Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • --, Bronx Psychiatric Center, Biological Psychiatry (1982)
  • --, Albert Einstein Coll of Medicine, Child Psychiatry (1981)
  • --, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, General Psychiatry (1979)
  • --, Albert Einstein Coll of Medicine, Pediatrics (1977)
  • M.D., University of Pennsylvania, Medicine (1976)
  • A.B., Harvard College, Social Relations (1970)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Levinson directs the Program on the Genetics of Brain Function in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. The program investigates the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia and major depressive disorder), using genetic association, linkage and resequencing methodologies. In collaboration with Dr. Alice Whittemore, we are also actively engaged in statistical methods testing and development for genetic research.

2020-21 Courses

All Publications

  • Genomewide Association Analysis of Symptoms of Alcohol Dependence in the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS2) Control Sample ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Kendler, K. S., Kalsi, G., Holmans, P. A., Sanders, A. R., Aggen, S. H., Dick, D. M., Aliev, F., Shi, J., Levinson, D. F., Gejman, P. V. 2011; 35 (5): 963-975


    While genetic influences on alcohol dependence (AD) are substantial, progress in the identification of individual genetic variants that impact on risk has been difficult.We performed a genome-wide association study on 3,169 alcohol consuming subjects from the population-based Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS2) control sample. Subjects were asked 7 questions about symptoms of AD which were analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. Three sets of analyses were conducted separately for European American (EA, n = 2,357) and African-American (AA, n = 812) subjects: individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and enriched pathways using gene ontology (GO) categories.The symptoms of AD formed a highly coherent single factor. No SNP approached genome-wide significance. In the EA sample, the most significant intragenic SNP was in KCNMA1, the human homolog of the slo-1 gene in C. Elegans. Genes with clusters of significant SNPs included AKAP9, phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class G (PIGG), and KCNMA1. In the AA sample, the most significant intragenic SNP was CEACAM6 and genes showing empirically significant SNPs included KCNQ5, SLC35B4, and MGLL. In the candidate gene based analyses, the most significant findings were with ADH1C, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1) and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) in the EA sample, and ADH5, POMC, and CHRM2 in the AA sample. The ALIGATOR program identified a significant excess of associated SNPs within and near genes in a substantial number of GO categories over a range of statistical stringencies in both the EA and AA sample.While we cannot be highly confident about any single result from these analyses, a number of findings were suggestive and worthy of follow-up. Although quite large samples will be needed to obtain requisite power, the study of AD symptoms in general population samples is a viable complement to case-control studies in identifying genetic risk variants for AD.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01427.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289896200032

    View details for PubMedID 21314694

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3083473

  • Copy Number Variants in Schizophrenia: Confirmation of Five Previous Findings and New Evidence for 3q29 Microdeletions and VIPR2 Duplications 60th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Human-Genetics Levinson, D. F., Duan, J., Oh, S., Wang, K., Sanders, A. R., Shi, J., Zhang, N., Mowry, B. J., Olincy, A., Amin, F., Cloninger, C. R., Silverman, J. M., Buccola, N. G., Byerley, W. F., Black, D. W., Kendler, K. S., Freedman, R., Dudbridge, F., Pe'er, I., Hakonarson, H., Bergen, S. E., Fanous, A. H., Holmans, P. A., Gejman, P. V. AMER PSYCHIATRIC PUBLISHING, INC. 2011: 302–16


    To evaluate previously reported associations of copy number variants (CNVs) with schizophrenia and to identify additional associations, the authors analyzed CNVs in the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia study (MGS) and additional available data.After quality control, MGS data for 3,945 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 3,611 screened comparison subjects were available for analysis of rare CNVs (<1% frequency). CNV detection thresholds were chosen that maximized concordance in 151 duplicate assays. Pointwise and genewise analyses were carried out, as well as analyses of previously reported regions. Selected regions were visually inspected and confirmed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction.In analyses of MGS data combined with other available data sets, odds ratios of 7.5 or greater were observed for previously reported deletions in chromosomes 1q21.1, 15q13.3, and 22q11.21, duplications in 16p11.2, and exon-disrupting deletions in NRXN1. The most consistently supported candidate associations across data sets included a 1.6-Mb deletion in chromosome 3q29 (21 genes, TFRC to BDH1) that was previously described in a mild-moderate mental retardation syndrome, exonic duplications in the gene for vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VIPR2), and exonic duplications in C16orf72. The case subjects had a modestly higher genome-wide number of gene-containing deletions (>100 kb and >1 Mb) but not duplications.The data strongly confirm the association of schizophrenia with 1q21.1, 15q13.3, and 22q11.21 deletions, 16p11.2 duplications, and exonic NRXN1 deletions. These CNVs, as well as 3q29 deletions, are also associated with mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, and epilepsy. Additional candidate genes and regions, including VIPR2, were identified. Study of the mechanisms underlying these associations should shed light on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

    View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10060876

    View details for PubMedID 21285140

  • Genome-wide association study of recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY Shi, J., Potash, J. B., Knowles, J. A., Weissman, M. M., Coryell, W., Scheftner, W. A., Lawson, W. B., DePaulo, J. R., GEJMAN, P. V., Sanders, A. R., Johnson, J. K., Adams, P., Chaudhury, S., JANCIC, D., Evgrafov, O., Zvinyatskovskiy, A., Ertman, N., Gladis, M., Neimanas, K., Goodell, M., Hale, N., NEY, N., Verma, R., Mirel, D., Holmans, P., Levinson, D. F. 2011; 16 (2): 193-201


    A genome-wide association study was carried out in 1020 case subjects with recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) (onset before age 31) and 1636 control subjects screened to exclude lifetime MDD. Subjects were genotyped with the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. After extensive quality control procedures, 671 424 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 25 068 X chromosome SNPs with minor allele frequency greater than 1% were available for analysis. An additional 1 892 186 HapMap II SNPs were analyzed based on imputed genotypic data. Single-SNP logistic regression trend tests were computed, with correction for ancestry-informative principal component scores. No genome-wide significant evidence for association was observed, assuming that nominal P<5 × 10(-8) approximates a 5% genome-wide significance threshold. The strongest evidence for association was observed on chromosome 18q22.1 (rs17077540, P=1.83 × 10(-7)) in a region that has produced some evidence for linkage to bipolar-I or -II disorder in several studies, within an mRNA detected in human brain tissue (BC053410) and approximately 75 kb upstream of DSEL. Comparing these results with those of a meta-analysis of three MDD GWAS data sets reported in a companion article, we note that among the strongest signals observed in the GenRED sample, the meta-analysis provided the greatest support (although not at a genome-wide significant level) for association of MDD to SNPs within SP4, a brain-specific transcription factor. Larger samples will be required to confirm the hypothesis of association between MDD (and particularly the recurrent early-onset subtype) and common SNPs.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/mp.2009.124

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286581400009

    View details for PubMedID 20125088

  • Common variants on chromosome 6p22.1 are associated with schizophrenia NATURE Shi, J., Levinson, D. F., Duan, J., Sanders, A. R., Zheng, Y., Pe'er, I., Dudbridge, F., Holmans, P. A., Whittemore, A. S., Mowry, B. J., Olincy, A., Amin, F., Cloninger, C. R., Silverman, J. M., Buccola, N. G., Byerley, W. F., Black, D. W., Crowe, R. R., Oksenberg, J. R., Mirel, D. B., Kendler, K. S., Freedman, R., Gejman, P. V. 2009; 460 (7256): 753-757


    Schizophrenia, a devastating psychiatric disorder, has a prevalence of 0.5-1%, with high heritability (80-85%) and complex transmission. Recent studies implicate rare, large, high-penetrance copy number variants in some cases, but the genes or biological mechanisms that underlie susceptibility are not known. Here we show that schizophrenia is significantly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the extended major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome 6. We carried out a genome-wide association study of common SNPs in the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS) case-control sample, and then a meta-analysis of data from the MGS, International Schizophrenia Consortium and SGENE data sets. No MGS finding achieved genome-wide statistical significance. In the meta-analysis of European-ancestry subjects (8,008 cases, 19,077 controls), significant association with schizophrenia was observed in a region of linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 6p22.1 (P = 9.54 x 10(-9)). This region includes a histone gene cluster and several immunity-related genes--possibly implicating aetiological mechanisms involving chromatin modification, transcriptional regulation, autoimmunity and/or infection. These results demonstrate that common schizophrenia susceptibility alleles can be detected. The characterization of these signals will suggest important directions for research on susceptibility mechanisms.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature08192

    View details for PubMedID 19571809

  • Significance levels for studies with correlated test statistics BIOSTATISTICS Shi, J., Levinson, D. F., Whittemore, A. S. 2008; 9 (3): 458-466


    When testing large numbers of null hypotheses, one needs to assess the evidence against the global null hypothesis that none of the hypotheses is false. Such evidence typically is based on the test statistic of the largest magnitude, whose statistical significance is evaluated by permuting the sample units to simulate its null distribution. Efron (2007) has noted that correlation among the test statistics can induce substantial interstudy variation in the shapes of their histograms, which may cause misleading tail counts. Here, we show that permutation-based estimates of the overall significance level also can be misleading when the test statistics are correlated. We propose that such estimates be conditioned on a simple measure of the spread of the observed histogram, and we provide a method for obtaining conditional significance levels. We justify this conditioning using the conditionality principle described by Cox and Hinkley (1974). Application of the method to gene expression data illustrates the circumstances when conditional significance levels are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/biostatistics/kxm047

    View details for PubMedID 18089626

  • Investigating the role of p11 (S100A10) sequence variation in susceptibility to major depression AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART B-NEUROPSYCHIATRIC GENETICS Verma, R., Cutler, D. J., Holmans, P., Knowles, J. A., Crowe, R. R., Scheftner, W. A., Weissman, M. M., DePaulo, J. R., Levinson, D. F., Potash, J. B. 2007; 144B (8): 1079-1082


    Recent evidence suggests a potential role for the p11 gene in conferring risk to depressive disorders. p11 has been shown to influence serotonergic transmission, and its expression was found to be reduced in a mouse model of depression, as well as in post-mortem brain tissue from major depressive disorder (MDD) cases. In the present study, we tested for rare variants in p11 by resequencing promoter, exonic and flanking intronic regions in 176 MDD cases and 176 matched controls. We also assessed common variation by genotyping eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), seven tag SNPs and one found through resequencing, in 641 cases and 650 controls. Resequencing revealed nine novel rare variants, including a missense mutation (Asp60Glu) observed in one case and one control, and four variants that occurred only in cases and not controls. The number of rare variants in cases did not exceed that expected by chance for the length of sequence analyzed, and also was not significantly greater than that observed in controls. Resequencing also identified two known SNPs, one (rs4845720) of which was significantly more frequent in cases than controls in the resequenced sample (3.1% vs. 0.9%, P = 0.03), though not in the larger sample (3% vs. 2%, P = 0.15). None of the tag SNPs showed any evidence of association. Our results do not support a major role for either common or rare p11 SNPs with MDD. Several limitations of the study are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.b.30514

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251096700018

    View details for PubMedID 17510952

  • Bootstrap classification and point-based feature selection from age-staged mouse cerebellum tissues of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectra using a fuzzy rule-building expert system ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA Harrington, P. B., Laurent, C., Levinson, D. F., Levitt, P., Markey, S. P. 2007; 599 (2): 219-231


    A bootstrap method for point-based detection of candidate biomarker peaks has been developed from pattern classifiers. Point-based detection methods are advantageous in comparison to peak-based methods. Peak determination and selection are problematic when spectral peaks are not baseline resolved or on a varying baseline. The benefit of point-based detection is that peaks can be globally determined from the characteristic features of the entire data set (i.e., subsets of candidate points) as opposed to the traditional method of selecting peaks from individual spectra and then combining the peak list into a data set. The point-based method is demonstrated to be more effective and efficient using a synthetic data set when compared to using Mahalanobis distance for feature selection. In addition, probabilities that characterize the uniqueness of the peaks are determined. This method was applied for detecting peaks that characterize age-specific patterns of protein expression of developing and adult mouse cerebella from matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) data. The mice comprised three age groups: 42 adults, 19 14-day-old pups, and 16 7-day-old pups. Three sequential spectra were obtained from each tissue section to yield 126, 57 and 48 spectra for adult, 14-day-old pup, and 7-day-old pup spectra, respectively. Each spectrum comprised 71,879 mass measurements in a range of 3.5-50 kDa. A previous study revealed that 846 unique peaks were detected that were consistent for 50% of the mice in each age group (C. Laurent, D.F. Levinson, S.A. Schwartz, P.B. Harrington, S.P. Markey, R.M. Caprioli, P. Levitt, Direct profiling of the cerebellum by MALDI MS: a methodological study in postnatal and adult mouse, J. Neurosci. Res. 81 (2005) 613-621.). A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) was applied to investigate the correlation of age with features in the MS data. FuRES detected two outlier pup-14 spectra. Prediction was evaluated using 100 bootstrap samples of 2 Latin-partitions (i.e., 50:50 split between training and prediction set) of the mice. The spectra without the outliers yielded classification rates of 99.1+/-0.1%, 90.1+/-0.8%, and 97.0+/-0.6% for adults, 14-day-old pups, and 7-day-old pups, respectively. At a 95% level of significance, 100 bootstrap samples disclosed 35 adult and 21 pup distinguishing peaks for separating adults from pups; and 8 14-day-old and 15 7-day-old predictive peaks for separating 14-day-old pup from 7-day-old pup spectra. A compressed matrix comprising 40,393 points that were outside the 95% confidence intervals of one of the two FuRES discriminants was evaluated and the classification improved significantly for all classes. When peaks that satisfied a quality criterion were integrated, the 55 integrated peak areas furnished significantly improved classification for all classes: the selected peak areas furnished classification rates of 100%, 97.3+/-0.6%, and 97.4+/-0.3% for adult, 14-day-old pups, and 7-day-old pups using 100 bootstrap Latin partitions evaluations with the predictions averaged. When the bootstrap size was increased to 1000 samples, the results were not significantly affected. The FuRES predictions were consistent with those obtained by discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classifications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.aca.2007.08.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250023000007

    View details for PubMedID 17870284

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2094725

  • QuickSNP: an automated web server for selection of tagSNPs NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH Grover, D., Woodfield, A. S., Verma, R., Zandi, P. P., Levinson, D. F., Potash, J. B. 2007; 35: W115-W120


    Although large-scale genetic association studies involving hundreds to thousands of SNPs have become feasible, the associated cost is substantial. Even with the increased efficiency introduced by the use of tagSNPs, researchers are often seeking ways to maximize resource utilization given a set of SNP-based gene-mapping goals. We have developed a web server named QuickSNP in order to provide cost-effective selection of SNPs, and to fill in some of the gaps in existing SNP selection tools. One useful feature of QuickSNP is the option to select only gene-centric SNPs from a chromosomal region in an automated fashion. Other useful features include automated selection of coding non-synonymous SNPs, SNP filtering based on inter-SNP distances and information regarding the availability of genotyping assays for SNPs and whether they are present on whole genome chips. The program produces user-friendly summary tables and results, and a link to a UCSC Genome Browser track illustrating the position of the selected tagSNPs in relation to genes and other genomic features. We hope the unique combination of features of this server will be useful for researchers aiming to select markers for their genotyping studies. The server is freely available and can be accessed at the URL

