Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Assistant professor, Boston University (1991 - 1993)
  • Expert, Joint Research Center (Ispra, Italy), European Commission, European Commission (1993 - 1995)
  • Professor, University of Louvain, Belgium (1995 - Present)
  • Fellow, Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University (2002 - 2003)
  • George and Setsuko Ishiyama Provostial Professor, Stanford University (2010 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Honorary degree “Doctor rerum naturalium honoris causa”, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany (2016)
  • Volvo Environment Prize, Volvo Environment Prize Foundation, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (2014)
  • Fellow, European Academy of Sciences (2010)
  • Member, Academia Europaea (2010)
  • Foreign Associate, U.S. National Academy of Sciences (2009)
  • Francqui prize in Sciences, Francqui Foundation (2009)
  • Membre, Académie Royale des sciences, des lettres & des beaux-arts de Belgique (2006)
  • Chair, Land-Use & Land-Cover Change (LUCC) project of the IGBP and IHDP (1999 - 2005)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member of the Board of Directors, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm (2011 - Present)
  • Co-Chair of Department, Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University (2013 - 2016)
  • Member of the External Advisory Board, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC), USA (2012 - 2013)
  • Member of the Research Council,, University of Louvain (2006 - 2009)
  • Associate Editor, Ecology and Society: A journal of integrative science for resilience and sustainability (2005 - Present)
  • Member of the Steering Committee, Global Terrestrial Observing System (2005 - 2010)
  • Member of the Editorial Board, Global Environmental Change (2004 - Present)
  • Member of the Science Advisory Committee, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria (2004 - 2011)
  • Member of the Editorial Board, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (2002 - 2006)
  • Member of the Editorial Board, Ecosystems (2001 - 2004)
  • Chair of Department, Geography and Geology, University of Louvain (2000 - 2003)

Program Affiliations

  • Center for East Asian Studies

Professional Education

  • PhD, University of Louvain, Belgium, Sciences, Geography (1988)
  • M.S., University of Louvain, Belgium, Geography (1985)
  • B.A., University of Louvain, Belgium, Philosophy (1985)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

My research is in the area of human-environment interactions in land systems. I develop integrated approaches to study land use change by linking remote sensing, GIS and socio-economic data. I aim at better understanding causes and impacts of changes in tropical forests, drylands, and farming systems. I currently focus on three related themes: land use transitions – i.e., the shift from deforestation (or land degradation) to reforestation (or land sparing for nature), – the influence of globalization on land use decisions, and the interactions between public and private governance aimed at promoting sustainable land use. My research is mostly focused on tropical regions in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

I teach a course for graduate and undergraduate students on satellite remote sensing of land (Winter). In Spring, I co-teach a graduate-level course on Earth System Dynamics, including the human dimensions of global environmental changes.

Professional Activities
I was Chair of the international scientific project Land Use and Land Cover Change (IGBP/IHDP LUCC) from 1999 to 2005. I also contributed to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. I am often consulted by international organizations on issues related to tropical deforestation, desertification and the potential role of tropical forests in mitigating climate change. I am Foreign associate at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. In addition to my research at Stanford, I am involved in several European research projects.

2016-17 Courses

Stanford Advisees

All Publications

  • Place attachment as a factor of mountain farming permanence: A survey in the French Southern Alps ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS Hinojosa, L., Lambin, E. F., Mzoughi, N., Napoleone, C. 2016; 130: 308-315
  • A plantation-dominated forest transition in Chile APPLIED GEOGRAPHY Heilmayr, R., Echeverria, C., Fuentes, R., Lambin, E. F. 2016; 75: 71-82
  • The potential to restore native woody plant richness and composition in a reforesting landscape: a modeling approach in the Ecuadorian Andes LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Middendorp, R. S., Perez, A. J., Molina, A., Lambin, E. F. 2016; 31 (7): 1581-1599
  • Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA de Waroux, Y. l., Garrett, R. D., Heilmayr, R., Lambin, E. F. 2016; 113 (15): 4021-4026


    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in "deforestation havens." We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation "hot spot" in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1602646113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373762400044

