- Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
Clinical Professor, Pediatrics - Neonatal and Developmental Medicine
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2008)
Residency: California Pacific Medical Center Dept of Ophthalmology (1998) CA
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (2005)
Residency: California Pacific Medical Center (1996) CA
Medical Education: Royal College of Physicians of England (1990) United Kingdom
Internship: Colombo North General Hospital (1985) Sri Lanka
Association of Antenatal Steroid Exposure at 21 to 22 Weeks of Gestation With Neonatal Survival and Survival Without Morbidities.
JAMA network open
2022; 5 (9): e2233331
Importance: The provision of antenatal corticosteroids to pregnant patients at gestational age (GA) 22 6/7 weeks or less remains controversial and lacks support from randomized clinical trials.Objective: To compare rates of survival and survival without major morbidities among infants born at GA 22 0/7 to 23 6/7 weeks after exposure to antenatal steroids at 22 6/7 weeks' gestation or less vs no exposure to antenatal steroids.Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study enrolled infants born at GA 22 0/7 to 23 6/7 weeks between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019, at centers in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Infants who did not receive intensive care and infants with antenatal steroid exposure after GA 22 6/7 weeks were excluded.Exposure: Infants were classified as having no, partial, or complete exposure to antenatal steroids.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was survival to discharge. The main secondary outcome was survival without major neonatal morbidity. The associations of differential exposures to antenatal steroids with outcomes were evaluated using logistic regression, adjusting for GA, sex, race, maternal education, small for GA status, mode of delivery, multiple birth, prolonged rupture of membranes, year of birth, and Neonatal Research Network center.Results: A total of 431 infants (mean [SD] GA, 22.6 [0.5] weeks; 232 [53.8%] boys) were included, with 110 infants (25.5%) receiving no antenatal steroids, 80 infants (18.6%) receiving partial antenatal steroids, and 241 infants (55.9%) receiving complete antenatal steroids. Seventeen infants were exposed to antenatal steroids at GA 21 weeks. Among infants exposed to complete antenatal steroids, 130 (53.9%) survived to discharge, compared with 30 infants (37.5%) with partial antenatal steroid exposure and 239 infants (35.5%) with no antenatal steroids. Infants born after complete antenatal steroid exposure, compared with those without antenatal steroid exposure, were more likely to survive to discharge (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.95 [95% CI, 1.07-3.56]) and to survive without major morbidity (aOR, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.19-6.30]).Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study, among infants born between GA 22 0/7 and 23 6/7 weeks who received intensive care, exposure to a complete course of antenatal steroids at GA 22 6/7 weeks or less was independently associated with greater odds of survival and survival without major morbidity. These data suggest that the use of antenatal steroids in patients at GA 22 6/7 weeks or less could be beneficial when active treatment is considered.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.33331
View details for PubMedID 36156145
Increasing early exposure to mother's own milk in premature newborns.
Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association
OBJECTIVE: Increase the proportion of ≤33 weeks newborns exposed to mother's own milk (MOM) oral care by 12h of age by 20% over 2 years to support a healthier microbiome.STUDY DESIGN: We implemented interventions to support early expression of colostrum and reliable delivery of resultant MOM to premature newborns. Statistical process control charts were used to track progress and provide feedback to staff. Proportions of newborns exposed to MOM by 12h were compared relative to baseline.RESULTS: There were 46, 66, and 46 newborns in the baseline, implementation, and sustainability periods, respectively. The primary outcome improved from 48% to 61% in the implementation period (relative change 1.27, 95% CI 0.89, 1.81, p=0.2), to 69% in sustainability period (relative to baseline 1.45, 95% CI 1.02, 2.08, p=0.03).CONCLUSION: An interdisciplinary team-based, multicycle, quality improvement intervention resulted in increased rates of early exposure to MOM.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41372-022-01376-8
View details for PubMedID 35396577
Hydrocortisone to Improve Survival without Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.
