Eric Hanushek is the Paul and Jean Hanna Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University. He is internationally recognized for his economic analysis of educational issues, and his research has broadly influenced education policy in both developed and developing countries. In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the field, he was awarded the prestigious Yidan Prize for Education Research in 2021. His extensive and well-cited body of work encompasses many pivotal topics within education, including class size reduction, school accountability, and teacher effectiveness. His pioneering exploration into teacher effectiveness, quantified through students' learning gains, laid the foundation for the widespread adoption of value-added measures in evaluating educators and institutions. His seminal book, The Knowledge Capital of Nations: Education and the Economics of Growth, establishes the close relationship between a nation's long-term economic growth and the skill levels of its populace. His scholarly contributions include twenty-six books and over 300 articles contributing to knowledge within the field. He is a Distinguished Graduate of the United States Air Force Academy and completed his Ph.D. in economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (

Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • Yidan Prize for Education Research, Yidan Foundation (2021)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • member, National Assessment Governing Board (2019 - 2023)

Program Affiliations

  • Public Policy

Professional Education

  • B.S., U.S. Air Force Academy, economics (1965)
  • Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technoloby, economics (1968)

Research Interests

  • Achievement
  • Economics and Education
  • Educational Policy
  • International and Comparative Education
  • Poverty and Inequality
  • Race and Ethnicity
  • School Choice
  • School Reform
  • Teachers and Teaching

2023-24 Courses

Stanford Advisees

All Publications

  • The Testing JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES Bergbauer, A. B., Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2024; 59 (2)
  • Contexts of Convenience: Generalizing from Published Evaluations of School Finance Policies. Evaluation review Handel, D. V., Hanushek, E. A. 2024: 193841X241228335


    Recent attention to the causal identification of spending impacts provides improved estimates of spending outcomes in a variety of circumstances, but the estimates are substantially different across studies. Half of the variation in estimated funding impact on test scores and over three-quarters of the variation of impacts on school attainment reflect differences in the true parameters across study contexts. Unfortunately, inability to describe the circumstances underlying effective school spending impedes any attempts to generalize from the extant results to new policy situations. The evidence indicates that how funds are used is crucial to the outcomes, but such factors as targeting of funds or court interventions fail to explain the existing pattern of results.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0193841X241228335

    View details for PubMedID 38297893

  • Performance Information and Personnel Decisions in the Public Sector: The Case of School Principals JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES Cullen, J., Hanushek, E. A., Phelan, G., Rivkin, S. G. 2024; 59 (1)
  • Global universal basic skills: Current deficits and implications for world development JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Gust, S., Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2024; 166
  • Academic mobility in US public schools: Evidence from nearly 3 million students JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS Austin, W., Figlio, D., Goldhaber, D., Hanushek, E. A., Kilbride, T., Koedel, C., Lee, J., Lou, J., Ozek, U., Parsons, E., Rivkin, S. G., Sass, T. R., Strunk, K. O. 2023; 228
  • Incidence and Outcomes of School Finance Litigation: 1968-2021 PUBLIC FINANCE REVIEW Hanushek, E. A., Joyce-Wirtz, M. 2023
  • Long-run Trends in the US SES-Achievement Gap EDUCATION FINANCE AND POLICY Hanushek, E. A., Light, J. D., Peterson, P. E., Talpey, L. M., Woessmann, L. 2022; 17 (4): 608-640
  • Patience, Risk-Taking, and Human Capital Investment Across Countries ECONOMIC JOURNAL Hanushek, E. A., Kinne, L., Lergetporer, P., Woessmann, L. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ej/ueab105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000803273200001

  • Addressing cross-national generalizability in educational impact evaluation INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Hanushek, E. A. 2021; 80
  • A quantitative look at the economic impact of the European Union's educational goals* EDUCATION ECONOMICS Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2020
  • The Evolution of Charter School Quality ECONOMICA Baude, P. L., Casey, M., Hanushek, E. A., Phelan, G. R., Rivkin, S. G. 2020; 87 (345): 158–89