    View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkm329

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255311500023

    View details for PubMedID 17517769

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1933212

  • A comparison of the familiality of chronic depression in recurrent early-onset depression pedigrees using different definitions of chronicity JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Mondimore, F. M., Zandi, P. P., MacKinnon, D. F., McInnis, M. G., Miller, E. B., Schweizer, B., Crowe, R. P., Scheftner, W. A., Weissman, M. A., Levinson, D. F., DePaulo, J. R., Potash, J. B. 2007; 100 (1-3): 171-177


    The study of chronicity in the course of major depression has been complicated by varying definitions of this illness feature. Because familial clustering is one component of diagnostic validity we compared family clustering of chronicity as defined in the DSM-IV to that of chronicity determined by an assessment of lifetime course of depressive illness.In 1750 affected subjects from 652 families recruited for a genetic study of recurrent, early-onset depression, we applied several definitions of chronicity. Odds ratios were determined for the likelihood of chronicity in a proband predicting chronicity in an affected relative.There was greater family clustering of chronicity as determined by assessment of lifetime course (OR=2.54) than by DSM-IV defined chronic major depressive episode (MDE) (OR=1.93) or dysthymic disorder (OR=1.76). In families with probands who had preadolescent onset of MDD, familiality was increased by all definitions, with a much larger increase observed for chronicity by lifetime course (ORs were 6.14 for lifetime chronicity, 2.43 for chronic MDE, and 3.42 for comorbid dysthymic disorder). Agreement between these definitions of chronicity was only fair.The data used to determine chronicity were collected retrospectively and not blindly to relatives' status, and assessment of lifetime course was based on global clinical impressions gathered during a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Also, it can be difficult to determine whether individuals with recurrent major depressive episodes who frequently experience long periods of low grade depressive symptoms meet the strict timing requirements of DSM-IV dysthymic disorder.An assessment of lifetime symptom course identifies a more familial, and thus possibly a more valid, type of chronic depression than the current DSM-IV categories which are defined in terms of particular cross-sectional features of illness.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2006.10.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247704400021

    View details for PubMedID 17126912

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1950152

  • Data acquisition for meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies using the genome search meta-analysis method 34th European Mathematical Genetics Meeting Forabosco, P., Ng, M. Y., Bouzigon, E., Fisher, S. A., Levinson, D. F., Lewis, C. M. KARGER. 2007: 74–81


    The Genome Search Meta-Analysis (GSMA) method enables researchers to pool results across genome-wide linkage studies, to increase the power to detect linkage. Results from individual studies must be extracted, with the maximum evidence for linkage placed into bins, usually of 30 cM width, and ranked within the study. Ranks are then summed across studies, with high summed ranks potentially showing evidence for linkage in the meta-analysis.In this paper we study the properties of the GSMA method considering two different issues: (1) data binning from genome-wide results when indexed markers or graphs are available, based on either predefined boundary markers, or equal-length bins; (2) the use of selected instead of genome-wide results, using simulation to estimate power and type I error rates of GSMA. This is relevant when published papers show only summary results (e.g. with NPL score >1). Results: Using digitizing software to extract linkage statistics from graphs and assigning equal bin length is accurate, with the resulting ranking of bins similar to those defined through boundary markers. Simulation results show that power can fall substantially when genome-wide results are not available, particularly when only results from a single marker are available in a linked region. However there is no increase in false positive findings.The GSMA method is robust across different bin definitions and methods of data presentation and extraction. Using studies based on only the top ranked bins does not produce false positive results, but lacks power to detect genes conferring a modest increase in risk. Therefore, we advise that effort should be made to obtain genome-wide results from investigators or from published papers to avoid limiting the utility of the GSMA.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000101425

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246211300008

    View details for PubMedID 17483599

  • Reproductive cycle-associated mood symptoms in women with major depression and bipolar disorder JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Payne, J. L., Roy, P. S., Murphy-Eberenz, K., Weismann, M. M., Swartz, K. L., McInnis, M. G., Nwulia, E., Mondimore, F. M., MacKinnon, D. F., Miller, E. B., Nurnberger, J. I., Levinson, D. F., DePaulo, J. R., Potash, J. B. 2007; 99 (1-3): 221-229


    We sought to determine the prevalence of, and association between, reproductive cycle-associated mood symptoms in women with affective disorders. We hypothesized that symptoms would correlate with each other across a woman's reproductive life span in both major depression (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP).2412 women with, MDD or BP were asked standardized questions about mood symptoms prior to menstruation, within a month of childbirth and during perimenopause. Lifetime rates for each of these symptom types were determined and an odds ratio was calculated correlating each of the types with the others.Of 2524 women with mood disorders, 67.7% reported premenstrual symptoms. Of those at risk, 20.9% reported postpartum symptoms and 26.4% reported perimenopausal symptoms. The rates did not differ between women with MDD and BP but were significantly different from women who were never ill. The symptoms were significantly correlated in women with MDD with odds ratios from 1.66 to 1.82, but were not in women with BP.This is a secondary analysis of a sample that was collected for other purposes and is based upon retrospective reporting.Reproductive cycle-associated mood symptoms were commonly reported in women with mood disorders and did not differ based on diagnosis. In MDD, but not BP, the occurrence of these symptoms was trait-like as the presence of one predicted the occurrence of the others. Further prospective study is required to clarify the determinants of this trait.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2006.08.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245154300027

    View details for PubMedID 17011632

  • Genetics of recurrent early-onset major depression (GenRED): Final genome scan report AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Holmans, P., Weissman, M. M., Zubenko, G. S., Scheftner, W. A., Crowe, R. R., DePaulo, J. R., Knowles, J. A., Zubenko, W. N., Murphy-Eberenz, K., Marta, D. H., Boutelle, S., McInnis, M. G., Adams, P., Gladis, M., Steele, J., Miller, E. B., Potash, J. B., MacKinnon, D. F., Levinson, D. F. 2007; 164 (2): 248-258


    The authors carried out a genomewide linkage scan to identify chromosomal regions likely to contain genes that contribute to susceptibility to recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder, the form of the disorder with the greatest reported risk to relatives of index cases.Microsatellite DNA markers were studied in 656 families with two or more such cases (onset before age 31 in probands and age 41 in other relatives), including 1,494 informative "all possible" affected relative pairs (there were 894 independent affected sibling pairs). Analyses included a primary multipoint allele-sharing analysis (with ALLEGRO) and a secondary logistic regression analysis taking the sex of each relative pair into account (male-male, male-female, female-female).Genomewide suggestive evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 15q25-q26 (at 105.4 centimorgans [cM]). The authors previously reported genomewide significant linkage in this region in the first 297 families. In the secondary analysis, after empirical genomewide correction for multiple testing, suggestive linkage results were observed on chromosome 17p12 (28.0 cM, excess sharing in male-male and male-female pairs) and on chromosome 8p22-p21.3 (25.1 cM, excess sharing in male-male pairs).These regions of chromosomes 15q, 17p, and 8p might contain genes that contribute to susceptibility to major depression and related disorders. Evidence for linkage has been reported independently in the same regions of chromosome 15q for major depression and of chromosome 8p for related personality traits.

    View details for PubMedID 17267787

  • Genetics of recurrent early-onset major depression (GenRED): Significant linkage on chromosome 15q25-q26 after fine mapping with single nucleotide polymorphism markers AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Levinson, D. F., Evgrafov, O. V., Knowles, J. A., Potash, J. B., Weissman, M. M., Scheftner, W. A., DePaulo, J. R., Crowe, R. R., Murphy-Eberenz, K., Marta, D. H., McInnis, M. G., Adams, P., Gladis, M., Miller, E. B., Thomas, J., Holmans, P. 2007; 164 (2): 259-264


    The authors studied a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA markers on chromosome 15q25-q26 to maximize the informativeness of genetic linkage analyses in a region where they previously reported suggestive evidence for linkage of recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder.In 631 European-ancestry families with multiple cases of recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder, 88 SNPs were genotyped, and multipoint allele-sharing linkage analyses were carried out. Marker-marker linkage disequilibrium was minimized, and a simulation study with founder haplotypes from these families suggested that linkage scores were not inflated by linkage disequilibrium.The dense SNP map increased the information content of the analysis from around 0.7 to over 0.9. The maximum evidence for linkage was the Z likelihood ratio score statistic of Kong and Cox (Z(LR))=4.69 at 109.8 cM. The exact p value was below the genomewide significance threshold. By contrast, in the genome scan with microsatellite markers at 9 cM spacing, the maximum Z(LR) for European-ancestry families was 3.43 (106.53 cM). It was estimated that the linked locus or loci in this region might account for a 20% or less populationwide increase in risk to siblings of cases.This region has produced modestly positive evidence for linkage to depression and related traits in other studies. These results suggest that DNA sequence variations in one or more genes in the 15q25-q26 region can increase susceptibility to major depression and that efforts are warranted to identify these genes.

    View details for PubMedID 17267788

  • Statistical corrections of linkage data suggest predominantly cis regulations of gene expression. BMC proceedings Shi, J., Siegmund, D. O., Levinson, D. F. 2007; 1: S145-?


    Morley et al. (Nature 2004, 430:743-747) detected significant linkages to the expression levels of 142 genes (of 3554) at a reported threshold of genome-wide p = 0.001 (LOD asymptotically equal to 5.3), using 14 three-generation Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain pedigrees. Most of the linkages (77%) were trans, i.e., more than 5 Mb from the expressed gene. However, the analysis did not account for the expected anti-conservative effect of the skewed distribution of score- or regression-based statistics in large sibships, or for the possible variance distortion due to correlations among tests. Therefore, we re-analyzed their data, using a robust score statistic for the entire pedigrees and correcting the p-values for skewness. We found that a LOD of 5.3 had a skewness-corrected genome-wide p-value of 0.016 instead of 0.001 (a result that we confirmed using simulation), with around 50 expected false positives. We then further corrected for correlation among the (skew-corrected) p-values by using Efron's method for obtaining the empirical null distribution. Setting a threshold of FDR = 10% (Z = 6.4, LOD = 8.9), we detected linkage for the expression levels of 22 genes, 19 of which are cis. Limiting the analysis to cis regions, linkage was detected to the expression levels of 46 genes with 4.6 expected false positives (FDR = 10%).

    View details for PubMedID 18466489

  • Familial aggregation of illness chronicity in recurrent, early-onset major depression pedigrees AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Mondimore, F. M., Zandi, P. P., MacKinnon, D. F., McInnis, M. G., Miller, E. B., Crowe, R. P., Scheftner, W. A., Marta, D. H., Weissman, M. M., Levinson, D. F., Murphy-Ebenez, K. P., DePaulo, J. R., Potash, J. B. 2006; 163 (9): 1554-1560


    The authors used a large sample collected for genetic studies to determine whether a chronic course of illness defines a familial clinical subtype in major depressive disorder.A measure of lifetime chronicity of depressive symptoms (substantial mood symptoms most or all of the time) was tested for familial aggregation in 638 pedigrees from the Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression (GenRED) project.In subjects with chronic depression, the mean age at illness onset was lower and rates of attempted suicide, panic disorder, and substance abuse were higher than among those with nonchronic depression. Chronicity was assessed in 37.8% of affected first-degree relatives of probands with chronic depression and in 20.2% of relatives of probands with nonchronic depression. Analysis using the generalized estimating equation model yielded an odds ratio of 2.52 (SE=0.39, z=6.02, p<0.0001) for the likelihood of chronicity in a proband predicting chronicity in an affected relative. With stratification by proband age at illness onset, the odds ratio for chronicity in relatives by proband chronicity status was 6.17 (SE=2.09, z=5.35, p<0.0001) in families of probands whose illness onset was before age 13 and 1.92 (SE=0.34, z=3.72, p<0.0001) in families of probands whose illness started at age 13 or later.These findings suggest that chronicity of depressive symptoms is familial, especially in preadolescent-onset illness. Chronicity is also associated with other indicators of illness severity in recurrent, early-onset major depression. Further study using chronicity as a subtype in the genetic analysis of depressive illness is warranted. Refinement of the definition of chronicity in depressive illness may increase the power of such studies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240205100015

    View details for PubMedID 16946180

  • Association study of the dystrobrevin-binding gene with schizophrenia in Australian and Indian samples TWIN RESEARCH AND HUMAN GENETICS Holliday, E. G., Handoko, H. Y., James, M. R., McGrath, J. J., Nertney, D. A., Tirupati, S., Thara, R., Levinson, D. F., Hayward, N. K., Mowry, B. J., Nyholt, D. R. 2006; 9 (4): 531-539


    Numerous studies have reported association between variants in the dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (dysbindin) gene (DTNBP1) and schizophrenia. However, the pattern of results is complex and to date, no specific risk marker or haplotype has been consistently identified. The number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested in these studies has ranged from 5 to 20. We attempted to replicate previous findings by testing 16 SNPs in samples of 41 Australian pedigrees, 194 Australian cases and 180 controls, and 197 Indian pedigrees. No globally significant evidence for association was observed in any sample, despite power calculations indicating sufficient power to replicate several previous findings. Possible explanations for our results include sample differences in background linkage disequilibrium and/or risk allele effect size, the presence of multiple risk alleles upon different haplotypes, or the presence of a single risk allele upon multiple haplotypes. Some previous associations may also represent false positives. Examination of Caucasian HapMap phase II genotype data spanning the DTNBP1 region indicates upwards of 40 SNPs are required to satisfactorily assess all nonredundant variation within DTNBP1 and its potential regulatory regions for association with schizophrenia. More comprehensive studies in multiple samples will be required to determine whether specific DTNBP1 variants function as risk factors for schizophrenia.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240538800007

    View details for PubMedID 16899160

  • The genetics of depression: A review BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY Levinson, D. F. 2006; 60 (2): 84-92


    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common and moderately heritable. Recurrence and early age at onset characterize cases with the greatest familial risk. Major depressive disorder and the neuroticism personality trait have overlapping genetic susceptibilities. Most genetic studies of MDD have considered a small set of functional polymorphisms relevant to monoaminergic neurotransmission. Meta-analyses suggest small positive associations between the polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and bipolar disorder, suicidal behavior, and depression-related personality traits but not yet to MDD itself. This polymorphism might also influence traits related to stress vulnerability. Newer hypotheses of depression neurobiology suggest closer study of genes related to neurotoxic and neuroprotective (neurotrophic) processes and to overactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, with mixed evidence regarding association of MDD with polymorphisms in one such gene (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]). Several genome-wide linkage studies of MDD and related traits have been reported or are near completion. There is some evidence for convergence of linkage findings across studies, but more data are needed to permit meta-analysis. Future directions will include more intensive, systematic study of linkage candidate regions and of the whole genome for genetic association; gene expression array studies; and larger-scale studies of gene-environment interactions and of depression-related endophenotypes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.08.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239101300002