The New England journal of medicine
2022; 386 (12): 1121-1131
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a prevalent complication after extremely preterm birth. Inflammation with mechanical ventilation may contribute to its development. Whether hydrocortisone treatment after the second postnatal week can improve survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia and without adverse neurodevelopmental effects is unknown.METHODS: We conducted a trial involving infants who had a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and who had been intubated for at least 7 days at 14 to 28 days. Infants were randomly assigned to receive either hydrocortisone (4 mg per kilogram of body weight per day tapered over a period of 10 days) or placebo. Mandatory extubation thresholds were specified. The primary efficacy outcome was survival without moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age, and the primary safety outcome was survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 26 months of corrected age.RESULTS: We enrolled 800 infants (mean [±SD] birth weight, 715±167 g; mean gestational age, 24.9±1.5 weeks). Survival without moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks occurred in 66 of 398 infants (16.6%) in the hydrocortisone group and in 53 of 402 (13.2%) in the placebo group (adjusted rate ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.74). Two-year outcomes were known for 91.0% of the infants. Survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 132 of 358 infants (36.9%) in the hydrocortisone group and in 134 of 359 (37.3%) in the placebo group (adjusted rate ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.18). Hypertension that was treated with medication occurred more frequently with hydrocortisone than with placebo (4.3% vs. 1.0%). Other adverse events were similar in the two groups.CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving preterm infants, hydrocortisone treatment starting on postnatal day 14 to 28 did not result in substantially higher survival without moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia than placebo. Survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment did not differ substantially between the two groups. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01353313.).
View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa2114897
View details for PubMedID 35320643
A Clinical Monitoring Approach for Early Onset Sepsis: A Community Hospital Experience.
BACKGROUND: A serial clinical examination approach to screen late preterm and term neonates at risk for early onset sepsis has been shown to be effective in large academic centers, resulting in reductions in laboratory testing and antibiotic use. The implementation of this approach in a community hospital setting has not been reported. Our objective was to adapt a clinical examination approach to our community hospital, aiming to reduce antibiotic exposure and laboratory testing.METHODS: At a community hospital with a level III NICU and >4500 deliveries annually, the pathway to evaluate neonates ≥35 weeks at risk for early onset sepsis was revised to focus on clinical examination. Well-appearing neonates regardless of perinatal risk factor were admitted to the mother baby unit with serial vital signs and clinical examinations performed by a nurse. Neonates symptomatic at birth or who became symptomatic received laboratory evaluation and/or antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic use, laboratory testing, and culture results were evaluated for the 14 months before and 19 months after implementation.RESULTS: After implementation of the revised pathway, antibiotic use decreased from 6.7% (n = 314/4694) to 2.6% (n = 153/5937; P < .001). Measurement of C-reactive protein decreased from 13.3% (n = 626/4694) to 5.3% (n = 312/5937; P < .001). No cases of culture-positive sepsis occurred, and no neonate was readmitted within 30 days from birth with a positive blood culture.CONCLUSIONS: A screening approach for early onset sepsis focused on clinical examination was successfully implemented at a community hospital setting resulting in reduction of antibiotic use and laboratory testing without adverse outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1542/hpeds.2021-006058
View details for PubMedID 34935049
Increasing Parent Satisfaction With Discharge Planning: An Improvement Project Using Technology in a Level 3 NICU.
Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) families are often overwhelmed by the discharge process. Their anxiety can inhibit learning and contribute to poor infant outcomes and increased healthcare utilization after discharge. Quality of the discharge teaching is the strongest predictor of discharge readiness, so NICUs must develop excellent discharge preparation programs.This improvement project enhances NICU discharge preparedness by providing consistent, early discharge teaching using technology as a supplemental resource and raises parental satisfaction with the process.Neonatal intensive care unit staff and former NICU parents developed a task force to create technology-based discharge education content. The content was originally uploaded to an e-book and later transferred to the electronic health record inpatient portal. Families were able to view discharge teaching content at their own convenience and pace and review topics as needed with the NICU staff. Postdischarge follow-up phone calls provided insight into parental reaction to the new education format.Parent satisfaction top-box scores, reflecting the highest rating in the "Prepared for Discharge" category of the patient satisfaction survey, improved from a baseline of 47% in 2017 to 70% in 2019. Overwhelmingly, 92% of families highly rated the tablet-based discharge teaching during postdischarge phone calls.A comprehensive, consistent, and early discharge program using technology can lead to more effective and efficient NICU discharge education and improved parent satisfaction.Further studies are needed to generalize hospital-based inpatient portal teaching as an additional resource for parental education in the NICU.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ANC.0000000000000841
View details for PubMedID 33534225