Dr. Saleem is an Assistant Professor in the Graduate School of Education at Stanford University. She earned her PhD in Clinical-Community Psychology from the George Washington University and completed an APA accredited internship, with a specialization in trauma, at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles. Dr. Saleem’s research examines the influence of racial stressors and culturally relevant practices on the psychological health, academic success, and well-being of Black adolescents and other youth of color. Dr. Saleem uses a strengths-focused and community-based lens in her research to study contextual nuance in the process and benefits of ethnic-racial socialization. She also explores factors in the family, school, and community contexts that can help youth manage the consequences of racial stress and trauma. Her current studies examine the utilization and benefits of ethnic-racial socialization across the school ecology. Dr. Saleem uses her research in each of these areas to inform the development and adaptation of programs and school-based interventions focused on managing racial stressors, eradicating mental health and academic racial disparities, and promoting resilience among historically marginalized and racially diverse children and adolescents. Dr. Saleem is a visiting scholar to the American Psychological Association RESilience Initiative and serves in other positions focused on inclusion, equity and social justice. Prior to coming to Stanford, Dr. Saleem was a Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow and a University of California Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California Los Angeles in the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies and the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, with affiliation in the Ralph J. Bunche Center for African American Studies.
Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Education
PhD, George Washington University, Clinical-Community Psychology
B.A., Georgia State University, Psychology
Diversity and Identity
Equity in Education
Parents and Family Issues
Race and Ethnicity
- African American Child and Adolescent Mental Health: An Ecological Approach
CSRE 372, EDUC 372, PSYCH 261 (Spr)
- Community Engaged Psychology and Education Field Experience
EDUC 461 (Spr)
- Independent Studies (4)
Prior Year Courses
Examining school ethnic-racial socialization in the link between race-related stress and academic well-being among African American and Latinx adolescents.
Journal of school psychology
2022; 91: 97-111
Experiences with race-related stressors at school are linked to negative academic consequences, such as lowered belonging and engagement. One factor known to buffer racial stressors is ethnic-racial socialization (ERS). Although students receive ERS messages in school, less is known about how school ERS may reduce the negative consequences of school race-related stress (SRS) on youth's academic outcomes. To date no studies have examined the moderating effects of school ERS on SRS and whether the associations vary for African American and Latinx youth. Thus, the current study examined the direct effects of SRS and school ERS on youth's academic well-being, the moderating role of school ERS against SRS, and whether these associations varied for African American and Latinx youth. Multiple group regression analysis with 221 African American and 219 Latinx adolescents demonstrated that SRS was negatively associated with the academic outcomes. Cultural socialization was associated with more positive outcomes. Furthermore, there were significant interactions between SRS and color-evasive socialization, such that SRS was associated with lower belonging at higher compared to lower levels of color-evasive messages. Additionally, SRS was associated with less school engagement for those who reported high color-evasive socialization messages, but there was no association for those who reported low color-evasive messages. The results indicate that color-evasive school ERS messages can exacerbate the negative associations between SRS and academic well-being for both African American and Latinx youth and highlight how school racialized experiences may have unique or similar effects across groups. Implications for culturally relevant school practices and interventions are discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsp.2022.01.001
View details for PubMedID 35190082
Resilience and Family Socialization Processes in Ethnic Minority Youth: Illuminating the Achievement-Health Paradox.
Clinical child and family psychology review
Youth in marginalized communities who "strive" to rise above adversity, including systemic racism and poverty, are considered "resilient." African-American, Latinx, and Asian-American youth often achieve admirable academic success despite limited social capital and high early life stress by adopting a "striving persistent behavioral style" (SPBS). SPBS may be supported by family socialization processes that facilitate reliance on self-regulation processes. Unfortunately, a young person's resilience in one domain (i.e., academic) can come at a cost in other domains, including physical and mental health morbidities that are under-identified and under-treated. Indeed, research suggests a link between SPBS in the face of adversity and later health morbidities among ethnic minority youth. Herein, we describe SPBS as an adaptation to minority stress that not only promotes social mobility but may also stoke physical and mental health disparities. We review how family processes related to academic, emotional, and ethnic-racial socialization can facilitate the striving persistent behavioral style. We emphasize the double bind that ethnic minority families are caught in and discuss directions for future research and clinical implications for individual and family-level interventions. While needed, we argue that individual and family-level interventions represent a near-term work around. Solutions and factors that shape the need for SPBS and its cost must be addressed structurally.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10567-022-00389-1
View details for PubMedID 35201542
Ethnic-Racial Socialization as a Moderator of Associations Between Discrimination and Psychosocial Well-Being Among African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents
CULTURAL DIVERSITY & ETHNIC MINORITY PSYCHOLOGY
Discrimination can have debilitating effects on Black adolescents' psychosocial well-being. Ethnic-racial socialization (ERS) is crucial in helping youth manage racial discrimination and its adverse effects. However, little is known about how ERS can be beneficial against discrimination for subgroups of Black youth, despite evidence that culture and nationality may influence how adults prepare youth for discrimination. The present study examined if associations between discrimination and psychosocial well-being outcomes, and the moderating effects of ERS, varied by ethnicity for African American (AA) and Caribbean Black (CB) adolescents.Participants were 1,170 Black adolescents, 810 (AA); 360 (CB), who participated in the National Survey of American Life Adolescent supplement study. Multigroup analysis was applied to examine the moderating effects of ERS for AA and CB adolescents.For CB adolescents who reported high preparation for bias, discrimination was associated with fewer mastery beliefs, and the positive association between discrimination and perceived stress was stronger at higher levels of preparation for bias. Additionally, the negative association between discrimination and John Henryism active coping was stronger for youth who reported high egalitarian messages.Findings indicate that preparation for bias messages differentially influences the effects of discrimination on stress and mastery for AA and CB adolescents. The results highlight the importance of exploring ethnic heterogeneity of ERS. Implications for psychosocial well-being are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
View details for DOI 10.1037/cdp0000521
View details for Web of Science ID 000747997800001
View details for PubMedID 35099209
- Unpacking school ethnic-racial socialization: A new conceptual model JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES 2021; 77 (4): 1106-1125
- Understanding and addressing racial stress and trauma in schools: A pathway toward resistance and healing PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS 2021
Interrupting the Pathway From Discrimination to Black Adolescents' Psychosocial Outcomes: The Contribution of Parental Racial Worries and Racial Socialization Competency.
Racial discrimination can lead to psychosocial problems for Black adolescents, including internalization (e.g., depression) and externalization (e.g., conduct problems). Black parents (N=186; Mage =42.9) of adolescents (ages 10-18) were assessed to investigate how parental worries and racial socialization competency (i.e., confidence, skills, and stress) contribute to the association between parental discrimination experiences and their adolescents' psychosocial problems. Mediation analyses indicated that the total direct models with discrimination, worries, and problems had good fit, and that the addition of worry mediated the discrimination-problems association. Furthermore, racial socialization competency moderated the association between worry and problems, wherein greater competency was associated with less impact of worry on problems. Findings illuminate potential intervention targets for buffering discrimination's influence on adolescents' psychosocial functioning.
View details for DOI 10.1111/cdev.13607
View details for PubMedID 34131912