    View details for PubMedID 16300747

  • Association analyses of the neuregulin 1 gene with schizophrenia and manic psychosis in a Hispanic population ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA Walss-Bass, C., Raventos, H., Monter, A. P., Armas, R., Dassori, A., Contreras, S., Liu, W., Medina, R., Levinson, D. F., PEREIRA, M., Leach, R. J., Almasy, L., Escamilla, M. A. 2006; 113 (4): 314-321


    This study used the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and phenotyping strategies alternative to DSMIV classifications to investigate the association of neuregulin 1 with schizophrenia.Using 134 family trios with a history of psychosis, we genotyped six of the seven markers originally identified to be associated with schizophrenia in Iceland.The neuregulin Icelandic haplotype was not associated with schizophrenia in the CVCR population. However, a novel haplotype was found to be overrepresented in subjects with functional psychosis (global P-value > 0.05). Stratification of the sample by history of mania suggests that this haplotype may be preferentially over-transmitted to persons with a history of manic psychosis.These results suggest that the neuregulin 1 gene is unlikely to play a major role in predisposing to schizophrenia in the CVCR. Further studies in the CVCR and other Latin American populations should be performed in order to corroborate these findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00631.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236474800009

    View details for PubMedID 16638076

  • Genomewide linkage scan of 409 European-ancestry and African American families with schizophrenia: Suggestive evidence of linkage at 8p23.3-p21.2 and 11p13.1-q14.1 in the combined sample AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Suarez, B. K., Duan, J. B., Sanders, A. R., Hinrichs, A. L., Jin, C. H., Hou, C. P., Buccola, N. G., Hale, N., Weilbaecher, A. N., Nertney, D. A., Olincy, A., Green, S., Schaffer, A. W., Smith, C. J., Hannah, D. E., RICE, J. P., Cox, N. J., Martinez, M., Mowry, B. J., Amin, F., Silverman, J. M., Black, D. W., Byerley, W. F., Crowe, R. R., Freedman, R., Cloninger, C. R., Levinson, D. F., Gejman, P. V. 2006; 78 (2): 315-333


    We report the clinical characteristics of a schizophrenia sample of 409 pedigrees--263 of European ancestry (EA) and 146 of African American ancestry (AA)--together with the results of a genome scan (with a simple tandem repeat polymorphism interval of 9 cM) and follow-up fine mapping. A family was required to have a proband with schizophrenia (SZ) and one or more siblings of the proband with SZ or schizoaffective disorder. Linkage analyses included 403 independent full-sibling affected sibling pairs (ASPs) (279 EA and 124 AA) and 100 all-possible half-sibling ASPs (15 EA and 85 AA). Nonparametric multipoint linkage analysis of all families detected two regions with suggestive evidence of linkage at 8p23.3-q12 and 11p11.2-q22.3 (empirical Z likelihood-ratio score [Z(lr)] threshold >/=2.65) and, in exploratory analyses, two other regions at 4p16.1-p15.32 in AA families and at 5p14.3-q11.2 in EA families. The most significant linkage peak was in chromosome 8p; its signal was mainly driven by the EA families. Z(lr) scores >2.0 in 8p were observed from 30.7 cM to 61.7 cM (Center for Inherited Disease Research map locations). The maximum evidence in the full sample was a multipoint Z(lr) of 3.25 (equivalent Kong-Cox LOD of 2.30) near D8S1771 (at 52 cM); there appeared to be two peaks, both telomeric to neuregulin 1 (NRG1). There is a paracentric inversion common in EA individuals within this region, the effect of which on the linkage evidence remains unknown in this and in other previously analyzed samples. Fine mapping of 8p did not significantly alter the significance or length of the peak. We also performed fine mapping of 4p16.3-p15.2, 5p15.2-q13.3, 10p15.3-p14, 10q25.3-q26.3, and 11p13-q23.3. The highest increase in Z(lr) scores was observed for 5p14.1-q12.1, where the maximum Z(lr) increased from 2.77 initially to 3.80 after fine mapping in the EA families.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236744900012

    View details for PubMedID 16400611

  • Is perinatal depression familial? JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Murphy-Eberenz, K., Zandi, P. P., March, D., Crowe, R. R., Scheftner, W. A., Alexander, M., McInnis, M. G., Coryell, W., Adams, P., DePaulo, J. R., Miller, E. B., Marta, D. H., Potash, J. B., PAYNE, J., Levison, D. F. 2006; 90 (1): 49-55


    While major depressive disorder (MDD) is familial, it is not clear whether distinct familial-genetic factors influence vulnerability to depression during or after pregnancy. Here we examine familial aggregation of perinatal major depression (PND, any episode during pregnancy or the month after childbirth) and the subset of post-partum depression (PPD) in families with multiple cases of recurrent, early-onset MDD from the Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression dataset.The dataset included 691 childbearing women who could be classified as PND (27.6%) or non-PND (NPND), of whom 328 were members of 148 sibships with two or more PND or NPND women. PND and NPND subjects were compared for differences in putative predictors. Prediction of sibling PND or PPD by the proband's history was examined using logistic regression and general estimating equation methods.PND was associated with fewer episodes and younger current age. Odds ratios for prediction of sibling status were significant for PND (2.28) and PPD (3.96), particularly when current age was under 46 (2.87 and 4.39, respectively). ORs for PPD were not significantly different from those for PND. The OR for PPD (3.52), but not for PND, remained significant after current age was introduced as a covariate, but not when both current age and number of episodes were included in the model.Because detailed data were not collected for all pregnancies, we cannot determine whether current age and number of episodes mediated the observed effects due to recall bias or other factors (cohort effect, number of episodes).A familial component to PND, and particularly PPD, is suggested by the results. However more systematic study is needed to confirm this result. A greater understanding of both genetic and non-genetic familial factors could lead to improved prevention and clinical management.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2005.10.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234931100008

    View details for PubMedID 16337009

  • The effect of linkage disequilibrium on linkage analysis of incomplete pedigrees 14th Genetic Analysis Workshop Levinson, D. F., Holmans, P. BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. 2005


    Dense SNP maps can be highly informative for linkage studies. But when parental genotypes are missing, multipoint linkage scores can be inflated in regions with substantial marker-marker linkage disequilibrium (LD). Such regions were observed in the Affymetrix SNP genotypes for the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW14) Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) dataset, providing an opportunity to test a novel simulation strategy for studying this problem. First, an inheritance vector (with or without linkage present) is simulated for each replicate, i.e., locations of recombinations and transmission of parental chromosomes are determined for each meiosis. Then, two sets of founder haplotypes are superimposed onto the inheritance vector: one set that is inferred from the actual data and which contains the pattern of LD; and one set created by randomly selecting parental alleles based on the known allele frequencies, with no correlation (LD) between markers. Applying this strategy to a map of 176 SNPs (66 Mb of chromosome 7) for 100 replicates of 116 sibling pairs, significant inflation of multipoint linkage scores was observed in regions of high LD when parental genotypes were set to missing, with no linkage present. Similar inflation was observed in analyses of the COGA data for these affected sib pairs with parental genotypes set to missing, but not after reducing the marker map until r2 between any pair of markers was

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2156-6-S1-S6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236103400006

    View details for PubMedID 16451672

  • GSMA: software implementation of the genome search meta-analysis method BIOINFORMATICS Pardi, F., Levinson, D. F., Lewis, C. M. 2005; 21 (24): 4430-4431


    Meta-analysis can be used to pool results of genome-wide linkage scans. This is of great value in complex diseases, where replication of linked regions occurs infrequently. The genome search meta-analysis (GSMA) method is widely used for this analysis, and a computer program is now available to implement the GSMA.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti725

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233849400022

    View details for PubMedID 16249265

  • Direct profiling of the cerebellum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: A methodological study in postnatal and adult mouse JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH Laurent, C., Levinson, D. F., Schwartz, S. A., Harrington, P. B., Markey, S. P., CAPRIOLI, R. M., Levitt, P. 2005; 81 (5): 613-621


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) can detect substantial changes in expression of proteins in tissues, such as cancer cells. A more challenging problem is detecting the smaller changes expected in normal development or complex diseases. Here we address methodological issues regarding the acquisition and analysis of MALDI MS data from tissue sections, in a study of mouse cerebellum at different stages of development. Sections of the cerebellar cortex were analyzed at the peak of granule neuron production [postnatal day (P) 7], during synapse formation (P14), and in adults. Data were acquired (Voyager-DEtrade mark STR Biospectrometry Workstation; seven acquisitions of 50 shots per section, 3.5-50 kDa), preprocessed (Data Explorer 4.3), and averaged. Among 846 peaks detected, in at least 50% of at least one group, 122 showed significant group differences (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA) after Bonferroni correction. Factor analyses revealed two age-related factors, possibly reflecting gradients of expression during development. Predictive analysis of microarrays generated a model from half of the sample that correctly predicted developmental groups for the second half. Intraclass correlation coefficients, measuring within-mouse consistency of peak heights from three tissue sections, were acceptable at lower m/z and for larger peaks at higher m/z. Low mass was the best predictor of significant group differences. The analysis demonstrates that MALDI MS of normal tissue sections at different ages can detect consistent, significant group differences. Further work is needed to increase the sensitivity of the methods and to apply them reliably to brain regions and to subproteomes with relevance to diverse brain functions and diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jnr.20590

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231580500002

    View details for PubMedID 16035104

  • Lithium and valproic acid treatments reduce PKC activation and receptor-G protein coupling in platelets of bipolar manic patients JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH Hahn, C. G., Umapathy, Wang, H. Y., Koneru, R., Levinson, D. F., Friedman, E. 2005; 39 (4): 355-363


    Dysregulated protein kinase C (PKC) distribution and activation, and abnormal receptor-G protein coupling, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder (BD). The therapeutic effectiveness of lithium has also been correlated with its ability to reduce PKC activation and G protein-mediated signaling. We examine the cellular distribution and activation of PKC and receptor-G protein coupling in blood platelets from normal controls, patients with BD mania or schizophrenia during treatment-free state, and after lithium or valproic acid administration. PKC activity was measured under basal and 50 nM phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), 1 microM serotonin or 0.5 U/ml thrombin-stimulated conditions. The coupling of G proteins to serotonin or thrombin receptors were assessed by serotonin or thrombin-mediated [35S]GTPgammaS binding to membrane Galpha proteins. The results demonstrate that membrane-associated PKC activity and stimulus-induced PKC translocation are increased in BD manic, whereas stimulus-elicited PKC translocation is attenuated in schizophrenic patients. Lithium and valproic acid treatments attenuated the stimulus-induced PKC translocations to a similar degree and decreased PKC activity in both cytosolic and membranous fractions after two weeks of drug administration. An increase in 5-HT or thrombin stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding to Galpha proteins was detected in BD manic but not in schizophrenic patients although basal [35S]GTPgammaS binding was not different across the diagnostic groups. Lithium and valproic acid treatments similarly reduced receptor-G protein coupling with comparable time courses. Thus, increased membrane-associated PKC, cytosol to membrane PKC translocation and receptor-G protein coupling in platelets of BD manic patients were alleviated by lithium or valproic acid treatments.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2004.10.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230295900003

    View details for PubMedID 16044535

  • Meta-analysis in psychiatric genetics. Current psychiatry reports Levinson, D. F. 2005; 7 (2): 143-151


    The article reviews literature on methods for meta-analysis of genetic linkage and association studies, and summarizes and comments on specific meta-analysis findings for psychiatric disorders. The Genome Scan Meta-Analysis and Multiple Scan Probability methods assess the evidence for linkage across studies. Multiple Scan Probability analysis suggested linkage of two chromosomal regions (13q and 22q) to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, whereas Genome Scan Meta-Analysis on a larger sample identified at least 10 schizophrenia linkage regions, but none for bipolar disorder. Meta-analyses of pooled ORs support association of schizophrenia to the Ser311Cys polymorphism in DRD2 and the T102C polymorphism in HTR2A, and of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to the 48-bp repeat in DRD4. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) may contribute to the risk of bipolar disorder, suicidal behavior, and neuroticism, but association to the lifetime risk of major depression has not been shown. Meta-analyses support linkage of schizophrenia to regions where replicable associations to candidate genes have been identified through positional cloning methods. There are additional supported regions where susceptibility genes are likely to be identified. Linkage meta-analysis has had less clear success for bipolar disorder based on a smaller dataset. Meta-analysis can guide the prioritization of regions for study, but proof of association requires biological confirmation of hypotheses about gene actions. Elucidation of causal mechanisms will require more comprehensive study of sequence variation in candidate genes, better statistical and meta-analytic methods to take all variation into account, and biological strategies for testing etiologic hypotheses.

    View details for PubMedID 15802092

  • Comparison of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellite markers for linkage analysis in the COGA and simulated data sets for genetic analysis workshop 14: Presentation groups 1, 2, and 3 14th Genetic Analysis Workshop Wilcox, M. A., Pugh, E. W., Zhang, H. P., Zhong, X. Y., Levinson, D. E., Kennedys, G. C., Wijsman, E. M. WILEY-LISS. 2005: S7–S28


    The papers in presentation groups 1-3 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW14) compared microsatellite (MS) markers and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for a variety of factors, using multiple methods in both data sets provided to GAW participants. Group 1 focused on data provided from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Group 2 focused on data simulated for the workshop. Group 3 contained analyses of both data sets. Issues examined included: information content, signal strength, localization of the signal, use of haplotype blocks, population structure, power, type I error, control of type I error, the effect of linkage disequilibrium, and computational challenges. There were several broad resulting observations. 1) Information content was higher for dense SNP marker panels than for MS panels, and dense SNP markers sets appeared to provide slightly higher linkage scores and slightly higher power to detect linkage than MS markers. 2) Dense SNP panels also gave higher type I errors, suggesting that increased test thresholds may be needed to maintain the correct error rate. 3) Dense SNP panels provided better trait localization, but only in the COGA data, in which the MS markers were relatively loosely spaced. 4) The strength of linkage signals did not vary with the density of SNP panels, once the marker density was approximately 1 SNP/cM. 5) Analyses with SNPs were computationally challenging, and identified areas where improvements in analysis tools will be necessary to make analysis practical for widespread use.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/gepi.20106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234502000002

    View details for PubMedID 16342186

  • Polymorphisms in the trace amine receptor 4 (TRAR4) gene on chromosome 6q23.2 are associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Duan, J. B., Martinez, M., Sanders, A. R., Hou, C. P., Saitou, N., Kitano, T., Mowry, B. J., Crowe, R. R., Silverman, J. M., Levinson, D. F., Gejman, P. V. 2004; 75 (4): 624-638


    Several linkage studies across multiple population groups provide convergent support for a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia--and, more recently, for bipolar disorder--on chromosome 6q13-q26. We genotyped 192 European-ancestry and African American (AA) pedigrees with schizophrenia from samples that previously showed linkage evidence to 6q13-q26, focusing on the MOXD1-STX7-TRARs gene cluster at 6q23.2, which contains a number of prime candidate genes for schizophrenia. Thirty-one screening single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected, providing a minimum coverage of at least 1 SNP/20 kb. The association observed with rs4305745 (P=.0014) within the TRAR4 (trace amine receptor 4) gene remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Evidence for association was proportionally stronger in the smaller AA sample. We performed database searches and sequenced genomic DNA in a 30-proband subsample to obtain a high-density map of 23 SNPs spanning 21.6 kb of this gene. Single-SNP analyses and also haplotype analyses revealed that rs4305745 and/or two other polymorphisms in perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs4305745 appear to be the most likely variants underlying the association of the TRAR4 region with schizophrenia. Comparative genomic analyses further revealed that rs4305745 and/or the associated polymorphisms in complete LD with rs4305745 could potentially affect gene expression. Moreover, RT-PCR studies of various human tissues, including brain, confirm that TRAR4 is preferentially expressed in those brain regions that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These data provide strong preliminary evidence that TRAR4 is a candidate gene for schizophrenia; replication is currently being attempted in additional clinical samples.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223634100008

