Eric Foote is a pediatric hospitalist with experience conducting clinical and public health research around the world. His research focuses on identifying and intervening on health disparities in low income countries and in low resource settings. Currently, he is developing and evaluating a community health worker-led household phototherapy intervention to extend access to neonatal jaundice care for newborns in rural Bangladesh. He is also working to improve SARS-CoV-2 testing and genomic surveillance across California and worldwide.
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pediatrics - Neonatal and Developmental Medicine
California COVID-19 Testing Taskforce, California Department of Public Health (2020 - Present)
Faculty Fellow, Stanford University Center for Innovation in Global Health (2021 - Present)
Biodesign Faculty Fellowship, Stanford University
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hospitalist (2019)
Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2015)
Residency: University of Washington Pediatric Residency (2015) WA
Medical Education: Emory University Medical School (2012) GA
BS, Cornell University, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Home Based Phototherapy for Neonatal Jaundice
The main purpose of the study is to deliver community health worker based prevention, early screening and management of neonatal Jaundice using battery powered LED phototherapy device at the household level.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.
Feasibility and acceptability of home-based neonatal hyperbilirubinemia screening by community health workers using transcutaneous bilimeters in Bangladesh.
2023; 23 (1): 155
BACKGROUND: Universal screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia risk assessment is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics to reduce related morbidity. In Bangladesh and in many low- and middle-income countries, there is no screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Furthermore, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may not be recognized as a medically significant condition by caregivers and community members. We aimed to evaluate the acceptability and operational feasibility of community health worker (CHW)-led, home-based, non-invasive neonatal hyperbilirubinemia screening using a transcutaneous bilimeter in Shakhipur, a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh.METHODS: We employed a two-step process. In the formative phase, we conducted eight focus group discussions with parents and grandparents of infants and eight key informant interviews with public and private healthcare providers and managers to explore their current knowledge, perceptions, practices, and challenges regarding identification and management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Next, we piloted a prenatal sensitization intervention and home-based screening by CHWs using transcutaneous bilimeters and evaluated the acceptability and operational feasibility of this approach through focus group discussions and key informant interviews with parents, grandparents and CHWs.RESULTS: Formative findings identified misconceptions regarding neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causes and health risks among caregivers in rural Bangladesh. CHWs were comfortable with adoption, maintenance and use of the device in routine home visits. Transcutaneous bilimeter-based screening was also widely accepted by caregivers and family members due to its noninvasive technique and immediate display of findings at home. Prenatal sensitization of caregivers and family members helped to create a supportive environment in the family and empowered mothers as primary caregivers.CONCLUSION: Adopting household neonatal hyperbilirubinemia screening in the postnatal period by CHWs using a transcutaneous bilimeter is an acceptable approach by both CHWs and families and may increase rates of screening to prevent morbidity and mortality.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12887-023-03969-4
View details for PubMedID 37009866
Evaluation of community health worker's performance at home-based newborn assessment supported by mHealth in rural Bangladesh.
2022; 22 (1): 218
BACKGROUND: In low to middle-income countries where home births are common and neonatal postnatal care is limited, community health worker (CHW) home visits can extend the capability of health systems to reach vulnerable newborns in the postnatal period. CHW assessment of newborn danger signs supported by mHealth have thepotential to improve the quality of danger sign assessments and reduce CHW training requirements. We aim to estimate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value) of CHW assessment of newborn infants aided by mHealth compared to physician assessment.METHODS: In this prospective study, ten CHWs received five days of theoretical and hands-on training on the physical assessment of newborns including ten danger signs. CHWs assessed 273 newborn infants for danger signs within 48h of birth and then consecutively for three days. A physician repeated 20% (n=148) of the assessments conducted by CHWs. Both CHWs and the physician evaluated newborns for ten danger signs and decided on referral. We used the physician's danger sign identification and referral decision as the gold standard to validate CHWs' identification of danger signs and referral decisions.RESULTS: The referrals made by the CHWs had high sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (96.2%), and almost perfect agreement (K=0.80) with the referrals made by the physician. CHW identification of all the danger signs except hypothermia showed moderate to high sensitivity (66.7-100%) compared to physician assessments. All the danger signs assessments except hypothermia showed moderate to high positive predictive value (PPV) (50-100%) and excellent negative predictive value (NPV) (99-100%). Specificity was high (99-100%) for all ten danger signs.CONCLUSION: CHW's identification of neonatal danger signs aided by mHealth showed moderate to high validity in comparison to physician assessments. mHealth platforms may reduce CHW training requirements and while maintaining quality CHW physical assessment performance extending the ability of health systems to provide neonatal postnatal care in low-resource communities.TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03933423 , January 05, 2019.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12887-022-03282-6
View details for PubMedID 35459113
Large-Scale Implementation of a Daily Rapid Antigen Testing Program in California for Detecting SARS-CoV-2.
