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  • Should rTMS be considered a first-line treatment for major depressive episodes in adults? Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology O'Sullivan, S. J., Buchanan, D. M., Batail, J. V., Williams, N. R. 2024; 165: 76-87


    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is an epidemic with rising social, economic, and political costs. In a patient whose major depressive episode (MDE) persists through an adequate antidepressant trial, insurance companies often cover alternative treatments which may include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). RTMS is an FDA-cleared neuromodulation technique for TRD which is safe, efficacious, noninvasive, and well-tolerated. Recent developments in the optimization of rTMS algorithms and targeting have increased the efficacy of rTMS in treating depression, improved the clinical convenience of these treatments, and decreased the cost of a course of rTMS. In this opinion paper, we make a case for why conventional FDA-cleared rTMS should be considered as a first-line treatment for all adult MDEs. RTMS is compared to other first-line treatments including psychotherapy and SSRIs. These observations suggest that rTMS has similar efficacy, fewer side-effects, lower risk of serious adverse events, comparable compliance, the potential for more rapid relief, and cost-effectiveness. This suggestion, however, would be strengthened by further research with an emphasis on treatment-naive subjects in their first depressive episode, and trials directly contrasting rTMS with SSRIs or psychotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clinph.2024.06.004

    View details for PubMedID 38968909

  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a countermeasure for behavioral and neuropsychological risks of long-duration and deep-space missions. NPJ microgravity Faerman, A., Buchanan, D. M., Williams, N. R. 2024; 10 (1): 58

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41526-024-00401-8

    View details for PubMedID 38806522

    View details for PubMedCentralID 10235498

  • An ART Tour de Force on Mental Imagery: Vividness, Individual Bias Differences, and Complementary Visual Processing Streams INFORMATION D'Angiulli, A., Laarakker, C., Buchanan, D. 2024; 15 (1)
  • Safety and Tolerability of tDCS across Different Ages, Sexes, Diagnoses, and Amperages: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Study. Journal of clinical medicine Buchanan, D. M., Amare, S., Gaumond, G., D'Angiulli, A., Robaey, P. 2023; 12 (13)


    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique with substantial evidence for its safety and tolerability in adults. However, less than 5% of published tDCS research is in pediatrics. Our primary objective was to investigate tDCS safety, tolerability, and acceptability in a sample of children and adults. We hypothesized that children and adults would be equal with regard to tDCS safety, tolerability, and acceptability. We tested this hypothesis using a Bayesian approach. Sixty participants aged 6-45 (balanced for sex) participated in a randomized double-blind controlled trial. They were randomly assigned to two ten-minute tDCS sessions with varying amperages and electrode locations. The primary outcome measure of this study was the intensity of 13 potential side effects evaluated at six different time points spanning two weeks. Independent sample Bayes factor tests were conducted between children/adults, males/females, clinical/healthy, and low/high amperage groups. As predicted, there was moderate support for the null hypothesis in all between-group analyses. There were no serious adverse events or dropouts, and the number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome was 23. This study provided evidence supporting the overall short-term safety, tolerability, and acceptability of tDCS including amperages up to 2 mA and different electrode placements.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jcm12134346

    View details for PubMedID 37445385

  • Taking modern psychiatry into the metaverse: Integrating augmented, virtual, and mixed reality technologies into psychiatric care. Frontiers in digital health Ford, T. J., Buchanan, D. M., Azeez, A., Benrimoh, D. A., Kaloiani, I., Bandeira, I. D., Hunegnaw, S., Lan, L., Gholmieh, M., Buch, V., Williams, N. R. 2023; 5: 1146806


    The landscape of psychiatry is ever evolving and has recently begun to be influenced more heavily by new technologies. One novel technology which may have particular application to psychiatry is the metaverse, a three-dimensional digital social platform accessed via augmented, virtual, and mixed reality (AR/VR/MR). The metaverse allows the interaction of users in a virtual world which can be measured and manipulated, posing at once exciting new possibilities and significant potential challenges and risks. While the final form of the nascent metaverse is not yet clear, the immersive simulation and holographic mixed reality-based worlds made possible by the metaverse have the potential to redefine neuropsychiatric care for both patients and their providers. While a number of applications for this technology can be envisioned, this article will focus on leveraging the metaverse in three specific domains: medical education, brain stimulation, and biofeedback. Within medical education, the metaverse could allow for more precise feedback to students performing patient interviews as well as the ability to more easily disseminate highly specialized technical skills, such as those used in advanced neurostimulation paradigms. Examples of potential applications in brain stimulation and biofeedback range from using AR to improve precision targeting of non-invasive neuromodulation modalities to more innovative practices, such as using physiological and behavioral measures derived from interactions in VR environments to directly inform and personalize treatment parameters for patients. Along with promising future applications, we also discuss ethical implications and data security concerns that arise when considering the introduction of the metaverse and related AR/VR technologies to psychiatric research and care.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fdgth.2023.1146806

    View details for PubMedID 37035477

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10080019

  • Promise for Personalized Diagnosis? Assessing the Precision of Wireless Consumer-Grade Electroencephalography across Mental States APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL D'Angiulli, A., Lockman-Dufour, G., Buchanan, D. 2022; 12 (13)
  • Acceptability of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD: The point of view of parents JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY Buchanan, D., D'Angiulli, A., Samson, A., Maisonneuve, A. R., Robaey, P. 2022; 27 (1): 36-46


    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a novel treatment option for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To facilitate translation into clinical practice, we interviewed parents of children who have experienced experimental tDCS. A grounded theory approach using open, axial, and selective coding provided seven emergent themes for acceptability: tDCS provides hope for parents, safety tolerability and side effects of tDCS versus medication, burden of treatment, education and trust with care providers, cost and coverage, unestablished tDCS efficacy versus established medication effectiveness, perceived compliance of tDCS versus medication. Results suggest tDCS is acceptable but depends on evidence of effectiveness and regular availability.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1359105320937059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000550734400001

    View details for PubMedID 32686509