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ecca.12299

    View details for Web of Science ID 000618828100007

  • The Value of Smarter Teachers International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., Wiederhold, S. 2019; 54 (4): 857–99
  • Testing, Accountability, and the American Economy ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE Hanushek, E. A. 2019; 683 (1): 110–28
  • The Achievement Gap Fails to Close: Half Century of testing shows persistent divide between haves and have-nots Education Next Hanushek, E. A., Peterson, P. E., Talpey, L. M., Woessmann, L. 2019; 19 (3): 8-17
  • Coping with change: International differences in the returns to skills ECONOMICS LETTERS Hanushek, E. A., Schwerdt, G., Wiederhold, S., Woessmann, L. 2017; 153: 15-19
  • General Education, Vocational Education, and Labor-Market Outcomes over the Lifecycle JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCES Hanushek, E. A., Schwerdt, G., Woessmann, L., Zhang, L. 2017; 52 (1): 48-87
  • Dynamic effects of teacher turnover on the quality of instruction ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Hanushek, E. A., Rivkin, S. G., Schiman, J. C. 2016; 55: 132-148
  • Knowledge capital, growth, and the East Asian miracle. Science Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2016; 351 (6271): 344-345

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aad7796

    View details for PubMedID 26798003

  • Will more higher education improve economic growth? OXFORD REVIEW OF ECONOMIC POLICY Hanushek, E. A. 2016; 32 (4): 538-552
  • Time in Education: Introduction ECONOMIC JOURNAL Hanushek, E. A. 2015; 125 (588): F394-F396

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ecoj.12266

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365101400006

  • Returns to skills around the world: Evidence from PIAAC EUROPEAN ECONOMIC REVIEW Hanushek, E. A., Schwerdt, G., Wiederhold, S., Woessmann, L. 2015; 73: 103-130
  • Borrowing Constraints, College Aid, and Intergenerational Mobility JOURNAL OF HUMAN CAPITAL Hanushek, E. A., Leung, C. K., Yilmaz, K. 2014; 8 (1): 1-41

    View details for DOI 10.1086/675501

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340327100001


    View details for DOI 10.1111/jpet.12046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325494900002

  • Economic growth in developing countries: The role of human capital ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Hanushek, E. A. 2013; 37: 204-212
  • Does school autonomy make sense everywhere? Panel estimates from PISA JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Hanushek, E. A., Link, S., Woessmann, L. 2013; 104: 212-232
  • Do better schools lead to more growth? Cognitive skills, economic outcomes, and causation JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2012; 17 (4): 267-321
  • Schooling, educational achievement, and the Latin American growth puzzle JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2012; 99 (2): 497-512
  • Evidence, Methodology, Test-Based Accountability, and Educational Policy: A Scholarly Exchange Between Dr. Eric A. Hanushek and Drs. John Robert Warren and Eric Grodsky EDUCATIONAL POLICY Hanushek, E. A., Warren, J. R., Grodsky, E. 2012; 26 (3): 351-368
  • The Economic Benefit of Educational Reform in the European Union CESIFO ECONOMIC STUDIES Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2012; 58 (1): 73-109
  • The Distribution of Teacher Quality and Implications for Policy ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECONOMICS, VOL 4 Hanushek, E. A., Rivkin, S. G. 2012; 4: 131-158
  • How much do educational outcomes matter in OECD countries? 52nd Panel Meeting of Economic Policy Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2011: 429-?
  • Overview of the symposium on performance pay for teachers ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2011; 30 (3): 391-393
  • The economic value of higher teacher quality ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Hanushek, E. A. 2011; 30 (3): 466-479
  • Sample selectivity and the validity of international student achievement tests in economic research ECONOMICS LETTERS Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2011; 110 (2): 79-82
  • Private Schools and Residential Choices: Accessibility, Mobility, and Welfare B E JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS & POLICY Hanushek, E. A., Sarpca, S., Yilmaz, K. 2011; 11 (1)
  • The Quality and Distribution of Teachers under the No Child Left Behind Act JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES Hanushek, E. A., Rivkin, S. G. 2010; 24 (3): 133-150
  • Generalizations about Using Value-Added Measures of Teacher Quality 122nd Annual Meeting of the American-Economics-Association Hanushek, E. A., Rivkin, S. G. AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC. 2010: 267–71
  • Building on No Child Left Behind SCIENCE Hanushek, E. A. 2009; 326 (5954): 802-803

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1177458

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271468000024

    View details for PubMedID 19892966

  • DOES POLLUTION INCREASE SCHOOL ABSENCES? REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS Currie, J., Hanushek, E. A., Kahn, E. M., Neidell, M., Rivkin, S. G. 2009; 91 (4): 682-694
  • New Evidence about Brown v. Board of Education: The Complex Effects of School Racial Composition on Achievement Brookings Conference on Empirics of Social Internations Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., Rivkin, S. G. UNIV CHICAGO PRESS. 2009: 349–83
  • The Role of Cognitive Skills in Economic Development JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE Hanushek, E. A., Woessmann, L. 2008; 46 (3): 607-668
  • The effects of education quality on income growth and mortality decline International Conference on Economics of Education Jamison, E. A., Jamison, D. T., Hanushek, E. A. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2007: 771–88
  • The complementarity of Tiebout and Alonso International Conference on Real Estates and the Macroenconomy Hanushek, E., Yimaz, K. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2007: 243–61
  • Charter school quality and parental decision making with school choice JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., Rivkin, S. G., Branch, G. F. 2007; 91 (5-6): 823-848
  • Pay, working conditions, and teacher quality. The Future of children Hanushek, E. A., Rivkin, S. G. 2007; 17 (1): 69-86


