Allele-specific expression reveals genetic drivers of tissue regeneration in mice.
Cell stem cell
In adult mammals, skin wounds typically heal by scarring rather than through regeneration. In contrast, "super-healer" Murphy Roths Large (MRL) mice have the unusual ability to regenerate ear punch wounds; however, the molecular basis for this regeneration remains elusive. Here, in hybrid crosses between MRL and non-regenerating mice, we used allele-specific gene expression to identify cis-regulatory variation associated with ear regeneration. Analyzing three major cell populations (immune, fibroblast, and endothelial), we found that genes with cis-regulatory differences specifically in fibroblasts were associated with wound-healing pathways and also co-localized with quantitative trait loci for ear wound-healing. Ectopic treatment with one of these proteins, complement factor H (CFH), accelerated wound repair and induced regeneration in typically fibrotic wounds. Through single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we observed that CFH treatment dramatically reduced immune cell recruitment to wounds, suggesting a potential mechanism for CFH's effect. Overall, our results provide insights into the molecular drivers of regeneration with potential clinical implications.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2023.08.010
View details for PubMedID 37714154
Understanding Fibroblast Heterogeneity in Form and Function.
2023; 11 (8)
Historically believed to be a homogeneous cell type that is often overlooked, fibroblasts are more and more understood to be heterogeneous in nature. Though the mechanisms behind how fibroblasts participate in homeostasis and pathology are just beginning to be understood, these cells are believed to be highly dynamic and play key roles in fibrosis and remodeling. Focusing primarily on fibroblasts within the skin and during wound healing, we describe the field's current understanding of fibroblast heterogeneity in form and function. From differences due to embryonic origins to anatomical variations, we explore the diverse contributions that fibroblasts have in fibrosis and plasticity. Following this, we describe molecular techniques used in the field to provide deeper insights into subpopulations of fibroblasts and their varied roles in complex processes such as wound healing. Limitations to current work are also discussed, with a focus on future directions that investigators are recommended to take in order to gain a deeper understanding of fibroblast biology and to develop potential targets for translational applications in a clinical setting.
View details for DOI 10.3390/biomedicines11082264
View details for PubMedID 37626760
Understanding the Role of Adipocytes and Fibroblasts in Cancer.
Annals of plastic surgery
Cancer is currently the second leading cause of death in the United States. There is increasing evidence that the tumor microenvironment (TME) is pivotal for tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recently, adipocytes and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the TME have been shown to play a major role in tumorigenesis of different cancers, specifically melanoma. Animal studies have shown that CAFs and adipocytes within the TME help tumors evade the immune system, for example, by releasing chemokines to blunt the effectiveness of the host defense. Although studies have identified that adipocytes and CAFs play a role in tumorigenesis, adipocyte transition to fibroblast within the TME is fairly unknown. This review intends to elucidate the potential that adipocytes may have to transition to fibroblasts and, as part of the TME, a critical role that CAFs may play in affecting the growth and invasion of tumor cells. Future studies that illuminate the function of adipocytes and CAFs in the TME may pave way for new antitumor therapies.
View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000003658
View details for PubMedID 37553786
Reduction of Tendon Fibrosis Using Galectin-3 Inhibitors.
Plastic and reconstructive surgery
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a complication of both tendon injuries and repairs. We aim to develop a mouse model to assess tendon fibrosis and to identify an antifibrotic agent capable of overcoming tendon fibrosis.METHODS: Adult C57Bl/6 mice underwent a skin incision to expose the Achilles tendon, followed by 50% tendon injury and abrasion with sandpaper. Sham surgeries were conducted on contralateral hindlimbs. Histology and immunofluorescent staining for fibrotic markers (Col1, alpha-SMA) were used to confirm that the model induced tendon fibrosis. A second experiment was conducted to further examine the role of alpha-SMA in adhesion formation using alpha-SMA.mTmG mice (6-8 weeks old) (n=3) with the same injury model. The control group (tendon injury) was compared to the sham group, using the contralateral limb with skin incision only. A second experiment was conducted to further examine the role of alpha-SMA in adhesion formation using alpha-SMA.mTmG mice (6-8 weeks old) (n=3) with the same injury model. The control group (tendon injury) was compared to the sham group, using the contralateral limb with skin incision only. Lastly, alpha-SMA.mTmG mice were randomized to either condition 1. Tendon injury (control group) or 2. Tendon injury with Galectin-3 inhibitor (Gal3i) treatment at time of injury (treatment group).RESULTS: Histological analyses confirmed tendon thickening and collagen deposition after tendon injury and abrasion compared to control. Immunofluorescence showed higher levels of Col1 and alpha-SMA protein expression after injury compared to sham (*p<0.05). RT-qPCR also demonstrated increased gene expression of Col1 and alpha-SMA after injury compared to sham (*p<0.05). Gal3 protein expression also increased after injury and co-localized with alpha-SMA positive fibroblasts surrounding the fibrotic tendon. Gal3i treatment decreased collagen deposition and scarring observed in the treatment group (*p<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis further showed reduced numbers of profibrotic fibroblasts (CD26+) in the treatment compared to the control group (*p<0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a reproducible and reliable model to investigate tendon fibrosis. Findings suggest the potential of Gal3i to overcome fibrosis resulting from tendon injuries.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000010880
View details for PubMedID 37344932
Chelating the valley of death: Deferoxamine's path from bench to wound clinic.
Frontiers in medicine
2023; 10: 1015711
There is undisputable benefit in translating basic science research concretely into clinical practice, and yet, the vast majority of therapies and treatments fail to achieve approval. The rift between basic research and approved treatment continues to grow, and in cases where a drug is granted approval, the average time from initiation of human trials to regulatory marketing authorization spans almost a decade. Albeit with these hurdles, recent research with deferoxamine (DFO) bodes significant promise as a potential treatment for chronic, radiation-induced soft tissue injury. DFO was originally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1968 for the treatment of iron overload. However, investigators more recently have posited that its angiogenic and antioxidant properties could be beneficial in treating the hypovascular and reactive-oxygen species-rich tissues seen in chronic wounds and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Small animal experiments of various chronic wound and RIF models confirmed that treatment with DFO improved blood flow and collagen ultrastructure. With a well-established safety profile, and now a strong foundation of basic scientific research that supports its potential use in chronic wounds and RIF, we believe that the next steps required for DFO to achieve FDA marketing approval will include large animal studies and, if those prove successful, human clinical trials. Though these milestones remain, the extensive research thus far leaves hope for DFO to bridge the gap between bench and wound clinic in the near future.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fmed.2023.1015711
View details for PubMedID 36873870