    View details for PubMedID 15329799

  • Multicenter linkage study of schizophrenia loci on chromosome 22q MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY Mowry, B. J., Holmans, P. A., Pulver, A. E., GEJMAN, P. V., Riley, B., Williams, N. M., Laurent, C., Schwab, S. G., Wildenauer, D. B., Bauche, S., Owen, M. J., Wormley, B., Sanders, A. R., Nestadt, G., Liang, K. Y., Duan, J., Ribble, R., Norton, N., Soubigou, S., Maier, W., Ewen-White, K. R., deMarchi, N., Carpenter, B., Walsh, D., Williams, H., Jay, M., Albus, M., Nertney, D. A., Papadimitriou, G., O'Neill, A., O'Donovan, M. C., DeLeuze, J. F., Lerer, F. B., Dikeos, D., Kendler, K. S., Mallet, J., Silverman, J. M., Crowe, R. R., Levinson, D. F. 2004; 9 (8): 784-795


    The hypothesis of the existence of one or more schizophrenia susceptibility loci on chromosome 22q is supported by reports of genetic linkage and association, meta-analyses of linkage, and the observation of elevated risk for psychosis in people with velocardiofacial syndrome, caused by 22q11 microdeletions. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating 10 microsatellite markers spanning 22q in a multicenter sample of 779 pedigrees. We also incorporated age at onset and sex into the analysis as covariates. No significant evidence for linkage to schizophrenia or for linkage associated with earlier age at onset, gender, or heterogeneity across sites was observed. We interpret these findings to mean that the population-wide effects of putative 22q schizophrenia susceptibility loci are too weak to detect with linkage analysis even in large samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222851700006

    View details for PubMedID 15007391

  • Genomewide significant linkage to recurrent, early-onset major depressive disorder on chromosome 15q AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Holmans, P., Zubenko, G. S., Crowe, R. R., DePaulo, J. R., Scheftner, W. A., Weissman, M. M., Zubenko, W. N., Boutelle, S., Murphy-Eberenz, K., Mackinnon, D., McInnis, M. G., Marta, D. H., Adams, P., Knowles, J. A., Gladis, M., Thomas, J., Chellis, J., Miller, E., Levinson, D. F. 2004; 74 (6): 1154-1167


    A genome scan was performed on the first phase sample of the Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression (GenRED) project. The sample consisted of 297 informative families containing 415 independent affected sibling pairs (ASPs), or, counting all possible pairs, 685 informative affected relative pairs (555 ASPs and 130 other pair types). Affected cases had recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) with onset before age 31 years for probands or age 41 years for other affected relatives; the mean age at onset was 18.5 years, and the mean number of depressive episodes was 7.3. The Center for Inherited Disease Research genotyped 389 microsatellite markers (mean spacing of 9.3 cM). The primary linkage analysis considered allele sharing in all possible affected relative pairs with the use of the Z(lr) statistic computed by the ALLEGRO program. A secondary logistic regression analysis considered the effect of the sex of the pair as a covariate. Genomewide significant linkage was observed on chromosome 15q25.3-26.2 (Zlr=4.14, equivalent LOD = 3.73, empirical genomewide P=.023). The linkage was not sex specific. No other suggestive or significant results were observed in the primary analysis. The secondary analysis produced three regions of suggestive linkage, but these results should be interpreted cautiously because they depended primarily on the small subsample of 42 male-male pairs. Chromosome 15q25.3-26.2 deserves further study as a candidate region for susceptibility to MDD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221651900008

    View details for PubMedID 15108123

  • Examination of IMPA1 and IMPA2 genes in manic-depressive patients: association between IMPA2 promoter polymorphisms and bipolar disorder MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY Sjoholt, G., Ebstein, R. P., Lie, R. T., Berle, J. O., Mallet, J., DeLeuze, J. F., Levinson, D. F., Laurent, C., Mujahed, M., Bannoura, I., Murad, I., Molven, A., Steen, V. M. 2004; 9 (6): 621-629


    Manic-depressive (bipolar) illness is a serious psychiatric disorder with a strong genetic predisposition. The disorder is likely to be multifactorial and etiologically complex, and the causes of genetic susceptibility have been difficult to unveil. Lithium therapy is a widely used pharmacological treatment of manic-depressive illness, which both stabilizes the ongoing episodes and prevents relapses. A putative target of lithium treatment has been the inhibition of the myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) enzyme, which dephosphorylates myo-inositol monophosphate in the phosphatidylinositol signaling system. Two genes encoding human IMPases have so far been isolated, namely myo-inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1) on chromosome 8q21.13-21.3 and myo-inositol monophosphatase 2 (IMPA2) on chromosome 18p11.2. In the present study, we have scanned for DNA variants in the human IMPA1 and IMPA2 genes in a pilot sample of Norwegian manic-depressive patients, followed by examination of selected polymorphisms and haplotypes in a family-based bipolar sample of Palestinian Arab proband-parent trios. Intriguingly, two frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (-461C>T and -207T>C) in the IMPA2 promoter sequence and their corresponding haplotypes showed transmission disequilibrium in the Palestinian Arab trios. No association was found between the IMPA1 polymorphisms and bipolar disorder, neither with respect to disease susceptibility nor with variation in lithium treatment response. The association between manic-depressive illness and IMPA2 variants supports several reports on the linkage of bipolar disorder to chromosome 18p11.2, and sustains the possible role of IMPA2 as a susceptibility gene in bipolar disorder.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221664300013

    View details for PubMedID 14699425

  • Tumor necrosis factor haplotype analysis amongst schizophrenia probands from four distinct populations in the Asia-Pacific region AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART B-NEUROPSYCHIATRIC GENETICS Handoko, H. Y., Nancarrow, D. J., Hayward, N. K., Ohaeri, J. U., Aghanwa, H., McGrath, J. J., Levinson, D. F., Johns, C., Walters, M. K., Nertney, D. A., Srinivasan, T. N., Thara, R., Mowry, B. J. 2003; 121B (1): 1-6


    A single nucleotide polymorphism (TNF(-308A)) within the promoter region of the gene encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF), has been significantly associated with schizophrenia in a study of Italian patients and control subjects Boin et al. [2001: Mol Psychiatry 6:79-82]. We have applied case-control analyses to examine TNF promoter haplotypes (containing TNF(-308) and two additional promoter variants: TNF(-376) and TNF(-238)) in four schizophrenia cohorts drawn from Australian, Indian Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, and Brahmin populations. In addition, we have applied the sibling transmission disequilibrium (STD) test to promoter haplotypes within 81 trios drawn from Australian Caucasian pedigrees with multiple schizophrenia cases, and 86 trios drawn from the Brahmin population of Tamil Nadu province in Southern India. Within each of these cohorts, we found no evidence of recombination between these tightly linked promoter variants, supporting previous studies which demonstrated that only a subset of the eight possible haplotypes exist. Of the four observed haplotypes, we and others have observed only one carries the TNF(-308A) variant allele. We report no significant differences in TNF promoter haplotype frequencies between the patient and control groups within each population, although the Indian Fijian cohort showed a trend towards reduced TNF(-308A) alleles amongst schizophrenia cases (P = 0.07). We found no evidence of bias in TNF promoter haplotype transmission to schizophrenia probands. Very similar results were obtained when only the TNF(-308) polymorphism was considered. Taken together, these data provide no support for the involvement of TNF promoter variants TNF(-308), TNF(-376), and TNF(-238) in schizophrenia susceptibility within four ethnically distinct cohorts.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.b.20059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184548900001

    View details for PubMedID 12898567

  • Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part III: Bipolar disorder AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Segurado, R., Detera-Wadleigh, S. D., Levinson, D. F., Lewis, C. M., Gill, M., Nurnberg, J. I., Craddock, N., DePaulo, J. R., Baron, M., Gershon, E. S., Ekholm, J., Cichon, S., Turecki, G., Claes, S., Kelsoe, J. R., Schofield, P. R., Badenhop, R. F., Morissette, J., Coon, H., Blackwood, D., McInnes, L. A., Foroud, T., Edenberg, H. J., Reich, T., RICE, J. P., Goate, A., McInnis, M. G., McMahon, F. J., Badner, J. A., Goldin, L. R., Bennett, P., Willour, V. L., Zandi, P. P., Liu, J. J., Gilliam, C., Juo, S. H., Berrettini, W. H., Yoshikawa, T., Peltonen, L., Lonnqvist, J., Nothen, M. M., Schumacher, J., Windemuth, C., Rietschel, M., Propping, P., Maier, W., Alda, M., Grof, P., Rouleau, G. A., Del-Favero, J., Van Broeckhoven, C., Mendlewicz, J., Adolfsson, R., SPENCE, M. A., Luebbert, H., Adams, L. J., Donald, J. A., Mitchell, P. B., Barden, N., Shink, E., Byerley, W., Muir, W., Visscher, P. M., MacGregor, S., Gurling, H., Kalsi, G., McQuillin, A., Escamilla, M. A., Reus, V. I., LEON, P., Freimer, N. B., Ewald, H., Kruse, T. A., Mors, O., Radhakrishna, U., Blouin, J. L., Antonarakis, S. E., Akarsu, N. 2003; 73 (1): 49-62


    Genome scans of bipolar disorder (BPD) have not produced consistent evidence for linkage. The rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method was applied to 18 BPD genome scan data sets in an effort to identify regions with significant support for linkage in the combined data. The two primary analyses considered available linkage data for "very narrow" (i.e., BP-I and schizoaffective disorder-BP) and "narrow" (i.e., adding BP-II disorder) disease models, with the ranks weighted for sample size. A "broad" model (i.e., adding recurrent major depression) and unweighted analyses were also performed. No region achieved genomewide statistical significance by several simulation-based criteria. The most significant P values (<.01) were observed on chromosomes 9p22.3-21.1 (very narrow), 10q11.21-22.1 (very narrow), and 14q24.1-32.12 (narrow). Nominally significant P values were observed in adjacent bins on chromosomes 9p and 18p-q, across all three disease models on chromosomes 14q and 18p-q, and across two models on chromosome 8q. Relatively few BPD pedigrees have been studied under narrow disease models relative to the schizophrenia GSMA data set, which produced more significant results. There was no overlap of the highest-ranked regions for the two disorders. The present results for the very narrow model are promising but suggest that more and larger data sets are needed. Alternatively, linkage might be detected in certain populations or subsets of pedigrees. The narrow and broad data sets had considerable power, according to simulation studies, but did not produce more highly significant evidence for linkage. We note that meta-analysis can sometimes provide support for linkage but cannot disprove linkage in any candidate region.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183904900005

    View details for PubMedID 12802785

  • Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part II: Schizophrenia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Lewis, C. M., Levinson, D. F., Wise, L. H., DeLisi, L. E., Straub, R. E., Hovatta, I., Williams, N. M., Schwab, S. G., Pulver, A. E., Faraone, S. V., Brzustowicz, L. M., Kaufmann, C. A., Garver, D. L., Gurling, H. M., Lindholm, E., Coon, H., Moises, H. W., Byerley, W., Shaw, S. H., Mesen, A., Sherrington, R., O'Neill, F. A., Walsh, D., Kendler, K. S., Ekelund, J., Paunio, T., Lonnqvist, J., Peltonen, L., O'Donovan, M. C., Owen, M. J., Wildenauer, D. B., Maier, W., Nestadt, G., Blouin, J. L., Antonarakis, S. E., Mowry, B. J., Silverman, J. M., Crowe, R. R., Cloninger, C. R., Tsuang, M. T., Malaspina, D., Harkavy-Friedman, J. M., Svrakic, D. M., Bassett, A. S., Holcomb, J., Kalsi, G., McQuillin, A., Brynjolfson, J., Sigmundsson, T., Petursson, H., Jazin, E., Zoega, T., Helgason, T. 2003; 73 (1): 34-48


    Schizophrenia is a common disorder with high heritability and a 10-fold increase in risk to siblings of probands. Replication has been inconsistent for reports of significant genetic linkage. To assess evidence for linkage across studies, rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) was applied to data from 20 schizophrenia genome scans. Each marker for each scan was assigned to 1 of 120 30-cM bins, with the bins ranked by linkage scores (1 = most significant) and the ranks averaged across studies (R(avg)) and then weighted for sample size (N(sqrt)[affected casess]). A permutation test was used to compute the probability of observing, by chance, each bin's average rank (P(AvgRnk)) or of observing it for a bin with the same place (first, second, etc.) in the order of average ranks in each permutation (P(ord)). The GSMA produced significant genomewide evidence for linkage on chromosome 2q (PAvgRnk<.000417). Two aggregate criteria for linkage were also met (clusters of nominally significant P values that did not occur in 1,000 replicates of the entire data set with no linkage present): 12 consecutive bins with both P(AvgRnk) and P(ord)<.05, including regions of chromosomes 5q, 3p, 11q, 6p, 1q, 22q, 8p, 20q, and 14p, and 19 consecutive bins with P(ord)<.05, additionally including regions of chromosomes 16q, 18q, 10p, 15q, 6q, and 17q. There is greater consistency of linkage results across studies than has been previously recognized. The results suggest that some or all of these regions contain loci that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia in diverse populations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183904900004

    View details for PubMedID 12802786

  • Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, part I: Methods and power analysis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Levinson, D. F., Levinson, M. D., Segurado, R., Lewis, C. M. 2003; 73 (1): 17-33


    This is the first of three articles on a meta-analysis of genome scans of schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) that uses the rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method. Here we used simulation to determine the power of GSMA to detect linkage and to identify thresholds of significance. We simulated replicates resembling the SCZ data set (20 scans; 1,208 pedigrees) and two BPD data sets using very narrow (9 scans; 347 pedigrees) and narrow (14 scans; 512 pedigrees) diagnoses. Samples were approximated by sets of affected sibling pairs with incomplete parental data. Genotypes were simulated and nonparametric linkage (NPL) scores computed for 20 180-cM chromosomes, each containing six 30-cM bins, with three markers/bin (or two, for some scans). Genomes contained 0, 1, 5, or 10 linked loci, and we assumed relative risk to siblings (lambda(sibs)) values of 1.15, 1.2, 1.3, or 1.4. For each replicate, bins were ranked within-study by maximum NPL scores, and the ranks were averaged (R(avg)) across scans. Analyses were repeated with weighted ranks ((sqrt)N[genotyped cases] for each scan). Two P values were determined for each R(avg): P(AvgRnk) (the pointwise probability) and P(ord) (the probability, given the bin's place in the order of average ranks). GSMA detected linkage with power comparable to or greater than the underlying NPL scores. Weighting for sample size increased power. When no genomewide significant P values were observed, the presence of linkage could be inferred from the number of bins with nominally significant P(AvgRnk), P(ord), or (most powerfully) both. The results suggest that GSMA can detect linkage across multiple genome scans.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183904900003