    Eric Hanushek and Steven Rivkin examine how salary and working conditions affect the quality of instruction in the classroom. The wages of teachers relative to those of other college graduates have fallen steadily since 1940. Today, average wages differ little, however, between urban and suburban districts. In some metropolitan areas urban districts pay more, while in others, suburban districts pay more. But working conditions in urban and suburban districts differ substantially, with urban teachers reporting far less administrator and parental support, worse materials, and greater student problems. Difficult working conditions may drive much of the difference in turnover of teachers and the transfer of teachers across schools. Using rich data from Texas public schools, the authors describe in detail what happens when teachers move from school to school. They examine how salaries and student characteristics change when teachers move and also whether turnover affects teacher quality and student achievement. They note that both wages and student characteristics affect teachers' choices and result in a sorting of teachers across schools, but they find little evidence that teacher transitions are detrimental to student learning. The extent to which variations in salaries and working conditions translate into differences in the quality of instruction depends importantly on the effectiveness of school personnel policies in hiring and retaining the most effective teachers and on constraints on both entry into the profession and the firing of low performers. The authors conclude that overall salary increases for teachers would be both expensive and ineffective. The best way to improve the quality of instruction would be to lower barriers to becoming a teacher, such as certification, and to link compensation and career advancement more closely with teachers' ability to raise student performance.

    View details for PubMedID 17407923

  • The Economic Benefits of Improved Teacher Quality Conference on Educational Systems and the Challenge of Improving Results - Explaining and Enhancing Performance and Equity Hanushek, E. A. SPRINGER. 2007: 107–135
  • Alternative school policies and the benefits of general cognitive skills ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Hanushek, E. A. 2006; 25 (4): 447-462
  • Does educational tracking affect performance and inequality? Differences-in-differences evidence across countries Annual Conference of the Royal-Economic-Society HANUSHEK, E. A., Wossmann, L. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2006: C63–C76
  • Teachers, schools, and academic achievement ECONOMETRICA Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F. 2005; 73 (2): 417-458
  • Disruption versus Tiebout improvement: the costs and benefits of switching schools JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., Rivkin, S. G. 2004; 88 (9-10): 1721-1746
  • Opportunities, race, and urban location: the influence of John Kain JOURNAL OF URBAN ECONOMICS Glaeser, E. L., Hanushek, E. A., Quigley, J. M. 2004; 56 (1): 70-79
  • What if there are no 'best practices'? SCOTTISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY HANUSHEK, E. A. 2004; 51 (2): 156-172
  • Redistribution through education and other transfer mechanisms JOURNAL OF MONETARY ECONOMICS Hanushek, E. A., Leung, C. K., Yilmaz, K. 2003; 50 (8): 1719-1750
  • Efficiency and equity in schools around the world ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW HANUSHEK, E. A., Luque, J. A. 2003; 22 (5): 481-502
  • Does peer ability affect student achievement? Conference on Empirical Analysis of Social Interactions Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., Markman, J. M., Rivkin, S. G. JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD. 2003: 527–44

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jae.741

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185978000003

  • The failure of input-based schooling policies ECONOMIC JOURNAL HANUSHEK, E. A. 2003; 113 (485): F64-F98
  • Inferring program effects for special populations: Does special education raise achievement for students with disabilities? Conference on Achieving Universal Literacy HANUSHEK, E. A., Kain, J. F., Rivkin, S. G. M I T PRESS. 2002: 584–99
  • The confusing world of educational accountability NATIONAL TAX JOURNAL HANUSHEK, E. A., Raymond, M. E. 2001; 54 (2): 365-384
  • Black-white achievement differences and governmental interventions 113th Annual Meeting of the American-Economics-Association HANUSHEK, E. A. AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC. 2001: 24–28
  • Schooling, labor-force quality, and the growth of nations AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW HANUSHEK, E. A., Kimko, D. D. 2000; 90 (5): 1184-1208