    View details for PubMedID 27035995

  • The "mountain effect" in the abandonment of grasslands: Insights from the French Southern Alps AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT Hinojosa, L., Napoleone, C., Moulery, M., Lambin, E. F. 2016; 221: 115-124
  • Impacts of nonstate, market-driven governance on Chilean forests PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Heilmayr, R., Lambin, E. F. 2016; 113 (11): 2910-2915
  • International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica's forest transition ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Jadin, I., Meyfroidt, P., Lambin, E. F. 2016; 11 (3)
  • Forest cover changes in Bhutan: Revisiting the forest transition APPLIED GEOGRAPHY Bruggeman, D., Meyfroidt, P., Lambin, E. F. 2016; 67: 49-66
  • "I know, therefore I adapt?" Complexities of individual adaptation to climate-induced forest dieback in Alaska ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Oakes, L. E., Ardoin, N. M., Lambin, E. F. 2016; 21 (2)
  • Conservation in a social-ecological system experiencing climate-induced tree mortality BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Oakes, L. E., Hennon, P. E., Ardoin, N. M., D'Amore, D. V., Ferguson, A. J., Steel, E. A., Wittwer, D. T., Lambin, E. F. 2015; 192: 276-285
  • Disease Risk & Landscape Attributes of Tick-Borne Borrelia Pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California PLOS ONE Salkeld, D. J., Nieto, N. C., Carbajales-Dale, P., Carbajales-Dale, M., Cinkovich, S. S., Lambin, E. F. 2015; 10 (8)
  • Effects of Land Use on Plague (Yersinia pestis) Activity in Rodents in Tanzania AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE McCauley, D. J., Salkeld, D. J., Young, H. S., Makundi, R., Dirzo, R., Eckerlin, R. P., Lambin, E. F., Gaffikin, L., Barry, M., Helgen, K. M. 2015; 92 (4): 776-783


    Understanding the effects of land-use change on zoonotic disease risk is a pressing global health concern. Here, we compare prevalence of Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, in rodents across two land-use types-agricultural and conserved-in northern Tanzania. Estimated abundance of seropositive rodents nearly doubled in agricultural sites compared with conserved sites. This relationship between land-use type and abundance of seropositive rodents is likely mediated by changes in rodent and flea community composition, particularly via an increase in the abundance of the commensal species, Mastomys natalensis, in agricultural habitats. There was mixed support for rodent species diversity negatively impacting Y. pestis seroprevalence. Together, these results suggest that land-use change could affect the risk of local transmission of plague, and raise critical questions about transmission dynamics at the interface of conserved and agricultural habitats. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding disease ecology in the context of rapidly proceeding landscape change.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0504

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352828200018

  • An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Milder, J. C., Arbuthnot, M., Blackman, A., Brooks, S. E., Giovannucci, D., Gross, L., Kennedy, E. T., Komives, K., Lambin, E. F., Lee, A., Meyer, D., Newton, P., Phalan, B., Schroth, G., Semroc, B., van Rikxoort, H., Zrust, M. 2015; 29 (2): 309-320


    Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time. The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time-series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land-use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and implemented to maximize benefits for biodiversity conservation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cobi.12411

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351353400002

    View details for PubMedID 25363833

  • Eco-certification and coffee cultivation enhance tree cover and forest connectivity in the Colombian coffee landscapes REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE Rueda, X., Thomas, N. E., Lambin, E. F. 2015; 15 (1): 25-33
  • Ecosystem service information to benefit sustainability standards for commodity supply chains YEAR IN ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Chaplin-Kramer, R., Jonell, M., Guerry, A., Lambin, E. F., Morgan, A. J., Pennington, D., Smith, N., Franch, J. A., Polasky, S. 2015; 1355: 77-97


    The growing base of information about ecosystem services generated by ecologists, economists, and other scientists could improve the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of commodity-sourcing standards being adopted by corporations to mitigate risk in their supply chains and achieve sustainability goals. This review examines various ways that information about ecosystem services could facilitate compliance with and auditing of commodity-sourcing standards. We also identify gaps in the current state of knowledge on the ecological effectiveness of sustainability standards and demonstrate how ecosystem-service information could complement existing monitoring efforts to build credible evidence. This paper is a call to the ecosystem-service scientists to engage in this decision context and tailor the information they are generating to the needs of the standards community, which we argue would offer greater efficiency of standards implementation for producers and enhanced effectiveness for standard scheme owners and corporations, and should thus lead to more sustainable outcomes for people and nature.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/nyas.12961

