breast MRI, descriptions for general breast composition, morphologic and kinetic characteristics of mass lesions or regions of abnormal enhancement, and overall impression and management recommendations. To test morphology reproducibility, seven radiologists assessed morphology characteristics of 85 contrast-enhanced breast MRI studies. Data from each independent reader were used to compute weighted and unweighted kappa (kappa) statistics for interobserver agreement among readers. The MR lexicon differentiates two lesion types, mass and non-mass-like enhancement based on morphology and geographical distribution, with descriptors of shape, margin, and internal enhancement. Lexicon testing showed substantial agreement for breast density (kappa = 0.63) and moderate agreement for lesion type (kappa = 0.57), mass margins (kappa = 0.55), and mass shape (kappa = 0.42). Agreement was fair for internal enhancement characteristics. Unweighted kappa statistics showed highest agreement for the terms dense in the breast composition category, mass in lesion type, spiculated and smooth in mass margins, irregular in mass shape, and both dark septations and rim enhancement for internal enhancement characteristics within a mass. The newly developed breast MR lexicon demonstrated moderate interobserver agreement. While breast density and lesion type appear reproducible, other terms require further refinement and testing to lead to a uniform standard language and reporting system for breast MRI. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:889-895.
View details for Web of Science ID 000171296500012
View details for PubMedID 11382949
Mammographic characteristics of 115 missed cancers later detected with screening mammography and the potential utility of computer-aided detection
RADIOLOGICAL SOC NORTH AMERICA. 2001: 192-202
To retrospectively determine the mammographic characteristics of cancers missed at screening mammography and assess the ability of computer-aided detection (CAD) to mark the missed cancers.A multicenter retrospective study accrued 1,083 consecutive cases of breast cancer detected at screening mammography. Prior mammograms were available in 427 cases. Of these, 286 had lesions visible in retrospect. The 286 cases underwent blinded review by panels of radiologists; a majority recommended recall for 112 cases. Two experienced radiologists compared prior mammograms in 110 of these cases with the subsequent screening mammograms (when cancer was detected), noting mammographic characteristics of breast density, lesion type, size, morphology, and subjective reasons for possible miss. The prior mammograms were then analyzed with a CAD program.There were 110 patients with 115 cancers. On the prior mammograms with missed cancers, 35 (30%) of the 115 lesions were calcifications, with 17 of 35 (49%) clustered or pleomorphic. Eighty of the 115 (70%) were mass lesions, with 32 of 80 (40%) spiculated or irregular. For calcifications and masses, the most frequently suggested reasons for possible miss were dense breasts (12 of 35; 34%) and distracting lesions (35 of 80; 44%), respectively. CAD marked 30 (86%) of 35 missed calcifications and 58 (73%) of 80 missed masses.Detection errors affected cases with calcifications and masses. CAD marked most (77%; 88 of 115) cancers missed at screening mammography that radiologists retrospectively judged to merit recall.
View details for Web of Science ID 000167667400028
View details for PubMedID 11274556
Motion correction and lipid suppression for H-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy
JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2000: 325-330
Spectral/spatial spin-echo pulses with asymmetric excitation profiles were incorporated into a PRESS-based localization sequence to provide lipid suppression while retaining a sufficient amount of water to allow for correction of motion-induced shot-to-shot phase variations. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were acquired at 1.5 Tesla from a motion phantom and in vivo from the human liver, kidney, and breast. The results demonstrated that lipids in the chemical shift stopband were completely suppressed and that full metabolite signal intensity was maintained after implementation of a regularization algorithm based on phasing the residual water signal. Liver and kidney spectra contained a large resonance at 3.2 ppm that was ascribed to trimethylammonium moieties (betaine plus choline) and a weaker signal at 3.7 ppm that may result from glycogen. A breast spectrum from a histologically proven invasive ductal carcinoma displayed a highly elevated choline signal (3.2 ppm) relative to that from a normal volunteer.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085559100001
View details for PubMedID 10725872
Methods of compliance with mammography quality standards act regulations for tracking positive mammograms: Survey results
AMER ROENTGEN RAY SOC. 1999: 691-696
We sent a questionnaire to fellows of the Society of Breast Imaging to determine how breast imaging facilities comply with regulations mandated by the Mammography Quality Standards Act for tracking patients whose mammograms show positive findings.We surveyed the Society of Breast Imaging fellows to determine practice types, follow-up methodology, additional time and personnel required, and end points of radiologists' responsibility for follow-up of mammograms with positive findings.Forty-six (68%) of 68 surveyed practices responded, including 21 academic, 16 private, and nine mixed practices that averaged 15,761 mammograms a year (range, 300-50,000). The 46 practices used computers (n = 30) or handwritten paper (n = 16) audits. Radiologists (n = 8), technologists (n = 6), other personnel (n = 10), or a combination (n = 22) tracked procedures and patients with abnormal mammographic results. Average time spent tracking was given as a few hours a week (n = 28), 2-4 hr a day (n = 11), and 40 hr a week (n = 5). The remaining two practices indicated that less than 1 hr per month was required (n = 1) or that they used two full-time data managers (n = 1). Accepted tracking end points included surgical biopsy (n = 30), referring physician recommended other management (n = 16), patient refused recommendation (n = 27), medical care transfer (n = 27), patient moved (n = 22), or patient lost to referring physician follow-up (n = 16).Among dedicated mammographers, the methodology in the task of tracking patients with positive findings on mammography varies. All methodologies described in responses to our survey involved considerable time and effort.