    View details for PubMedID 12802787

  • Genetics of recurrent early-onset depression (GenRED): Design and preliminary clinical characteristics of a repository sample for genetic linkage studies AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART B-NEUROPSYCHIATRIC GENETICS Levinson, D. F., Zubenko, G. S., Crowe, R. R., DePaulo, R. J., Scheftner, W. S., Weissman, M. M., Holmans, P., Zubenko, W. N., Boutelle, S., Murphy-Eberenz, K., Mackinnon, D., McInnis, M. G., Marta, D. H., Adams, P., Sassoon, S., Knowles, J. A., Thomas, J., Chellis, J. 2003; 119B (1): 118-130


    This is an initial report on a six-site collaborative project, Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression (GenRED). This is a study of a large sample of families with recurrent major depressive disorder (DSM-IV) beginning by the age 30 in probands or 40 in relatives. Evidence suggests that early onset and recurrence of depressive episodes predict substantially increased risk of depression in first-degree relatives compared with the general population, suggesting that susceptibility genes might be mapped with this phenotype. The projected sample of 800-1,000 affected sibling pairs (ASPs) and other relatives will be studied using genome scan methods. Biological materials and blinded clinical data will be made available through the NIMH cell repository program. The sample should have good-to-excellent power to detect a locus associated with a 24% or greater population-wide increase in risk to siblings. We describe 838 affected individuals from the first 305 families containing 434 independent ASPs, or 613 ASPs counting all possible pairs. The mean age at the onset was 18.5 years, with a mean of 7.3 episodes and longest episode of 655 days. Almost all subjects had experienced at least 4 weeks of depression with five or more additional symptom criteria. Frequencies of symptoms and psychiatric and medical comorbid are provided. Substance use was more common in males, and panic disorder in females. Within pairs of affected siblings, correlations were significant for age at onset, substance abuse/dependence, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and nicotine initiation and persistence. We replicated previously reported associations among comorbid panic disorder and social phobia, chronicity of depression and suicidal behavior. This suggests comparability of our cases to those in earlier large family studies. This dataset should prove useful for genetic studies of a highly familial form of major depressive disorder.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.b.20009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182548100022

    View details for PubMedID 12707949

  • CAG repeat Polymorphisms in KCNN3 (HSKCa3) and PPP2R2B show no association or linkage to schizophrenia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART B-NEUROPSYCHIATRIC GENETICS Laurent, C., Niehaus, D., Bauche, S., Levinson, D. F., Soubigou, S., Pimstone, S., Hayden, M., Mbanga, I., Emsley, R., DeLeuze, J. F., Mallet, J. 2003; 116B (1): 45-50


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic linkage or association could be observed between schizophrenia (SZ) and the CAG repeat polymorphisms within the genes KCNN3 (known previously as hSKCa3) and PPP2R2B (linked to Spino-Cerebellar Atrophy 12) in the Xhosa population in South Africa. Neither locus has been studied previously in African populations. The polymorphisms were genotyped in 589 individuals to form samples for Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) analysis (176 unrelated probands, 145 with both parents and 30 with one parent genotyped), linkage analysis (49 families with 54 independent affected sib pairs [ASPs]), and case-control analyses (67 familial cases with a first-degree SZ relative, 101 sporadic cases with no affected first- or second-degree relative, and 90 control cases). No significant differences were found among familial cases, sporadic cases and controls in allele sizes (Kruskal-Wallis tests) or the numbers of alleles with sizes above and below the mean size for each polymorphism. Allele size was not correlated with age of onset (Spearman correlation). No significant evidence for association was observed using TDT analyses for all triads and separately for the familial triads. No significant evidence for linkage was observed for either locus with affected sib pair analysis using the possible triangle method or with Non-Parametric Linkage (NPL) analysis of the multiplex families. In conclusion, no significant evidence for linkage or association with SZ was observed for either polymorphism in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.b.10797

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182399800009

    View details for PubMedID 12497613

  • Polymorphisms in the 5 '-untranslated region of the human serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B) gene affect gene expression MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY Duan, J., Sanders, A. R., Vander Molen, J., Martinolich, L., Mowry, B. J., Levinson, D. F., Crowe, R. R., Silverman, J. M., GEJMAN, P. V. 2003; 8 (11): 901-910


    We present evidence of complex balancing regulation of HTR1B transcription by common polymorphisms in its promoter. Computational analysis of the HTR1B gene predicted that a 5' segment, spanning common DNA sequence variations, T-261G, A-161T, and -182INS/DEL-181, contained a putative functional promoter. Using a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene system, we found that the haplotype -261G_-182INS-181_A-161 enhanced transcriptional activity 2.3-fold compared with the haplotype T-261_-182INS-181_A-161. Conversely, -161T reversed this, and the net effect when -261G and -161T were in the same haplotype (-261G_-182INS-181_-161T) was equivalent to the major haplotype (T-261_-182INS-181_A-161). Electrophoretic mobility shift experiments showed that -261G and -161T modify the binding of transcription factors (TFs): -261G generates a new AP2 binding site, while alleles A-161 and -161T exhibit different binding characteristics to AP1. T-261G and A-161T were found to be in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with G861C in a European ancestry population. Interestingly, G861C has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric disorders. Our results indicate that HTR1B is the target of substantial transcriptional genetic regulation by common haplotypes, which are in LD with the HTR1B single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) most commonly used in association studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186453900004

    View details for PubMedID 14593427

  • No major schizophrenia locus detected on chromosome 1q in a large multicenter sample SCIENCE Levinson, D. F., Holmans, P. A., Laurent, C., Riley, B., Pulver, A. E., GEJMAN, P. V., Schwab, S. G., Williams, N. M., Owen, M. J., Wildenauer, D. B., Sanders, A. R., Nestadt, G., Mowry, B. J., Wormley, B., Bauche, S., Soubigou, S., Ribble, R., Nertney, D. A., Liang, K. Y., Martinolich, L., Maier, W., Norton, N., Williams, H., Albus, M., Carpenter, E. B., deMarchi, N., Ewen-White, K. R., Walsh, D., Jay, M., DeLeuze, J. F., O'Neill, F. A., Papadimitriou, G., Weilbaecher, A., Lerer, B., O'Donovan, M. C., Dikeos, D., Silverman, J. M., Kendler, K. S., Mallet, J., Crowe, R. R., Walters, M. 2002; 296 (5568): 739-741


    Reports of substantial evidence for genetic linkage of schizophrenia to chromosome 1q were evaluated by genotyping 16 DNA markers across 107 centimorgans of this chromosome in a multicenter sample of 779 informative schizophrenia pedigrees. No significant evidence was observed for such linkage, nor for heterogeneity in allele sharing among the eight individual samples. Separate analyses of European-origin families, recessive models of inheritance, and families with larger numbers of affected cases also failed to produce significant evidence for linkage. If schizophrenia susceptibility genes are present on chromosome 1q, their population-wide genetic effects are likely to be small.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175281700056

    View details for PubMedID 11976456

  • The Lifetime Dimensions of Psychosis Scale (LDPS): Description and interrater reliability SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN Levinson, D. F., Mowry, B. J., Escamilla, M. A., Faraone, S. V. 2002; 28 (4): 683-695


    A new rating scale, the Lifetime Dimensions of Psychosis Scale (LDPS), is described. The LDPS creates a profile of the lifetime characteristics of each case based on retrospective ratings, encompassing the positive, bizarre, negative, and disorganized symptom factors identified by previous studies of psychotic disorders, plus mood-related symptomatology, degree of deterioration, and complicating factors over the course of illness. A preliminary 39-item scale and instruction manual were developed. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for positive symptom and mood item total scores were 0.76 to 0.87 (mean of 0.70 for all items). Highly intercorrelated (tau-b coefficients) or unreliable items were eliminated to create the final 20-item version 2. Good-excellent reliability was observed in a second study using different raters. The LDPS is designed for use by experienced clinicians or researchers who have access to comprehensive clinical information, including semistructured diagnostic interviews, psychiatric records, and family history reports. Dimensional scores and multidimensional patterns might prove useful in studying the relationship of clinical phenotype to genotypes, treatment response, and other variables. They may also be useful in clinical practice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182910400009

    View details for PubMedID 12795498

  • Protecting the privacy of family members in research JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Levinson, D. F., Reich, T., Todd, R. D., Weissman, M. M., Crowe, R. R., Delisi, L., Faraone, S. V., Folstein, S., Pelias, M. K., Pulver, A. E., Silverman, J. M. 2001; 285 (15): 1960-1961

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167995900015

    View details for PubMedID 11308424

  • Genetic diversity of the human serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B) gene GENOMICS Sanders, A. R., Cao, Q. H., Taylor, J., Levin, T. E., Badner, J. A., Cravchik, A., Comeron, J. M., Naruya, S., del Rosario, A., Salvi, D. A., Walczyk, K. A., Mowry, B. J., Levinson, D. F., Crowe, R. R., Silverman, J. M., Gejman, P. V. 2001; 72 (1): 1-14


    We systematically and comprehensively investigated polymorphisms of the HTR1B gene as well as their linkage disequilibrium and ancestral relationships. We have detected the following polymorphisms in our sample via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, database comparisons, and/or previously published assays: G-511T, T-261G, -182INS/DEL-181, A-161T, C129T, T371G, T655C, C705T, G861C, A1099G, G1120A, and A1180G. The results of the intermarker analyses showed strong linkage disequilibrium between the C129T and the G861C polymorphisms and revealed four common haplotypes: ancestral (via chimpanzee comparisons), 129T/861C, -161T, and -182DEL-181. The results of association tests with schizophrenia were negative, although A-161T had a nominal P = 0.04 via ASPEX/sib_tdt. The expressed missense substitutions, Phe124Cys, Phe219Leu, Ile367Val, and Glu374Lys, could potentially affect ligand binding or interaction with G proteins and thus modify drug response in carriers of these variants. On average, the human cSNPs and differences among other primates clustered in the more thermodynamically unstable regions of the mRNA, which suggests that the evolutionary survival of nucleotide sequence variation may be influenced by the mRNA structure of this gene.

    View details for DOI 10.1006/geno.2000.6411

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167553700001

    View details for PubMedID 11247661

  • Simulation studies of detection of a complex disease in a partially isolated population AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS Levinson, D. F., Kirby, A., Slepner, S., Nolte, I., Spijker, G. T., te Meerman, G. 2001; 105 (1): 65-70


    Simulation studies were undertaken with POPGEN, a new population simulation program, to explore strategies for detecting loci underlying rare and common disorders in a small population that has been partially isolated for 10 generations. Haplotype-sharing analysis (HSA) and non-parametric linkage analysis (NPL) were applied to the simulated haplotype and pedigree data for 100 cases, 100 controls, and an average of 28 multiplex pedigrees from cases' families, for a 2-5 cM map of markers. When identity by descent (IBD) status was known (using unique founder marker allele designations assigned during simulation), a linkage disequilibrium (LD) signal could be detected under disease-generating models predicting relative risk to sibs of 11.8 (high-RR) or 2.67 (mod-RR). Detection was more difficult when marker alleles were down-coded to resemble microsatellites (heterozygosities 0.75-0.80). False-positive peaks on nondisease chromosomes were uncommon. NPL analysis was more powerful than HSA at this marker density using down-coded alleles and assuming availability of all affected relatives. LD mapping of common disorders is likely to require denser maps of highly polymorphic markers to approximate full IBD information. LD and linkage mapping provide independent information, and strategies that combine these two methods could be useful in studies of small isolated populations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166286300023

    View details for PubMedID 11425003

  • Haplotype sharing tests of linkage disequilibrium in a Hutterite asthma data set Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 (GAW12) Levinson, D. F., Nolte, I., Meerman, G. J. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2001: S308–S311


    The Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 genome scan data set for "strict" asthma in a Hutterite population was analyzed using haplotype sharing analysis (HSA), which tests for differences in mean length of haplotype sharing around each marker for pairs of chromosomes in cases versus controls. The regions of chromosome 1 and 8 where evidence for linkage was observed in published analyses were negative by HSA. HSA yielded positive results on chromosomes 7, 12, 16, 18, and 21 (p = 0.003 on 21q). Although there are reports of support for linkage to asthma in some of these regions, it is not known whether any represent true positives. Further study is needed of the possible role of length-based measures of linkage disequilibrium in recent population isolates.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171462700058

    View details for PubMedID 11793689

  • Introduction: Linkage disequilibrium and combined linkage and LD mapping of asthma-related genes GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY Levinson, D. F. 2001; 21: S290-S291

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171462700054

    View details for PubMedID 11793684

  • Evidence for linkage by transmission disequilibrium test analysis of a chromosome 22 microsatellite marker D22S278 and bipolar disorder in a Palestinian Arab population AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS Mujaheed, M., Corbex, M., Lichtenberg, P., Levinson, D. F., DeLeuze, J. F., Mallet, J., Ebstein, R. P. 2000; 96 (6): 836-838


    A number of linkage studies suggest a schizophrenia susceptibility locus on chromosome 22, particularly with microsatellite marker D22S278 (22q12). In addition to some evidence for linkage to schizophrenia in this region, linkage to bipolar disorder using this marker has also been reported. We tested a group of 60 Bipolar I triads and an expanded group of 79 Bipolar I and Bipolar II triads recruited from a Palestinian Arab population for linkage with the D22S278 marker. Significant linkage was observed using the extended transmission disequilibrium test for multiallelic markers (ETDT) for both Bipolar I (P = 0.031) and the expanded group of Bipolar I and Bipolar II (P = 0.041). These weakly positive results are at least consistent with the hypothesis that this region of chromosome 22 might harbor a susceptibility locus for both major psychoses and should be considered for more intensive study. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:836-838, 2000.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165717300028

    View details for PubMedID 11121192

  • Second stage of a genome scan of schizophrenia: Study of five positive regions in an expanded sample AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS Mowry, B. J., Ewen, K. R., Nancarrow, D. J., Lennon, D. P., Nertney, D. A., Jones, H. L., O'Brien, M. S., Thornley, C. E., Walters, M. K., Crowe, R. R., Silverman, J. M., Endicott, J., Sharpe, L., Hayward, N. K., Gladis, M. M., Foote, S. J., Levinson, D. F. 2000; 96 (6): 864-869


    In a previous genome scan of 43 schizophrenia pedigrees, nonparametric linkage (NPL) scores with empirically derived pointwise P-values less than 0.01 were observed in two regions (chromosomes 2q12-13 and 10q23) and less than 0.05 in three regions (4q22-23, 9q22, and 11q21). Markers with a mean spacing of about 5 cM were typed in these regions in an expanded sample of 71 pedigrees, and NPL analyses carried out. No region produced significant genomewide evidence for linkage. On chromosome 10q, the empirical P-value remained at less than 0.01 for the entire sample (D10S168), evidence in the original 43 pedigrees was slightly increased, and a broad peak of positive results was observed. P-values less than 0.05 were observed on chromosomes 2q (D2S436) and 4q (D4S2623), but not on chromosomes 9q or 11q. It is concluded that this sample is most supportive of linkage on chromosome 10q, with less consistent support on chromosomes 2q and 4q. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:864-869, 2000.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165717300035