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369996800005

    View details for PubMedID 26555859

  • Synchronous failure: the emerging causal architecture of global crisis ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Homer-Dixon, T., Walker, B., Biggs, R., Crepin, A., Folke, C., Lambin, E. F., Peterson, G. D., Rockstoem, J., Scheffer, M., Steffen, W., Troell, M. 2015; 20 (3)
  • Disease Risk & Landscape Attributes of Tick-Borne Borrelia Pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. PloS one Salkeld, D. J., Nieto, N. C., Carbajales-Dale, P., Carbajales-Dale, M., Cinkovich, S. S., Lambin, E. F. 2015; 10 (8)


    Habitat heterogeneity influences pathogen ecology by affecting vector abundance and the reservoir host communities. We investigated spatial patterns of disease risk for two human pathogens in the Borrelia genus-B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi-that are transmitted by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. We collected ticks (349 nymphs, 273 adults) at 20 sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence and density of infected nymphs varied widely across sites and habitat type, though nymphal western black-legged ticks were more frequently found, and were more abundant in coast live oak forest and desert/semi-desert scrub (dominated by California sagebrush) habitats. We observed Borrelia infections in ticks at all sites where we able to collect >10 ticks. The recently recognized human pathogen, B. miyamotoi, was observed at a higher prevalence (13/349 nymphs = 3.7%, 95% CI = 2.0-6.3; 5/273 adults = 1.8%, 95% CI = 0.6-4.2) than recent studies from nearby locations (Alameda County, east of the San Francisco Bay), demonstrating that tick-borne disease risk and ecology can vary substantially at small geographic scales, with consequences for public health and disease diagnosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0134812