View details for Web of Science ID 000078729000024
View details for PubMedID 10063862
Preliminary experience with power Doppler imaging of solid breast masses
AMER ROENTGEN RAY SOC. 1997: 703-707
The purpose of our study was to assess the potential of power Doppler imaging (PDI) to differentiate benign from malignant solid breast masses.Sixty-nine biopsy-proven solid breast masses were evaluated with PDI using 7- to 10-MHz transducers optimized for low-volume flow sensitivity. The extent of flow on PDI was estimated as a percentage of the lesion area on multiple longitudinal and transverse static sonographic images. Flow was categorized as avascular; less than 10%; 10-25%; 25.1-50%; and greater than 50%.Of the 69 lesions evaluated, 33 were malignant and 36 were benign. Of the avascular lesions, nine were malignant and eight were benign. Significant overlap was seen in the vascularity of the other 52 lesions: both malignant and benign lesions revealed a similar range of vascular patterns.Preliminary experience with PDI suggests that both malignant and benign lesions can be avascular and that the presence of color within a solid breast mass is a nonspecific finding. Assessing the extent of vascularity with PDI appears to be of limited value in the diagnostic evaluation of solid breast masses.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XR81100021
View details for PubMedID 9275882
- Sonographic tailoring of electron beam boost site after lumpectomy and radiation therapy for breast cancer AMER ROENTGEN RAY SOC. 1997: 39-40
Compliance with recommended follow-up after fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions: A retrospective study
RADIOLOGICAL SOC NORTH AMER. 1996: 71-74
To determine compliance with recommendations for mammographic or surgical follow-up after fine-needle aspiration biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions.The authors reviewed the medical records of 419 patients in whom surgical or mammographic follow-up had been recommended after fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Mammographic, clinical, and follow-up findings were correlated with patient outcome. Of 466 lesions, 395 lesions in 359 patients (age range, 24-89 years; average age, 55 years) were nonpalpable and composed the study.Excisional biopsy was recommended in 141 cases (35.7%) and close-interval mammographic surveillance in 165 (41.8%). Biopsy was performed in 122 (86.5%) of the 141 cases in which it was recommended. Of 165 cases in which follow-up mammography was recommended, 84 (50.9%) were resolved at the close of the study. In the remaining cases, women either did not return (n = 24), were followed up elsewhere or moved (n = 35), were lost to follow-up by their physicians (n = 17), or were lost to follow-up for other reasons (n = 5).Noncompliance with follow-up recommendations is an important issue undermining the benefits of fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Difficulty in tracking patients hinders assessment of patient compliance.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VJ11400019
View details for PubMedID 8816523
AXILLARY LYMPHADENECTOMY FOR BREAST-CANCER WITHOUT AXILLARY DRAINAGE
AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 1995: 909-913
To evaluate axillary lymph node dissection done without closed drainage in conjunction with breast conservation cancer surgery.Prospective clinical study.Two university hospitals.Eighty-one women undergoing wide local excision of breast cancer with simultaneous or subsequent axillary lymph node dissection.No axillary drain was placed following axillary lymphadenectomy.The development and resorption of axillary seroma fluid as measured by clinical aspiration and serial sonographic examination.Thirty-four (42%) of the 81 women required axillary seroma aspiration even though axillary fluid was present in 92% (22/24) of those studied sonographically. The seromas accumulated over the first 2 weeks following axillary dissection and resorbed over the next 2 weeks, as assessed by both clinical and sonographic examination. The complication rate was 2% (2/81). The surgery was performed safely on an outpatient or short-stay basis in 99% (80/81) of patients. All patients except one were discharged within 23 hours of surgery, and 56 patients were discharged directly after anesthesia.Axillary lymph node dissection done in conjunction with breast conservation surgery can be performed in an ambulatory or short-stay setting without axillary drainage. Postoperative seromas will resolve within 1 month, and fewer than half will require aspiration. Lymphadenectomy without drainage reduces morbidity and allows the patient greater personal comfort.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995RN02200018
View details for PubMedID 7632155
View details for PubMedID 8115659