    View details for PubMedID 11121199

  • Identification and analysis of error types in high-throughput genotyping AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Ewen, K. R., Bahlo, M., Treloar, S. A., Levinson, D. F., Mowry, B., Barlow, J. W., Foote, S. J. 2000; 67 (3): 727-736


    Although it is clear that errors in genotyping data can lead to severe errors in linkage analysis, there is as yet no consensus strategy for identification of genotyping errors. Strategies include comparison of duplicate samples, independent calling of alleles, and Mendelian-inheritance-error checking. This study aimed to develop a better understanding of error types associated with microsatellite genotyping, as a first step toward development of a rational error-detection strategy. Two microsatellite marker sets (a commercial genomewide set and a custom-designed fine-resolution mapping set) were used to generate 118,420 and 22,500 initial genotypes and 10,088 and 8,328 duplicates, respectively. Mendelian-inheritance errors were identified by PedManager software, and concordance was determined for the duplicate samples. Concordance checking identifies only human errors, whereas Mendelian-inheritance-error checking is capable of detection of additional errors, such as mutations and null alleles. Neither strategy is able to detect all errors. Inheritance checking of the commercial marker data identified that the results contained 0.13% human errors and 0.12% other errors (0.25% total error), whereas concordance checking found 0.16% human errors. Similarly, Mendelian-inheritance-error checking of the custom-set data identified 1.37% errors, compared with 2.38% human errors identified by concordance checking. A greater variety of error types were detected by Mendelian-inheritance-error checking than by duplication of samples or by independent reanalysis of gels. These data suggest that Mendelian-inheritance-error checking is a worthwhile strategy for both types of genotyping data, whereas fine-mapping studies benefit more from concordance checking than do studies using commercial marker data. Maximization of error identification increases the likelihood of linkage when complex diseases are analyzed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089002300018

    View details for PubMedID 10924406

  • Multicenter linkage study of schizophrenia candidate regions on chromosomes 5q, 6q, 10p, and 13q: Schizophrenia linkage collaborative group III AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Levinson, D. F., Holmans, P., Straub, R. E., Owen, M. J., Wildenauer, D. B., GEJMAN, P. V., Pulver, A. E., Laurent, C., Kendler, K. S., Walsh, D., Norton, N., Williams, N. M., Schwab, S. G., Lerer, B., Mowry, B. J., Sanders, A. R., Antonarakis, S. E., Blouin, J. L., DeLeuze, J. F., Mallet, J. 2000; 67 (3): 652-663


    Schizophrenia candidate regions 33-51 cM in length on chromosomes 5q, 6q, 10p, and 13q were investigated for genetic linkage with mapped markers with an average spacing of 5.64 cM. We studied 734 informative multiplex pedigrees (824 independent affected sibling pairs [ASPs], or 1,003 ASPs when all possible pairs are counted), which were collected in eight centers. Cases with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IIIR criteria) were considered affected (n=1,937). Data were analyzed with multipoint methods, including nonparametric linkage (NPL), ASP analysis using the possible-triangle method, and logistic-regression analysis of identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing in ASPs with sample as a covariate, in a test for intersample heterogeneity and for linkage with allowance for intersample heterogeneity. The data most supportive for linkage to schizophrenia were from chromosome 6q; logistic-regression analysis of linkage allowing for intersample heterogeneity produced an empirical P value <.0002 with, or P=.0004 without, inclusion of the sample that produced the first positive report in this region; the maximum NPL score in this region was 2.47 (P=.0046), the maximum LOD score (MLS) from ASP analysis was 3.10 (empirical P=.0036), and there was significant evidence for intersample heterogeneity (empirical P=.0038). More-modest support for linkage was observed for chromosome 10p, with logistic-regression analysis of linkage producing an empirical P=. 045 and with significant evidence for intersample heterogeneity (empirical P=.0096).

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089002300012

    View details for PubMedID 10924404

  • Is akathisia associated with poor clinical response to antipsychotics during acute hospital treatment? GENERAL HOSPITAL PSYCHIATRY Luthra, V., Pinninti, N. R., Yoder, K., Musthaq, M. S., Umapathy, C., Levinson, D. F. 2000; 22 (4): 276-280


    Previous studies have suggested that akathisia is associated with poor acute clinical response to antipsychotics and that low serum iron levels are associated with emergence of akathisia. To examine these relationships during routine clinical treatment, we studied patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder undergoing hospital treatment for acute psychotic exacerbations with doctor's choice medications. There were 34 subjects observed for at least 2 weeks. They were assessed at baseline and weekly by one rater with the Anchored Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and by another rater with the Barnes Rating Scale for akathisia, with the two raters blind to each other's ratings. Serum ferritin and transferrin levels were obtained at baseline. Seventeen subjects developed akathisia. Subjects with and without akathisia did not differ in change in thinking disturbance or anxiety-depression scores over 2 weeks, or in serum ferritin or transferrin levels. We conclude that mild akathisia by itself is not strongly associated with initial response to low to moderate doses of antipsychotics in the acute clinical setting. Limitations of the study are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088835200008

    View details for PubMedID 10936635

  • No support for linkage to the bipolar regions on chromosomes 4p, 18p, or 18q in 43 schizophrenia pedigrees AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS Nancarrow, D. J., Levinson, D. F., Taylor, J. M., Hayward, N. K., Walters, M. K., Lennon, D. P., Nertney, D. A., Jones, H. L., Mahtani, M. M., Kirby, A., Kruglyak, L., Brown, D. M., Crowe, R. R., Andreasen, N. C., Black, D. W., Silverman, J. M., Mohs, R. C., Siever, L. J., Endicott, J., Sharpe, L., Mowry, B. J. 2000; 96 (2): 224-227

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086176100019

    View details for PubMedID 10893501

  • Psychiatric adverse events during vigabatrin therapy NEUROLOGY Levinson, D. F., Devinsky, O. 1999; 53 (7): 1503-1511


    To determine the incidence of psychiatric adverse events associated with vigabatrin therapy, we reviewed data from US and non-US double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of vigabatrin as add-on therapy for treatment-refractory partial epilepsy."Verbatim" terms from investigators' reports had been translated into standard "preferred" terms using an adverse event dictionary. Terms for psychiatric events were then combined into categories for analysis of rates during vigabatrin versus placebo treatment.Compared with placebo, vigabatrin subjects had a higher incidence of events coded as depression (12.1% versus 3.5%, p < 0.001) and psychosis (2.5% versus 0.3%, p = 0.028); there were no significant differences between treatment groups for aggressive reaction, manic symptoms, agitation, emotional lability, anxiety, or suicide attempt. Although depression and psychosis were typically observed during the first 3 months, most studies were 12 to 18 weeks long, so that definitive conclusions could not be reached about timing of events. Psychosis was generally transient and reported to be responsive to reduction or discontinuation of vigabatrin or to neuroleptic treatment. Depression was typically mild. Serious depression, defined as discontinued from the study, hospitalized, or suicide attempt, or coded as psychotic depression, occurred in only 9 of the 49 vigabatrin-treated patients with depression.Vigabatrin use in treatment-refractory partial epilepsy is associated with increased occurrence of depression and of psychosis, although the frequency of psychosis is apparently lower than previously reported. Clinical experience suggests that these adverse events respond to reduction of vigabatrin dose or to counteractive psychotropic treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083180400023

    View details for PubMedID 10534259

  • Follow-up study on a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 6q AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS Martinez, M., Goldin, L. R., Cao, Q. H., Zhang, J., Sanders, A. R., Nancarrow, D. J., Taylor, J. M., Levinson, D. F., Kirby, A., Crowe, R. R., Andreasen, N. C., Black, D. W., Silverman, J. M., Lennon, D. P., Nertney, D. A., Brown, D. M., Mowry, B. J., Gershon, E. S., GEJMAN, P. V. 1999; 88 (4): 337-343


    Evidence for suggestive linkage to schizophrenia with chromosome 6q markers was previously reported from a two-stage approach. Using nonparametric affected sib pairs (ASP) methods, nominal p-values of 0.00018 and 0.00095 were obtained in the screening (81 ASPs; 63 independent) and the replication (109 ASPs; 87 independent) data sets, respectively. Here, we report a follow-up study of this 50cM 6q region using 12 microsatellite markers to test for linkage to schizophrenia. We increased the replication sample size by adding an independent sample of 43 multiplex pedigrees (66 ASPs; 54 independent). Pairwise and multipoint nonparametric linkage analyses conducted in this third data set showed evidence consistent with excess sharing in this 6q region, though the statistical level is weaker (p=0.013). When combining both replication data sets (total of 141 independent ASPs), an overall nominal p-value=0.000014 (LOD=3. 82) was obtained. The sibling recurrence risk (lambdas) attributed to this putative 6q susceptibility locus is estimated to be 1.92. The linkage region could not be narrowed down since LOD score values greater than three were observed within a 13cM region. The length of this region was only slightly reduced (12cM) when using the total sample of independent ASPs (204) obtained from all three data sets. This suggests that very large sample sizes may be needed to narrow down this region by ASP linkage methods. Study of the etiological candidate genes in this region is ongoing.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081581400009

    View details for PubMedID 10402499

  • Treatment of schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia with mood symptoms AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Levinson, D. F., Umapathy, C., Musthaq, M. 1999; 156 (8): 1138-1148


    Patients with concurrent schizophrenic and mood symptoms are often treated with antipsychotics plus antidepressant or thymoleptic drugs. The authors review the literature on treatment of two overlapping groups of patients: those with schizoaffective disorder and those with schizophrenia and concurrent mood symptoms.MEDLINE searches (from 1976 onward) were undertaken to identify treatment studies of both groups, and references in these reports were checked. Selection of studies for review was based on the use of specified diagnostic criteria and of parallel-group, double-blind design (or, where few such studies addressed a particular issue, large open studies). A total of 18 treatment studies of schizoaffective disorder and 15 of schizophrenia with mood symptoms were selected for review.For acute exacerbations of schizoaffective disorder or of schizophrenia with mood symptoms, antipsychotics appeared to be as effective as combination treatments, and there was some evidence for superior efficacy of atypical antipsychotics. There was evidence supporting adjunctive antidepressant treatment for schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients who develop a major depressive syndrome after remission of acute psychosis, but there were mixed results for treatment of subsyndromal depression. There was little evidence to support adjunctive lithium for depressive symptoms and no evidence concerning its use for manic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.Empirical data suggest that both groups of patients are best treated by optimizing antipsychotic treatment and that atypical antipsychotics may prove to be most effective. Adjunctive antidepressants may be useful for patients with major depression who are not acutely ill. Careful longitudinal assessment is required to ensure identification of primary mood disorders.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081923300003

    View details for PubMedID 10450252

  • Burden and well-being of caregivers for the severely mentally ill: the role of coping style and social support SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH Webb, C., Pfeiffer, M., Mueser, K. T., Gladis, M., Mensch, E., DeGirolamo, J., Levinson, D. F. 1998; 34 (3): 169-180


    Caregivers of persons with severe mental illness often experience a significant burden in coping with patients' symptoms. Several factors have been hypothesized to mediate the impact of caring for a mentally ill relative, including cognitive appraisal, coping strategies, and social support. The present study examined the relationships between these factors, and subjective burden and well-being in caregivers of persons with a severe mental illness. Higher levels of subjective burden were related to (1) greater perceived frequency of positive and negative symptom behaviors, (2) a tendency to use problem-focused oriented coping for dealing with negative symptom behaviors, and (3) a tendency not to use problem-solving oriented coping for dealing with positive symptom behaviors. Well-being was also related to lower perceived frequency of positive symptom behaviors and social support, but not to coping style. The implications of the findings for interventions designed to reduce caregiver subjective burden are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077100500006

    View details for PubMedID 9850983

  • Chromosome 22 workshop. Psychiatric genetics Levinson, D. F., Coon, H. 1998; 8 (2): 115-120

    View details for PubMedID 9686434

  • Genome scan of schizophrenia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Levinson, D. F., Mahtani, M. M., Nancarrow, D. J., Brown, D. M., Kruglyak, L., Kirby, A., Hayward, N. K., Crowe, R. R., Andreasen, N. C., Black, D. W., Silverman, J. M., Endicott, J., Sharpe, L., Mohs, R. C., Siever, L. J., Walters, M. K., Lennon, D. P., Jones, H. L., Nertney, D. A., Daly, M. J., Gladis, M., Mowry, B. J. 1998; 155 (6): 741-750


    The goal of this study was to identify chromosomal regions likely to contain schizophrenia susceptibility genes.A genomewide map of 310 microsatellite DNA markers with average spacing of 11 centimorgans was genotyped in 269 individuals--126 of them with schizophrenia-related psychoses--from 43 pedigrees. Nonparametric linkage analysis was used to assess the pattern of allele sharing at each marker locus relative to the presence of disease.Nonparametric linkage scores did not reach a genomewide level of statistical significance for any marker. There were five chromosomal regions in which empirically derived p values reached nominal levels of significance at eight marker locations. There were p values less than 0.01 at chromosomes 2q (with the peak value in this region at D2S410) and 10q (D10S1239), and there were p values less than 0.05 at chromosomes 4q (D4S2623), 9q (D9S257), and 11q (D11S2002).The results do not support the hypothesis that a single gene causes a large increase in the risk of schizophrenia. The sample (like most others being studied for psychiatric disorders) has limited power to detect genes of small effect or those that are determinants of risk in a small proportion of families. All of the most positive results could be due to chance, or some could reflect weak linkage (genes of small effect). Multicenter studies may be useful in the effort to identify chromosomal regions most likely to contain schizophrenia susceptibility genes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073952700006

    View details for PubMedID 9619145

  • The molecular genetics of schizophrenia: an update AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Mowry, B. J., Nancarrow, D. J., Levinson, D. F. 1997; 31 (5): 704-713


    This paper aims to summarise the latest molecular genetic findings in schizophrenia, while providing background information on a number of relevant methodological issues.Accumulative genetic data indicate that schizophrenia is a genetically complex disease with an unclear mode of transmission. The development and rapid progression of molecular genetics have provided a wide variety of methods to search for genes predisposing to human disease. The genetic basis for a number of the simpler diseases has been identified and characterised using these methods. More recently, progress has been made in identifying genes predisposing to the genetically more complex diseases such as diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.The latest findings on chromosomes 3, 6, 8, 13, 18 and 22 and on the X chromosome are reviewed.There is now suggestive support for three susceptibility loci (6p24-22, 8p22-21 and 22q12-q13.1) for schizophrenia, and it is likely that other regions will emerge from studies now in progress. Finding and then characterising genes within these loci will require long-term commitment and systematic efforts in clinical, laboratory and analytical fields.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YC40500012

    View details for PubMedID 9400877

  • A linkage study of schizophrenia to markers within Xp11 near the MAOB gene. Psychiatry research Dann, J., DeLisi, L. E., Devoto, M., Laval, S., Nancarrow, D. J., Shields, G., Smith, A., Loftus, J., Peterson, P., Vita, A., Comazzi, M., Invernizzi, G., Levinson, D. F., Wildenauer, D., Mowry, B. J., Collier, D., Powell, J., Crowe, R. R., Andreasen, N. C., Silverman, J. M., Mohs, R. C., Murray, R. M., Walters, M. K., Lennon, D. P., Crow, T. J. 1997; 70 (3): 131-143


    A sex chromosome locus for psychosis has been considered on the basis of some sex differences in genetic risk and expression of illness, and an association with X-chromosome anomalies. Previous molecular genetic studies produced weak evidence for linkage of schizophrenia to the proximal short arm of the X-chromosome, while some other regions were not ruled out. Here we report an attempt to expand the Xp findings in: (i) a multicenter collaboration focusing on 92 families with a maternal pattern of inheritance (Study I), and (ii) an independent sample of 34 families unselected for parental mode of transmission (Study II). In the multicenter study, a parametric analysis resulted in positive lod scores (highest of 1.97 for dominant and 1.19 for recessive inheritance at a theta of 0.20) for locus DXS7, with scores below 0.50 for other markers in this region (MAOB, DXS228, and ARAF1). Significant allele sharing among affected sibling pairs was present at DXS7. In the second study, positive lod scores were observed at MAOB (highest of 2.16 at a theta of 0.05 for dominant and 1.64 at a theta of 0.00 for recessive models) and ALAS2 (the highest of 1.36 at a theta of 0.05 for a recessive model), with significant allele sharing (P = 0.003 and 0.01, respectively) at these two loci. These five markers are mapped within a small region of Xp11. Thus, although substantial regions of the X-chromosome have been investigated without evidence for linkage being found, a locus predisposing to schizophrenia in the proximal short arm of the X-chromosome is not excluded.