    View details for PubMedID 26288371

  • Impacts of forest cover change on ecosystem services in high Andean mountains ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS Balthazar, V., Vanacker, V., Molina, A., Lambin, E. F. 2015; 48: 63-75
  • The effectiveness of marked-based instruments to foster the conservation of extensive land use: The case of Geographical Indications in the French Alps LAND USE POLICY Lamarque, P., Lambin, E. F. 2015; 42: 706-717
  • Production forests as a conservation tool: Effectiveness of Cameroon's land use zoning policy LAND USE POLICY Bruggeman, D., Meyfroidt, P., Lambin, E. F. 2015; 42: 151-164
  • Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Thebo, A. L., Drechsel, P., Lambin, E. F. 2014; 9 (11)
  • Effectiveness and synergies of policy instruments for land use governance in tropical regions GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS Lambin, E. F., Meyfroidt, P., Rueda, X., Blackman, A., Boerner, J., Cerutti, P. O., Dietsch, T., Jungmann, L., Lamarque, P., Lister, J., Walker, N. F., Wunder, S. 2014; 28: 129-140
  • Agent-based modeling of hunting and subsistence agriculture on indigenous lands: Understanding interactions between social and ecological systems ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING & SOFTWARE Iwamura, T., Lambin, E. F., Silvius, K. M., Luzar, J. B., Fragoso, J. M. 2014; 58: 109-127
  • COMMENTARY: Climate engineering reconsidered NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Barrett, S., Lenton, T. M., Millner, A., Tavoni, A., Carpenter, S., Anderies, J. M., Chapin, F. S., Crepin, A., Daily, G., Ehrlich, P., Folke, C., Galaz, V., Hughes, T., Kautsky, N., Lambin, E. F., Naylor, R., Nyborg, K., Polasky, S., Scheffer, M., Wilen, J., Xepapadeas, A., de Zeeuw, A. 2014; 4 (7): 527-529
  • Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Meyfroidt, P., Carlson, K. M., Fagan, M. E., Gutierrez-Velez, V. H., Macedo, M. N., Curran, L. M., DeFries, R. S., Dyer, G. A., Gibbs, H. K., Lambin, E. F., Morton, D. C., Robiglio, V. 2014; 9 (7)
  • Beyond local climate: rainfall variability as a determinant of household nonfarm activities in contemporary rural Burkina Faso Climate and Development D'Haen, S., Nielsen, J., Lambin, E. F. 2014: 1-22
  • Significance of Telecoupling for Exploration of Land-Use Change RETHINKING GLOBAL LAND USE IN AN URBAN ERA Eakin, H., DeFries, R., Kerr, S., Lambin, E. F., Liu, J., Marcotullio, P. J., Messerli, P., Reenberg, A., Rueda, X., Swaffield, S. R., Wicke, B., Zimmerer, K. 2014: 141-161
  • Trends in Global Land-Use Competition RETHINKING GLOBAL LAND USE IN AN URBAN ERA Lambin, E. F., Meyfroidt, P. 2014: 11-22
  • Scenarios on future land changes in the West African Sahel GEOGRAFISK TIDSSKRIFT-DANISH JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHY Lambin, E. F., D'haen, S. A., Mertz, O., Nielsen, J. O., Rasmussen, K. 2014; 114 (1): 76-83
  • Global agriculture and land use changes in the 21st century: Achieving a balance between food security, urban diets and nature conservation The Evolving Sphere of Food Security (in press) Rueda, X., Lambin, E. F. edited by Naylor, R. Oxford University Press. 2014
  • Estimating the world's potentially available cropland using a bottom-up approach GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS Lambin, E. F., Gibbs, H. K., Ferreira, L., Grau, R., Mayaux, P., Meyfroidt, P., MORTON, D. C., Rudel, T. K., Gasparri, I., Munger, J. 2013; 23 (5): 892-901
  • Globalization's unexpected impact on soybean production in South America: linkages between preferences for non-genetically modified crops, eco-certifications, and land use ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Garrett, R. D., Rueda, X., Lambin, E. F. 2013; 8 (4)
  • Globalization of land use: distant drivers of land change and geographic displacement of land use CURRENT OPINION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Meyfroidt, P., Lambin, E. F., Erb, K., Hertel, T. W. 2013; 5 (5): 438-444
  • The new economic geography of land use change: Supply chain configurations and land use in the Brazilian Amazon LAND USE POLICY Garrett, R. D., Lambin, E. F., Naylor, R. L. 2013; 34: 265-275