American journal of public health
2022; 112 (3): 467-471
Objectives. To evaluate a daily antigen testing program for health care personnel. Methods. We examined antigen testing results between December 13, 2020, and April 30, 2021, from 5 forensic psychiatric inpatient hospitals throughout California. Results. Among 471 023 antigen tests administered, 449 positives (0.0036% false positives) were detected. Conclusions. Antigen tests had low false-positive rates, high positive predictive value, and high levels of acceptability, important characteristics when considering their application in the community. Public Health Implications. Daily antigen testing was feasible and should be considered to reduce COVID-19 transmission. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):467-471. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306588).
View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306588
View details for PubMedID 35196037
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8887161
Validation of visual estimation of neonatal jaundice in low-income and middle-income countries: a multicentre observational cohort study.
1800; 11 (12): e048145
OBJECTIVE: Determine the sensitivity and specificity of neonatal jaundice visual estimation by primary healthcare workers (PHWs) and physicians as predictors of hyperbilirubinaemia.DESIGN: Multicentre observational cohort study.SETTING: Hospitals in Chandigarh and Delhi, India; Dhaka, Bangladesh; Durban, South Africa; Kumasi, Ghana; La Paz, Bolivia.PARTICIPANTS: Neonates aged 1-20days (n=2642) who presented to hospitals for evaluation of acute illness. Infants referred for any reason from another health facility or those needing immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation were excluded.OUTCOME MEASURES: Infants were evaluated for distribution (head, trunk, distal extremities) and degree (mild, moderate, severe) of jaundice by PHWs and physicians. Serum bilirubin level was determined for infants with jaundice, and analyses of sensitivity and specificity of visual estimations of jaundice used bilirubin thresholds of >260mol/L (need for phototherapy) and >340mol/L (need for emergency intervention in at-risk and preterm babies).RESULTS: 1241 (47.0%) neonates had jaundice. High sensitivity for detecting neonates with serum bilirubin >340mol/L was found for 'any jaundice of the distal extremities (palms or soles) OR deep jaundice of the trunk or head' for both PHWs (89%-100%) and physicians (81%-100%) across study sites; specificity was more variable. 'Any jaundice of the distal extremities' identified by PHWs and physicians had sensitivity of 71%-100%and specificity of 55%-95%, excluding La Paz. For the bilirubin threshold >260mol/L, 'any jaundice of the distal extremities OR deep jaundice of the trunk or head' had the highest sensitivity across sites (PHWs: 58%-93%, physicians: 55%-98%).CONCLUSIONS: In settings where serum bilirubin cannot be measured, neonates with any jaundice on the distal extremities should be referred to a hospital for evaluation and management, where delays in serum bilirubin measurement and appropriate treatment are anticipated following referral, the higher sensitivity sign, any jaundice on the distal extremities or deep jaundice of the trunk or head, may be preferred.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048145
View details for PubMedID 34972760
Use, Acceptability, Performance, and Health Impact of Hollow Fiber Ultrafilters for Water Treatment in Rural Kenyan Households, 2009-2011.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Diarrheal illness remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children < 5 years in developing countries, and contaminated water contributes to diarrhea risk. To address this problem, a novel hollow fiber ultrafilter (HFU) was developed for household water treatment. To test its impact on water quality and infant health, we conducted a cluster-randomized longitudinal evaluation in 10 intervention and 10 comparison villages in Kenya, attempting to enroll all households with infants (< 12 months old). We conducted a baseline survey, distributed HFUs to intervention households, made biweekly home visits for 1 year to assess water treatment practices and diarrhea in infants, and tested water samples from both groups every 2 months for Escherichia coli. We enrolled 92 infants from intervention households and 74 from comparison households. During the 1-year study period, 45.7% of intervention households and 97.3% of comparison households had at least one stored water sample test positive for E. coli. Compared with comparison households, the odds of E. coli contamination in stored water was lower for intervention households (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.74), but there was no difference in the odds of reported diarrhea in infants, adjusting for covariates (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.90). Although nearly all water samples obtained from unprotected sources and filtered by the HFU were free of E. coli contamination, HFUs alone were not effective at reducing diarrhea in infants.