    View details for PubMedID 9211575

  • Pragmatics and statistics in psychiatric genetics AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS Levinson, D. F. 1997; 74 (2): 220-222

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WV79700024

    View details for PubMedID 9129731

  • Linkage analysis of complex disorders with multiple phenotypic categories: Simulation studies and application to bipolar disorder data Genetic Analysis Workshop 10 (GAW10) Levinson, D. F. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 1997: 653–58


    The problem of linkage analysis of disorders with multiple possible phenotypes (diagnostic spectrum) is considered. A modification is proposed to Ott's [1994] method of down-weighting the contribution of broader diagnoses by reducing penetrance ratios for affected cases. A "robust weighting" strategy considers only the robustness of a set of ratios across a range of true genetic models. Practical models for lod-score analysis will typically employ a high penetrance ratio (> 10) for "core" cases, and ratios between 2 and 5 for broader cases. Results suggest that an additive parametric analysis correlates highly with dominant, recessive and nonparametric linkage (NPL) analyses. A weighted, additive model is then applied to a modified NIMH bipolar chromosome 18 data set (Genetic Analysis Workshop 10) and compared with NPL analyses under narrow and broad diagnostic models. The weighted model performed well. The introduction of similar weights into nonparametric analyses may prove more useful.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071121800018

    View details for PubMedID 9433558

  • Family burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Perceptions of relatives and professionals PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES Mueser, K. T., Webb, C., Pfeiffer, M., Gladis, M., Levinson, D. F. 1996; 47 (5): 507-511


    The study compared the burden that specific problem behaviors of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder placed on relatives and evaluated the accuracy of mental health professionals' judgment of the burden.A questionnaire was developed to assess the burden of 20 common problem behaviors associated with manic, positive, and negative symptoms. The questionnaire was given to 48 relatives of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In addition, 39 mental health professionals completed separate questionnaires indicating the amount of burden they believed relatives experienced due to these behaviors.Relatives of patients with bipolar disorder rated manic symptoms as more burdensome than did relatives of patients with schizophrenia, but relatives of patients in the two groups did not differ in their ratings of burden associated with positive or negative symptoms. Professionals' perceptions of the burden associated with manic symptoms were relatively accurate, but they tended to underestimate the burden of positive and negative symptoms experienced by relative of patients with bipolar disorder.Psychiatric diagnosis may be of limited value in understanding the burden relatives experience due to specific psychiatric symptoms. Professionals are encouraged to assess the burden that is associated with specific problem behaviors regardless of psychiatric diagnosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UJ28500011

    View details for PubMedID 8740492

  • Penetrance of schizophrenia-related disorders in multiplex families after correction for ascertainment GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY Levinson, D. F., Mowry, B. J., Sharpe, L., Endicott, J. 1996; 13 (1): 11-21


    Penetrance of schizophrenia and related disorders was calculated in 27 multiplex pedigrees ascertained by a consistent set of screening and selection criteria. The rationale for the study was that single major locus linkage models are frequently used on a pragmatic basis to analyze data for schizophrenia which is most likely to have a polygenic mechanism. Penetrance estimates assuming Mendelian inheritance represent maximum values and thus can provide guidance for construction of appropriate linkage models. Four diagnostic models were considered: narrow (schizophrenia and chronic schizoaffective disorder), intermediate (including other non-affective psychoses), broad (including schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders), and broad + suspected (including suspected schizophrenia spectrum disorders). Penetrance was calculated in the youngest affected adult sibship, under both dominant and recessive inheritance assumptions, either without correction, or with a correction that excluded individuals necessary to meet pedigree selection criteria. Without correction, penetrance values ranged from 0.70 to 0.90 assuming dominant and 1.0 to > 1.0 assuming recessive inheritance. After correction, the ranges were 0.30-0.51 for dominant and 0.47-0.59 for recessive models. The corrected values are likely to be overestimates given that the penetrance of any one locus in a multilocus model must be lower. It is suggested that lod score analyses of schizophrenia should attempt to derive information primarily from affected diagnoses, because information derived from unaffecteds under high penetrance models is likely to be spurious.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TY22700002

    View details for PubMedID 8647375



    The authors sought to determine whether fluphenazine dose or plasma level predicts clinical improvement or side effects during acute treatment.Oral fluphenazine was given in fixed, randomized, double-blind doses (10, 20, or 30 mg/day) for 4 weeks to 72 inpatients with acute schizophrenic exacerbations. Outcome measures included percentage improvement in ratings of positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder), percentage improvement in negative symptoms, and maximum score for extrapyramidal symptoms. Response was defined as an improvement in positive symptoms of 40% or more.The 42 responders had a shorter duration of illness, less chronic course, and lower rate of akathisia. Plasma level and dose did not differentiate responders and nonresponders, but they did predict percentage improvement in positive symptoms within the responder subgroup. Akathisia was more common and extrapyramidal symptoms were more severe at higher plasma levels.Responders showed the greatest improvement at fluphenazine plasma levels above 1.0 ng/ml and doses above 0.20-0.25 mg/kg per day. Since the literature suggests that optimal plasma levels are similar during acute and maintenance treatment, monitoring of plasma levels may thus be useful. Conditions for applying the "responder-only" analytic strategy in future studies are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QV32400016

    View details for PubMedID 7726317

  • Detection of vulnerability loci by association and sib-pair methods Genetic Analysis Workshop 9 - Analysis of Complex Oligogenic Traits (GAW9) Levinson, D. F. WILEY-LISS. 1995: 631–35


    A haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) analysis of simulated data for 200 affected offspring and their parents (Genetic Analysis Workshop 9, Problem 1) detected linkage disequilibrium at 2 of 360 marker loci. An additive model was suggested but not proven by haplotypes of affected vs. unaffected offspring. These findings were consistent with the generating model. Affected sib pair analysis failed to detect additional loci. Discussion among workshop participants suggested that the chi-square test used here (2 [transmitted vs. nontransmitted] x n [alleles] for each locus) was invalid because of the nonindependence of proportions of transmitted alleles. In post-workshop analyses, transmission disequilibrium tests (TDTs) for each allele at each locus detected only the true associations if p values were corrected by one of two methods: Bonferroni correction for 2,035 TDTs, or correcting each test for n (number of tests at the locus) minus 1 and then for the number of loci tested. Screening loci for linkage disequilibrium requires careful attention to correction for multiple comparisons.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TP13700016

    View details for PubMedID 8787985



    Family studies of schizophrenia frequently include relatives of schizophrenia probands with diagnoses falling within the schizophrenia spectrum. As part of an ongoing genetic linkage study of schizophrenia, the authors examined case material from 50 relatives (of schizophrenia probands) who received a DSM-III-R diagnosis of a nonaffective psychotic disorder or schizotypal or paranoid personality disorder. Eleven exhibited episodic or chronic delusions that resulted in diagnostic dilemmas, often arising from issues pertaining to the classification of delusional phenomena. Four of these cases are presented here. Unusual beliefs were often difficult to classify as odd beliefs versus full delusions, brief/transient versus persistent delusions, bizarre versus non-bizarre delusions. It is suggested that these might be considered continuous rather than dichotomous dimensions. Several possible implications for genetic studies of schizophrenia are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PW03300012

    View details for PubMedID 7701280



    This review considers the possible familial relationship of schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders (SPD, PPD) to schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective disorders (AD). There have been few controlled studies on familial risk of SPD and PPD based on direct semi-structured interviews of relatives, blind to proband diagnosis. Three of six studies reported increased familial risk of SPD for SCZ probands, but with considerable variability in estimates of this risk. None of four studies reported a significant relationship between AD and familial SPD. There is substantial but less consistent evidence for a familial relationship between PPD and SCZ: three of six studies supported such a relationship, but one large study reported increased familial risk of PPD for AD and not for SCZ probands. There is also some evidence that negative symptoms are most characteristic of SPD in relatives of SCZ probands. Also discussed are issues concerning the adequacy of current criteria for defining schizophrenia spectrum pathology, and of diagnostic methods in this area.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MJ76600011

    View details for PubMedID 8297808



    It is widely acknowledged that the genetic diatheses for schizophrenia and affective disorders are independent. However, there are increasing doubts about this classic view, and empirical evidence for a dichotomy of these two prototypes of functional psychoses is limited. A controlled family study of consecutive admissions was conducted to determine whether familial risks for schizophrenic (SCZ) and affective disorders were independent or overlapping.Index probands met Research Diagnostic Criteria for SCZ (n = 146), schizoaffective (SA [n = 115]), bipolar (BP [n = 80]), or unipolar major depressive (UP [n = 184]) disorder. Comparison probands met Research Diagnostic Criteria for alcoholism (n = 64) or were sampled from the general population (n = 109). A total of 2845 first-degree relatives were blindly diagnosed from interview, informant, and/or record data, with direct interviews completed in 2070 (82% of living first-degree relatives).By Cox's proportional hazards analysis, SCZ, SA, BP, and UP disorders were familial, in that each group of relatives had an increased lifetime morbid risk (vs those with alcoholism and those from the general population) for the proband's diagnosis. The SCZ and BP disorders were transmitted independently: only probands with manic disorders (BP or SA-BP subtype) showed increased familial risks of BP disorder, and only probands with prominent SCZ features (SCZ or SA) showed increased familial risks of SCZ disorder. However, SCZ probands had an increased familial risk for UP disorder (as did SA, BP, and UP probands) and for the SA-UP subtype. Aggregation of depression in families of SCZ probands could not be explained by the subtype of depression, broad or narrow definition of SCZ disorder, presence or absence of history of depression in SCZ probands, whether onset of depression in a relative occurred before or after onset of a proband's SCZ disorder, or assortative mating.These data suggest that there could be a familial relationship between the predispositions to schizophrenia and to major depression. We discuss a number of alternative hypotheses about the nature of this possible relationship.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MG30600004

    View details for PubMedID 8215813



    Computer simulation methods were used to investigate the power of genetically homogeneous or heterogeneous samples of nuclear families to detect linkage of a rare dominant disease allele to flanking DNA markers (three-point analysis, admixture text). Phase was assumed to be unknown (no grandparents available), and unaffected siblings were not considered. A sample of 95 families with an ill parent and two ill offspring, or 45 families with three ill offspring, demonstrated 90% power to detect a lod score of 3.0 when 50% of families were assumed to be segregating for a disease allele located midway between two DNA markers (PIC = .70) that were .05 M apart. When the proportion of linked families (alpha) = .25, 90% power required 380 and 160 families, respectively. For alpha < .25, samples size requirements become prohibitive. Issues are reviewed concerning the use of the admixture test in the case of more complex disease models. Screening of the genome with adequate sample sizes for low values of alpha is likely to require multiple large collaborative efforts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LP02700007

    View details for PubMedID 8362931



    Family, twin and adoption studies have shown that familial clustering in schizophrenia is predominantly due to genetic factors. On the basis of segregation analyses of the illness distribution in relatives of patients, various models of the mode of transmission have been put forward but as yet there is no consensus. Linkage analysis based on molecular genetic techniques provides a more direct approach to discovering precisely what is inherited (one gene, a small number of genes or many genes?) that generates vulnerability to schizophrenia. To date there has been no sufficiently replicated finding of one or more linked genes and many methodological complexities remain. However, the rate of progress in addressing these issues gives hope that genetic linkage analysis of schizophrenia will provide some answers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LM59300003

    View details for PubMedID 8363530



    1. The neuroleptic malignant syndrome was initially described as a disorder specifically related to neuroleptic usage with frequent fatal outcome. The observations of variant or mild cases of this syndrome as well as case reports on neuroleptic-malignant-like syndromes in the absence of neuroleptics raises the issue of the usefulness of this terminology and highlights the potential for inappropriate management of this "malignant" syndrome. It has been suggested that hypothalamic thermoregulatory responses may involve an interplay among noradrenergic, cholinergic and serotonergic pathways. Out treatment strategy is based on the pharmacology of neuroleptics and empirical data, verified in our own clinical practice and considers that it is often difficult to determine whether certain physiologic states are a consequence to or specific triggering factors. 2. If a patient's temperature is less than 101, we emphasize vigorous treatment with anticholinergic agents, while simultaneously assessing the psychiatric need for neuroleptics versus medical risks. Given that the severe rigidity of NMS represents severe extrapyramidal effects of dopamine blockade, there is no reason to withhold anticholinergics in the absence of higher temperatures. Neuroleptics can be stopped at the discretion of the clinician even during circumstances when there is fever below 101. 3. In cases of severe EPS with fever greater than or equal to 101, we recommend stopping neuroleptics, treating with anticholinergics and starting with dopamine agonists. In the event of a poor response to dopamine agonists, a brief trial of dantrolene and/or benzodiazepines is recommended. Dantrolene should not be introduced for prolonged periods, since abnormal liver function studies have been observed in approximately 1.8% of patients. 4. In cases of extreme hyperpyrexia (fever greater than 103), clinicians should consider transfer to an ICU or another medical support. Extreme temperatures have been associated with potentially irreversible cerebellar or other brain damage, if not aggressively treated. If neuroleptics are later indicated, a 2 week interval after resolution of symptoms should be maintained before reinstituting neuroleptics. 5. In patients with severe EPS without fever, we emphasize aggressive use of anticholinergic therapy, while simultaneously considering the psychiatric need for neuroleptics versus medical risks. In all cases where a patient's swallowing, respirations or physical mobility is severely compromised, we suggest stopping neuroleptics. Anticholinergic agents should be continued for 7 days after neuroleptics are stopped. If anticholinergic agents are unsuccessful after 2-3 dosages, dopamine agonists may be added, while simultaneously monitoring vital signs. It should be emphasized that severe EPS sometimes takes days to improve even after neuroleptic cessation and the addition of anticholinergics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HY86500001