  • Land institutions and supply chain configurations as determinants of soybean planted area and yields in Brazil LAND USE POLICY Garrett, R. D., Lambin, E. F., Naylor, R. L. 2013; 31: 385-396
  • Linking Globalization to Local Land Uses: How Eco-Consumers and Gourmands are Changing the Colombian Coffee Landscapes WORLD DEVELOPMENT Rueda, X., Lambin, E. F. 2013; 41: 286-301
  • Responding to Globalization: Impacts of Certification on Colombian Small-Scale Coffee Growers ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Rueda, X., Lambin, E. F. 2013; 18 (3)
  • Global land use competition Rethinking Global Land Use in an Urban Era Lambin, E. F., Meyfroidt, P. edited by Seto, K., Reenberg, A. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 2013
  • Niche commodities and rural poverty alleviation: Contextualizing the contribution of argan oil to rural livelihoods in Morocco Annals of Association of American Geographers Le Polain de Waroux, Y., Lambin, E. F. 2013; 103: 589-607
  • Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Liu, J., Hull, V., Batistella, M., DeFries, R., Dietz, T., Fu, F., Hertel, T. W., Izaurralde, R. C., Lambin, E. F., Li, S., Martinelli, L. A., McConnell, W. J., Moran, E. F., Naylor, R., Ouyang, Z., Polenske, K. R., Reenberg, A., Rocha, G. d., Simmons, C. S., Verburg, P. H., Vitousek, P. M., Zhang, F., Zhu, C. 2013; 18 (2)
  • Responding to globalization: the case of coffee certification in Colombia Ecology and Society Rueda, X., Lambin, E. F. 2013; 18 (3)
  • Global land availability: Malthus versus Ricardo GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT Lambin, E. F. 2012; 1 (2): 83-87
  • Scenarios of transmission risk of foot-and-mouth with climatic, social and landscape changes in southern Africa APPLIED GEOGRAPHY Dion, E., Lambin, E. F. 2012; 35 (1-2): 32-42
  • The nature and causes of the global water crisis: Syndromes from a meta-analysis of coupled human-water studies WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH Srinivasan, V., Lambin, E. F., Gorelick, S. M., Thompson, B. H., Rozelle, S. 2012; 48
  • Trade-offs between tree cover, carbon storage and floristic biodiversity in reforesting landscapes LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Hall, J. M., Van Holt, T., Daniels, A. E., Balthazar, V., Lambin, E. F. 2012; 27 (8): 1135-1147
  • Evaluation and parameterization of ATCOR3 topographic correction method for forest cover mapping in mountain areas INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATION AND GEOINFORMATION Balthazar, V., Vanacker, V., Lambin, E. F. 2012; 18: 436-450
  • Planetary Opportunities: A Social Contract for Global Change Science to Contribute to a Sustainable Future BIOSCIENCE DeFries, R. S., Ellis, E. C., Chapin, F. S., Matson, P. A., Turner, B. L., Agrawal, A., Crutzen, P. J., Field, C., Gleick, P., Kareiva, P. M., Lambin, E., Liverman, D., Ostrom, E., Sanchez, P. A., Syvitski, J. 2012; 62 (6): 603-606
  • Global land availability: Malthus versus Ricardo Global Food Security Lambin, E. F. 2012; 1: 83-87
  • An Ecology of Happiness (originally published as Une Ecologie de Bonheur) Lambin , E., Fagan (translator), T. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 2012
  • Malnutrition and conflict in Eastern Africa: Impacts of resource variability on human security Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict: Challenges for Societal Stability Rowhani , P., Degomme , O., Guha-Sapir, D., Lambin , E. F. edited by Scheffran, J., Brzoska, M., Brauch, H. G., Link, P. M., Schilling, J. Springer. 2012: 559-572
  • Monitoring degradation in arid and semi-arid forests and woodlands: the case of the argan woodlands (Morocco) Applied Geography Le Polain de Waroux, Y., Lambin, E. F. 2012; 32: 777-786
  • Tipping Toward Sustainability: Emerging Pathways of Transformation AMBIO Westley, F., Olsson, P., Folke, C., Homer-Dixon, T., Vredenburg, H., Loorbach, D., Thompson, J., Nilsson, M., Lambin, E., Sendzimir, J., Banerjee, B., Galaz, V., van der Leeuw, S. 2011; 40 (7): 762-780