View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0862
View details for PubMedID 32274986
Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUMPOLAR HEALTH
The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years declined during 1998-2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006-2008.Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years.A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009-2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998-1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction.The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998-1999 to 2009-2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01) and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01). The 2009-2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6-14.8). The Alaska (38.9) and Southwest regions (27.3) had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year) pneumonia-associated and 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations.Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009-2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.
View details for DOI 10.3402/ijch.v74.29256
View details for Web of Science ID 000369579100001
View details for PubMedID 26547082
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4636865
Determinants of Anemia among Preschool Children in Rural, Western Kenya
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
2013; 88 (4): 757-764
Although anemia in preschool children is most often attributed to iron deficiency, other nutritional, infectious, and genetic contributors are rarely concurrently measured. In a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 858 children 6-35 months of age in western Kenya, we measured hemoglobin, malaria, inflammation, sickle cell, α-thalassemia, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, anthropometry, and socio-demographic characteristics. Anemia (Hb < 11 g/dL) and severe anemia (Hb < 7 g/dL) prevalence ratios (PRs) for each exposure were determined using multivariable modeling. Anemia (71.8%) and severe anemia (8.4%) were common. Characteristics most strongly associated with anemia were malaria (PR: 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-1.9), iron deficiency (1.3; 1.2-1.4), and homozygous α-thalassemia (1.3; 1.1-1.4). Characteristics associated with severe anemia were malaria (10.2; 3.5-29.3), inflammation (6.7; 2.3-19.4), and stunting (1.6; 1.0-2.4). Overall 16.8% of anemia cases were associated with malaria, 8.3% with iron deficiency, and 6.1% with inflammation. Interventions should address malaria, iron deficiency, and non-malarial infections to decrease the burden of anemia in this population.
View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0560
View details for Web of Science ID 000317024700026
View details for PubMedID 23382166
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3617865
Impact of Locally-Produced, Ceramic Cookstoves on Respiratory Disease in Children in Rural Western Kenya
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
2013; 88 (1): 132-137
Household air pollution is a risk factor for pneumonia, the leading cause of death among children < 5 years of age. From 2008 to 2010, a Kenyan organization sold ≈ 2,500 ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) that produce less visible household smoke than 3-stone firepits. During a year-long observational study, we made 25 biweekly visits to 200 homes to determine stove use and observe signs of acute respiratory infection in children < 3 years of age. Reported stove use included 3-stone firepit only (81.8%), upesi jiko only (15.7%), and both (2.3%). Lower, but not statistically significant, percentages of children in upesi jiko-using households than 3-stone firepit-using households had observed cough (1.3% versus 2.9%, rate ratio [RR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-1.03), pneumonia (0.9% versus 1.7%, RR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.24-1.48), and severe pneumonia (0.3% versus 0.6%, RR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.17-2.62). Upesi jiko use did not result in significantly lower pneumonia rates. Further research on the health impact of improved cookstoves is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0496
View details for Web of Science ID 000313757500020
View details for PubMedID 23243108
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3541723