    View details for PubMedID 1641490



    The time course of clinical improvement was studied in 41 schizophrenic and schizoaffective acute in-patients treated for 28 days with 10, 20 or 30 mg/day of oral fluphenazine hydrochloride in a double-blind, randomised study. Significant improvement was seen in the four BPRS factors: thinking disturbance, hostile-suspiciousness, withdrawal-retardation and anxious depression. The first two of these factors were improved by day 5. Significant improvement was seen up to day 22 for three of the four factors, but without significant improvement during the last week (although scores continued to drop). The half of the sample showing greater overall improvement did not improve faster than the sample as a whole. These more improved subjects did not differ significantly from the less improved subjects in the thinking disturbance factor until day 15, suggesting that at least a two-week neuroleptic trial would be necessary to begin to differentiate more and less responsive patients. The longer-term course of improvement cannot be determined from these data. The withdrawal-retardation and anxious depression factors showed their greatest improvement later than the 'positive' symptom factors, suggesting that the former may improve as a result of change in the latter.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HJ10300009

    View details for PubMedID 1562863



    In an evaluation of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) as a marker for schizophrenia, skin conductance (SC) activity was studied in 36 Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) schizophrenic (SCZ), 17 schizoaffective--mainly schizophrenic (SA), 24 depressed (DEP), and 25 psychiatrically well control (CONT) subjects. All subjects were unmedicated. Data are presented from four paradigms: a series of 1 s 70 dB tones in a no-task habituation paradigm; a similar series of 103 dB tones; a series of tones with a button-press (reaction time) task; and a loud white noise stimulus (without task). The proportion of SCOR nonresponse to the first 70 dB tone was 39% for SCZ, 82% for SA, 46% for DEP, and 36% for CONT subjects; the response rate for SA subjects was significantly lower than for all other groups. The CONT group was less responsive than in most previous studies. SCZ subjects did not show increased responsivity to more intense and to task-relevant stimuli, although SA subjects did show such increases. DEP subjects showed some evidence of autonomic hyperarousal (higher tonic SC level, trend toward more spontaneous SC responses). The overall pattern of results does not support SCOR to neutral, moderate-intensity tones as a specific marker for schizophrenia, although there was some evidence for a generalized decrease in autonomic responsivity to stimuli.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GH68900003

    View details for PubMedID 1683584



    The literature on the pharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders is reviewed (116 references). All clinically active antipsychotic drugs share the ability to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the central nervous system. Their potencies vary, chlorpromazine and thioridazine being the least potent and fluphenazine and haloperidol the most potent. The adverse effects of the neuroleptics include acute dystonia, parkinsonian symptoms (extrapyramidal symptoms), akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, and tardive dystonia. When used at equipotent doses, all classic neuroleptics now available are equally effective in the treatment of schizophrenia. Choice of drug is based on adverse effects and patient response. The neuroleptics are effective in most acute exacerbations of schizophrenia and for the prevention or mitigation of relapse. Their effects are more pronounced on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking, and paranoia, than on the negative symptoms, such as deficits in social interaction, emotional expression, and motivation. Strategies for acute and maintenance treatment and for the management of treatment-resistant patients are reviewed. The pharmacology and clinical use of the newer atypical neuroleptics, particularly clozapine, and their adverse effects are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FV21200001

    View details for PubMedID 1683269



    Genetic linkage studies of schizophrenia depend on accurate psychiatric diagnosis of relatives within multiply affected families. Each investigator makes a series of explicit or implicit decisions to define which relatives will be assumed to share a schizophrenia-related genotype, that is, who is an "affected relative." In this article we delineate issues that we believe should be considered in such studies and review the relevant literature. Issues include criteria for selecting probands; whether broader criteria should be used to select affected relatives; approaches to including or excluding diagnoses for which family study data suggest a relationship to schizophrenia or to affective disorders or other psychiatric disorders; clarification of diagnostic hierarchy; and issues related to substance abuse and neurological disorders. Also discussed are whether relatives without spectrum diagnoses should be considered unaffected or undiagnosed in linkage analyses, how bilateral familial affectedness should be defined, and provision for independent review of study diagnoses. As an illustration, the clinical model for the authors' schizophrenia linkage study is described.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GF46700019

    View details for PubMedID 1947874



    Eighty-six patients with acute psychotic exacerbations were treated with fixed dosage regimens of oral fluphenazine up to 10-30 mg/day in randomized, double-blind studies. Dystonic reactions occurred in 33.8% of the subjects at risk. Of these, 58% occurred by the third day, 88% by the fourth day, and 100% by the ninth day of treatment; most occurred later in the interdose interval. Significant predictors of dystonic reactions were higher fluphenazine mg/kg dosage and younger age. There was a trend toward a lower risk of dystonia in patients who received amobarbital sodium for agitation. Results are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms of neuroleptic-induced dystonia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EN64100003

    View details for PubMedID 2286708



    Fluphenazine decanoate is commonly used as part of maintenance treatment of schizophrenia, but its pharmacokinetics are poorly understood. We administered a single intramuscular dose of fluphenazine decanoate to nine patients and found that plasma fluphenazine level did not decline to 50% of the peak level by day 26 in any of the patients. This means that it has a long half-life measurable in months rather than weeks.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EN64100008

    View details for PubMedID 2286711



    Fifty-three patients with acute exacerbations of Research Diagnostic Criteria schizophrenic, schizoaffective (mainly schizophrenic), and other nonaffective psychoses completed 24 or 28 days of treatment with randomized, fixed, double-blind doses of 10, 20, or 30 mg of oral fluphenazine hydrochloride daily. In the sample as a whole, improvement was not predicted by dose but was negatively related to duration of illness and of lifetime hospitalization, and to the presence of akathisia during the study (which was unrelated to chronicity). But among patients showing 40% or greater improvement in positive symptoms, percent improvement was predicted by dose and dose per kilogram of body weight; this was not the case for negative symptoms. Severity of acute extrapyramidal symptoms (excluding acute dystonia, dyskinesia, and akathisia) was significantly correlated with dosage per kilogram. Doses greater than 0.2 mg/kg per day were associated with greater clinical improvement but also with a high incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms; doses over 0.3 mg/kg per day were associated with more severe extrapyramidal symptoms. These preliminary results suggest that there is a linear relationship between fluphenazine dosage and acute outcome, and that this relationship is observed in patients whose conditions improve to a criterion level. It is suggested that the nonresponder group may include many patients in whom dose is not relevant because they are unable (for a variety of reasons) to respond to the study treatment conditions; excluding them from analysis may allow a significant dose-response relationship to be observed. Akathisia deserves further study as a possible predictor of nonresponse.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DT45700008

    View details for PubMedID 2378547

  • PREVALENCE OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA - DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL CORRELATES SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN Mueser, K. T., Yarnold, P. R., Levinson, D. F., Singh, H., Bellack, A. S., Kee, K., Morrison, R. L., YADALAM, K. G. 1990; 16 (1): 31-56


    Methodological issues involved in assessing the prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia are discussed, and previous research in this area is comprehensively reviewed. Many studies suffer from methodological shortcomings, including the lack of diagnostic rigor, adequate sample sizes, and simultaneous assessment of different types of substance abuse (e.g., stimulants, sedatives). In general, the evidence suggests that the prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia is comparable to that in the general population, with the possible exceptions of stimulant and hallucinogen abuse, which may be greater in patients with schizophrenia. Data are presented on the association of substance abuse with demographics, diagnosis, history of illness, and symptoms in 149 recently hospitalized DSM-III-R schizophrenic, schizophreniform, and schizoaffective disorder patients. Demographic characteristics were strong predictors of substance abuse, with gender, age, race, and socioeconomic status being most important. Stimulant abusers tended to have their first hospitalization at an earlier age and were more often diagnosed as having schizophrenia, but did not differ in their symptoms from nonabusers. A history of cannabis abuse was related to fewer symptoms and previous hospitalizations, suggesting that more socially competent patients were prone to cannabis use. The findings show that environmental factors may be important determinants of substance abuse among schizophrenic-spectrum patients and that clinical differences related to abuse vary with different types of drugs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CV84100007

    View details for PubMedID 2333480

  • What HMOs should tell their subscribers, and what you can do about it. Consultant Levinson, D. F. 1989; 29 (5): 118-?


    All health maintenance organization (HMO) plans try to control costs by restricting choice of physicians and regulating utilization of service. Have some plans gone too far? Patient and physician can become caught in a complex web of gatekeepers and capitation arrangements, withholds, bonuses, and penalties. Patients are almost always unaware of the details of these pressures on the physician. For the free market system to operate, potential subscribers should receive all of the facts about their HMOs. This article offers practical suggestions for concerned physicians, including information about proposals for legislative requirements of disclosure statements and a list of questions patients should ask before joining an HMO.

    View details for PubMedID 10292916


    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P938300017

    View details for PubMedID 3415431


    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P938300015

    View details for PubMedID 3415430



    Two patients experienced new onset or worsening of panic disorder during treatment with propranolol for tachycardia or palpitations associated with a diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Both patients had a family history of panic disorder; one also had a family history of mitral valve prolapse and depression. As antidepressant drugs can treat both depression and panic disorder, it would not be inconsistent that propranolol might exacerbate either disorder. Other possible interpretations of these two cases are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N573200007

    View details for PubMedID 3379142


    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L432700008

    View details for PubMedID 3696180



    Schizoaffective mania refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by mixtures of schizophrenic and manic (or bipolar) symptoms. Of the proposed diagnostic criteria, the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) most clearly distinguish relevant subgroups. Family, clinical, and treatment studies suggest that the RDC's mainly affective subtype of schizoaffective mania is a variant of psychotic bipolar disorder. Limited available data suggest that the mainly schizophrenic subtype has a poorer prognosis and includes cases more closely related to schizophrenia. Schizoaffective mania also overlaps with proposed categories such as reactive and cycloid psychosis. It is premature to assume that all schizoaffective manic disorder represents a bipolar variant. Further studies that differentiate patients according to subtype, drug response, and course are needed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G674800001

    View details for PubMedID 3551637


    View details for Web of Science ID A1987F562000018

    View details for PubMedID 3814675



    From 39 reported cases of the "neuroleptic malignant syndrome," three groups were identified: those with concurrent medical problems that could cause fever that accompanied the extrapyramidal symptoms; those with medical problems less clearly related to fever; and those without other medical disorders. Dehydration, infection, pulmonary embolus, and rhabdomyolysis were the common complications of untreated extrapyramidal symptoms. Three patients died, all with medical complications. In 14 cases, no medical cause of fever was identified. Hypotheses about mechanisms for fever include psychiatric illness, disruption of dopaminergic aspects of thermoregulation, and peripheral and central effects on muscle contraction leading to excess heat production. Neuroleptic-induced rigidity should be treated vigorously, with prompt discontinuation of neuroleptic therapy and administration of dopamine agonists in severe cases with or without fever. The cases of extrapyramidal symptoms with fever are too heterogeneous to justify the assumption of a unitary and "malignant" syndrome.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D779300003

    View details for PubMedID 2875701

  • METHYLPHENIDATE CHALLENGE IN A MANIC BOY BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY Schmidt, K., Delaney, M. A., Jensen, M., Levinson, D. F., LeWitt, M. 1986; 21 (11): 1107-1109

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D430400024

    View details for PubMedID 3741930



    It has been suggested that the use of invalid scoring criteria might be responsible for the finding of excessive nonhabituation of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in schizophrenia. Certain criteria may confuse SCOR and spontaneous SC activity in subjects with high rates of the latter (Levinson et al. 1984). To replicate this finding, data were reanalyzed from a study of 25 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients and 23 normal male subjects. Analysis of response latency and amplitude during a habituation paradigm of 11 78.5-dB tones confirmed the predictions. Broad scoring criteria (SCOR onset 1-5 sec poststimulus, and a three-no-response-trials habituation criterion) produced significantly different habituation scores than more restrictive criteria (1.6-3.0 sec latency window and a two-trials habituation criterion). Nonhabituation was scored in five patients and six normals by the former criteria, but in no patient and one normal by the latter. Nonhabituators, defined by using the broad criteria, had higher rates of spontaneous activity. The narrow latency window contained significantly more responses than could be explained by the spontaneous activity rate, but this was not true for the added time permitted by the broad window. It is concluded that the use of more restrictive scoring criteria may help to clarify the validity of SCOR nonresponse or hyporesponse as a marker for a type of schizophrenic illness.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AMZ9100008

    View details for PubMedID 3995111


    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ANH4800006

    View details for PubMedID 4023153



    The habituation of the skin conductance orienting response ( SCOR ) was studied in 36 schizophrenic and 11 normal male subjects. Scoring criteria significantly influenced results: more inclusive criteria (used in most SCOR studies) scored 56% of patients as nonresponders and 19% as slow habituators . More restrictive criteria scored 75% of patients as nonresponders, and the remainder as faster habituators than normals. The faster habituation of patient responders could be explained by the effects of low response amplitude. Evidence is given for the greater validity of the restrictive scoring criteria; on this basis the schizophrenic patients in this study were SCOR nonresponders or fast habituators . The data suggest that the more inclusive scoring criteria can confuse spontaneous and orienting activity. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SP47200003

    View details for PubMedID 6733171


    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QP59000081

    View details for PubMedID 6846613

  • Recurrent large-group phenomena: studies of an adolescent therapeutic community. Adolescent psychiatry Crabtee, L. H., Levinson, D. F. 1980; 8: 512-528

    View details for PubMedID 7223997



    Mental health workers on inpatient units spend a great deal of time trying to cope with interpersonal tensions that disrupt ward life. We have focused our attention on two aspects of this problem. The first is clarifying the nature of the social processes that underlie periods of increased tension and conflict on wards. The second is clarifying the kinds of staff leadership required to manage these tensions. We are sure that those who have worked on interactive treatment wards will recognize this situation: for a period of weeks or more there is an uneasy tension; patient cliques form and disruption occurs between cliques and with the staff. Often there is a climax of disruptive behavior, such as a day or weekend when a large number of patients break ward rules. Trouble seems to be contagious. Throughout the period staff members disagree about how to manage the patients and the disruption, and usually this disagreement is tinged with old philosophical or personal differences. No one feels very confident about taking leadership initiatives, and the formal leaders are blamed for various failures and lacks. Eventually, often after a climactic disturbance is resolved, ward life returns to "normal" and people feel much better about living and working on the ward. In this paper we review previous work on this kind of ward process and discuss some of the problems involved in conceptualizing it. We report on two period of ward observation that illustrate the sequence from low to high tension and back to relative calm. We then discuss our ideas about the kinds of staff leadership needed to manage different phases of this sequence and the problems of developing and integrating multiple ward leadership roles.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979HE61900003

    View details for PubMedID 461595