    This article explores the links between agency, institutions, and innovation in navigating shifts and large-scale transformations toward global sustainability. Our central question is whether social and technical innovations can reverse the trends that are challenging critical thresholds and creating tipping points in the earth system, and if not, what conditions are necessary to escape the current lock-in. Large-scale transformations in information technology, nano- and biotechnology, and new energy systems have the potential to significantly improve our lives; but if, in framing them, our globalized society fails to consider the capacity of the biosphere, there is a risk that unsustainable development pathways may be reinforced. Current institutional arrangements, including the lack of incentives for the private sector to innovate for sustainability, and the lags inherent in the path dependent nature of innovation, contribute to lock-in, as does our incapacity to easily grasp the interactions implicit in complex problems, referred to here as the ingenuity gap. Nonetheless, promising social and technical innovations with potential to change unsustainable trajectories need to be nurtured and connected to broad institutional resources and responses. In parallel, institutional entrepreneurs can work to reduce the resilience of dominant institutional systems and position viable shadow alternatives and niche regimes.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s13280-011-0186-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298500100004

    View details for PubMedID 22338714

  • Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Hostert, P., Kuemmerle, T., Prishchepov, A., Sieber, A., Lambin, E. F., Radeloff, V. C. 2011; 6 (4)
  • The landscape epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in South Africa: A spatially explicit multi-agent simulation ECOLOGICAL MODELLING Dion, E., VanSchalkwyk, L., Lambin, E. F. 2011; 222 (13): 2059-2072
  • Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Lambin, E. F., Meyfroidt, P. 2011; 108 (9): 3465-3472


    A central challenge for sustainability is how to preserve forest ecosystems and the services that they provide us while enhancing food production. This challenge for developing countries confronts the force of economic globalization, which seeks cropland that is shrinking in availability and triggers deforestation. Four mechanisms-the displacement, rebound, cascade, and remittance effects-that are amplified by economic globalization accelerate land conversion. A few developing countries have managed a land use transition over the recent decades that simultaneously increased their forest cover and agricultural production. These countries have relied on various mixes of agricultural intensification, land use zoning, forest protection, increased reliance on imported food and wood products, the creation of off-farm jobs, foreign capital investments, and remittances. Sound policies and innovations can therefore reconcile forest preservation with food production. Globalization can be harnessed to increase land use efficiency rather than leading to uncontrolled land use expansion. To do so, land systems should be understood and modeled as open systems with large flows of goods, people, and capital that connect local land use with global-scale factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1100480108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287844400010

    View details for PubMedID 21321211

  • Global Forest Transition: Prospects for an End to Deforestation ANNUAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES, VOL 36 Meyfroidt, P., Lambin, E. F. 2011; 36: 343-371
  • Protéger l’environnement pour protéger son bonheur Psychologie positive: Le Bonheur dans tous ses états Lambin, E. F. Editions Jouvence, Paris. 2011: 102-115
  • Adaptation strategies and climate vulnerability in the Sudano-Sahelian region of West Africa Atmospheric Science Letters C., Mertz O. Mbow, A., Reenberg, L., Genesio, F., Lambin E., S., D'haen, M., Zorom, K., Rasmussen, D., Diallo, B., Barbier, I., Bouzou Moussa, A., Diouf, O., Nielsen J., I., Sandholt 2011; 12: 104-108
  • Climate variability, malnutrition, and armed conflicts in the Horn of Africa Climatic change Rowhani, P., Degomme, O., Guha-Sapir, D., Lambin, E. F. 2011; 105 (2): 207-222
  • Tipping towards sustainability: Emerging pathways of transformation Ambio F., Westley, P., Olsson, C., Folke, T., Homer-Dixon, H., Vredenburg, D., Loorbach, J., Thompson, M., Nilsson, E.F., Lambin, J., Senzimir, V., Galaz, van der Leeuw S. 2011; 40: 762-780
  • Global interannual variability in terrestrial ecosystems using MODIS-derived vegetation indices, social, and biophysical factors International Journal of Remote Sensing P., Rowhani, M., Linderman, F., Lambin E. 2011; 32: 5393-5411
  • Between land and sea: livelihoods and environmental changes in mangrove ecosystems of Senegal, Annals of the Association of American Geographers Conchedda G., Lambin E.F.and Mayaux P. 2011; 101: 1259-1284
  • Remotely sensed surface water extent as an indicator of short-term changes in ecohydrological processes in sub-Saharan Western Africa Remote Sensing of Environment E., Haas, E., Bartholomé, F., Lambin E., V., Vanacker 2011; 115: 3436-3445
  • Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Meyfroidt, P., Rudel, T. K., Lambin, E. F. 2010; 107 (49): 20917-20922


    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions--a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation--involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Additional global land-use change embodied in their net wood trade offset 74% of their total reforested area. Because the reforesting countries continued to export more agricultural goods than they imported, this net displacement offset 22% of their total reforested area when both agriculture and forestry sectors are included. However, this net displacement increased to 52% during the last 5 y. These countries thus have contributed to a net global reforestation and/or decrease in the pressure on forests, but this global environmental benefit has been shrinking during recent years. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Assessments of the impacts of international policies aimed at reducing global deforestation should integrate international trade in agricultural and forest commodities.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1014773107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285050800016

    View details for PubMedID 21078977

  • Pathogenic landscapes: Interactions between land, people, disease vectors, and their animal hosts INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH GEOGRAPHICS Lambin, E. F., Tran, A., Vanwambeke, S. O., Linard, C., Soti, V. 2010; 9


    Landscape attributes influence spatial variations in disease risk or incidence. We present a review of the key findings from eight case studies that we conducted in Europe and West Africa on the impact of land changes on emerging or re-emerging vector-borne diseases and/or zoonoses. The case studies concern West Nile virus transmission in Senegal, tick-borne encephalitis incidence in Latvia, sandfly abundance in the French Pyrenees, Rift Valley Fever in the Ferlo (Senegal), West Nile Fever and the risk of malaria re-emergence in the Camargue, and rodent-borne Puumala hantavirus and Lyme borreliosis in Belgium.We identified general principles governing landscape epidemiology in these diverse disease systems and geographic regions. We formulated ten propositions that are related to landscape attributes, spatial patterns and habitat connectivity, pathways of pathogen transmission between vectors and hosts, scale issues, land use and ownership, and human behaviour associated with transmission cycles.A static view of the "pathogenecity" of landscapes overlays maps of the spatial distribution of vectors and their habitats, animal hosts carrying specific pathogens and their habitat, and susceptible human hosts and their land use. A more dynamic view emphasizing the spatial and temporal interactions between these agents at multiple scales is more appropriate. We also highlight the complementarity of the modelling approaches used in our case studies. Integrated analyses at the landscape scale allows a better understanding of interactions between changes in ecosystems and climate, land use and human behaviour, and the ecology of vectors and animal hosts of infectious agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1476-072X-9-54

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284094300001

    View details for PubMedID 20979609

  • Solutions to environmental threats. Scientific American Daily, G. C., Howarth, R., Vaccari, D., Morris, A. C., Lambin, E. F., Doney, S. C., Gleick, P. H., Fahey, D. W. 2010; 302 (4): 58-60

    View details for PubMedID 20349575

  • Landscape predictors of tick-borne encephalitis in Latvia: land cover, land use and land ownership Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases O., Vanwambeke S., D., Sumilo, A., Bormane, F., Lambin E., E., Randolph S. 2010; 10: 497-506
  • De l’Holocène à l’Anthropocène Plaidoyer pour la culture scientifique Lambin, E. F. Universcience éditions et les Editions Le Pommier. 2010: 92-108
  • Land use transitions: Ecological feedback versus exogenous socio-economic dynamics Land Use Policy Lambin, E. F., Meyfroidt, P. 2010; 27: 108-118
  • Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity Ecology and Society Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, Å., Chapin, F., Lambin, E., Lenton, T.M., Scheffer, M., Folke, C., Schellnhuber, H., Wit, C. A. De, Hughes, T., der Leeuw, S. Van, Rodhe, H., Sörlin, S., Snyder, P. K., Costanza, R., Svedin, U., Falkenmark, M., Corell, LR. W. 2009; 14
  • Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970-2005 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Rudel, T. K., Schneider, L. C., Uriarte, M., Tuner, II, B. L., DeFries, R., Lawrence, D., Geoghegan, J., Hecht, S., Ickowitz, A., Lambin, E. F., Birkenholtz, T., Baptista, S., Grau, R. 2009; 106: 20675-20680
  • What are the Final Land Limits? Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use Bustamante, M. C., Melillo, J., Connor, D. J., Hardy, Y., Lambin, E. F., Lotze-Campen, H., Ravindranath, N. H., Searchinger, T., Tschirley, J., Watson, H. edited by Howarth, R. W., Bringezu, S. 2009
  • Forest transition in Vietnam and displacement of wood extraction abroad Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Meyfroidt, P., Lambin, E. F. 2009; 106
  • Forest transition in Vietnam and Bhutan: causes and environmental impacts Reforesting landscapes: Linking patterns and processes Meyfroidt, P., Lambin, E. F. edited by Nagendra, H., Southworth, J. Springer. 2009
  • The spatial dynamics of deforestation and agent use in the Amazon Applied Geography R., Lorena, F., Lambin E. 2009; 29: 171-181
  • A multi-agent simulation to assess the risk of malalaria re-emergence in southern France Ecological Modelling C., Linard, N., Ponçon, D., Fontenille, F., Lambin E. 2009; 220: 160-174
  • Scenarios of the risk of malaria re-emergence in southern France Ecohealth C., Linard, N., Ponçon, D., Fontenille, F., Lambin E. 2009; 6: 135-147
  • Livestock Subsidies and Rangeland Degradation in Central Crete Ecology and Society Lorent, H., Sonnenschein, R., Tsiourlis, G. M., Hostert, P., Lambin, E. F. 2009; 14: 41
  • A safe operating space for humanity Nature, J., Rockström, W., Steffen, K., Noone, A., Persson, III, Chapin F. S., E.F., Lambin, T.M., Lenton, M., Scheffer, C., Folke, J., Schellnhuber, B., Nykvist, de Wit C., T., Hughes, van der Leeuw S., S., Sörlin, R., Costanza, U., Svedin, M., Falkenmark, R., Corell, J., Hansen 2009; 461: 472-475
  • Land degradation and economic conditions of agricultural households in a marginal region of northern Greece Global and Planetary Change H., Lorent, C., Evangelou, M., Stellmes, J., Hill, V., Papanastasis, G., Tsiourlis, A., Roeder, F., Lambin E. 2008; 64: 198-209
  • Categorization of land-cover change processes based on phenological indicators extracted from time series of vegetation index data International Journal of Remote Sensing F., Lupo, M., Linderman, V., Vanacker, E., Bartholomé, F., Lambin E. 2008; 28: 2469-2483
  • Forest transition in Vietnam and its environmental impacts Global Change Biology P., Meyfroidt, F., Lambin E. 2008; 14: 1-18
  • Variability in energy influences avian distribution patterns across the USA Ecosystems P., Rowhani, A., Lepczyk C., M., Linderman, M., Pidgeon A., C., Radeloff V., D., Culbert P., F., Lambin E. 2008; 11: 854-867
  • Causes of the reforestation in Vietnam Land Use Policy P., Meyfroidt, F., Lambin E. 2008; 25: 182-197
  • Environmental conditions and Puumala hantavirus transmission risk in Belgium International Journal of Health Geographics C., Linard, V., Tersago, H., Leirs, F., Lambin E. 2007; 6
  • The Middle Path: Avoiding Environmental Catastrophe (translated) Lambin , E. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 2007
  • The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Turner, II, B. L., Lambin E.F. and , E. F., Reenberg, A. 2007; 104: 20666-20671
  • Landscape and land-cover factors influence the presence of Aedes and Anopheles larvae, Journal of Medical Entomology, O., Vanwambeke S., P., Somboon, E., Harbach R., M., Isenstadt, F., Lambin E., C., Walton, K., Butlin R. 2007; 44,: 133-144
  • Rural transformation and social differentiation in northern Thailand Journal of Land Use Science S., Vanwambeke, P., Somboom, F., Lambin E. 2007; 2: 1-29
  • Temporal Heterogeneity in the Study of African Land Use Human Ecology I., Guyer J., F., Lambin E., L., Cliggett, et al., Walker P. 2007; 35: 3-17
  • Impact of land-use change on dengue and malaria in northern Thailand Ecohealth O., Vanwambeke S., F., Lambin E., P., Eichhorn M., S., Flasse, E., Harbach R., L., Oskam, P., Somboon, van Beers S., van Benthem B. H. B., C., Walton, K., Butlin R. 2007; 4: 37-51
  • Global Desertification: Building a Science for Dryland Development Science Reynolds, J. F., Smith, D. Mark Stafford, Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L., Ii, M. Mortimore, Batterbury, S. P. J., Downing, T. E., Dowlatabadi, H., Fernandez, R. J., Herrick, J. E., Huber-Sannwald, E., Jiang, H., Leemans, R., Lynam, T., Maestre, F., Walker, B., Ayarza, M. 2007; 316: 847-851
  • Determinants of the geographic distribution of Puumala hantavirus and Lyme borreliosis infections in Belgium International Journal of Health Geographics C., Linard, P., Lamarque, P., Heyman, G., Ducoffre, V., Luyasu, V., Tersago, O., Vanwambeke S., F., Lambin E. 2007; 6
  • Causes of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon : a Qualitative Comparative Analysis Journal of Land Use Science M., Scouvart, F., Lambin E., M., Caldas, V., Dale, V., Nédélec, P., Pacheco, B., Rihoux 2007; 2: 257-282
  • A multilevel analysis of the impact of land use on interannual land-cover change in East Africa Ecosystems S., Serneels, M., Linderman, F., Lambin E. 2007; 10: 402-418
  • Conditions for sustainable land use: case study evidence Journal of Land Use Science P., Raquez, F., Lambin E. 2006; 1: 109-125
  • Time series of remote sensing data for land change science IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Lambin, E. F., Linderman, M. 2006; 44: 1926-1928
  • Complex Causality in Human-Environment Interactions: Toward a Portfolio Approach to Understanding Institutions and Land Change Ecology and Society O., Young, F., Lambin E., F., Alcock, H., Haberl, I., Karlsson S., J., McConnell W., T., Myint, C., Pahl-Wostl, C., Polsky, S., Ramakrishnan P., M., Scouvart, H., Schroeder, H., Verburg P. 2006; 11
  • Multi-level analyses of spatial and temporal determinants for dengue infection International Journal of Health Geographics S., Vanwambeke, van Benthem B. H. B., N., Khantikul, C., Burghoorn-Maas, K., Panart, L., Oskam, F., Lambin E., P., Somboon 2006; 5
  • Approche systémique des causes de la déforestation en Amazonie brésilienne: syndromes, synergies et rétroactions L'Espace Géographique M., Scouvart, F., Lambin E. 2006; 3: 241-254
  • Vulnerability of land systems to fire: interactions between humans, climate, the atmosphere and ecosystems Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change S., Lavorel, D., Flanningan M., .F., Lambin E, C., Scholes M. 2006; 12: 33-53
  • Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: Local processes and global impacts Lambin, E. F., et al edited by Lambin, E. F., et al Springer, Berlin. 2006