Honors & Awards
Stanford Bio-X Interdisciplinary Initiatives Seed Grants Program Symposium Poster Award, Stanford (2023)
Early-Stage Investigator Travel Award, The American Society for Bone and Mineral Reseaech (ASBMR) and NIH (2023)
Stanford Bio-X Travel Award, Stanford (2023)
Georgios Skiniotis, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Allosteric modulation and G-protein selectivity of the Ca2+-sensing receptor.
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a family C G-protein-coupled receptor1 (GPCR) that has a central role in regulating systemic calcium homeostasis2,3. Here we use cryo-electron microscopy and functional assays to investigate the activation of human CaSR embedded in lipid nanodiscs and its coupling to functional Gi versus Gq proteins in the presence and absence of the calcimimetic drug cinacalcet. High-resolution structures show that both Gi and Gq drive additional conformational changes in the activated CaSR dimer to stabilize a more extensive asymmetric interface of the seven-transmembrane domain (7TM) that involves key protein-lipid interactions. Selective Gi and Gq coupling by the receptor is achieved through substantial rearrangements of intracellular loop 2 and the C terminus, which contribute differentially towards the binding of the two G-protein subtypes, resulting in distinct CaSR-G-protein interfaces. The structures also reveal that natural polyamines target multiple sites on CaSR to enhance receptor activation by zipping negatively charged regions between two protomers. Furthermore, we find that the amino acid L-tryptophan, a well-known ligand of CaSR extracellular domains, occupies the 7TM bundle of the G-protein-coupled protomer at the same location as cinacalcet and other allosteric modulators. Together, these results provide a framework for G-protein activation and selectivity by CaSR, as well as its allosteric modulation by endogenous and exogenous ligands.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-024-07055-2
View details for PubMedID 38326620
View details for PubMedCentralID 5264458
Helicases required for nucleotide excision repair: structure, function and mechanism.
2023; 54: 273-304
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major DNA repair pathway conserved from bacteria to humans. Various DNA helicases, a group of enzymes capable of separating DNA duplex into two strands through ATP binding and hydrolysis, are required by NER to unwind the DNA duplex around the lesion to create a repair bubble and for damage verification and removal. In prokaryotes, UvrB helicase is required for repair bubble formation and damage verification, while UvrD helicase is responsible for the removal of the excised damage containing single-strand (ss) DNA fragment. In addition, UvrD facilitates transcription-coupled repair (TCR) by backtracking RNA polymerase stalled at the lesion. In eukaryotes, two helicases XPB and XPD from the transcription factor TFIIH complex fulfill the helicase requirements of NER. Interestingly, homologs of all these four helicases UvrB, UvrD, XPB, and XPD have been identified in archaea. This review summarizes our current understanding about the structure, function, and mechanism of these four helicases.
View details for DOI 10.1016/bs.enz.2023.05.002
View details for PubMedID 37945175
Structure determination of inactive-state GPCRs with a universal nanobody.
Nature structural & molecular biology
Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has widened the field of structure-based drug discovery by allowing for routine determination of membrane protein structures previously intractable. Despite representing one of the largest classes of therapeutic targets, most inactive-state G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have remained inaccessible for cryo-EM because their small size and membrane-embedded nature impedes projection alignment for high-resolution map reconstructions. Here we demonstrate that the same single-chain camelid antibody (nanobody) recognizing a grafted intracellular loop can be used to obtain cryo-EM structures of inactive-state GPCRs at resolutions comparable or better than those obtained by X-ray crystallography. Using this approach, we obtained structures of neurotensin 1 receptor bound to antagonist SR48692, mu-opioid receptor bound to alvimopan, apo somatostatin receptor 2 and histamine receptor 2 bound to famotidine. We expect this rapid, straightforward approach to facilitate the broad exploration of GPCR inactive states without the need for extensive engineering and crystallization.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41594-022-00859-8
View details for PubMedID 36396979
The tethered peptide activation mechanism of adhesion GPCRs.
Adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are characterized by the presence of auto-proteolysing extracellular regions that are involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions1. Self cleavage within the aGPCR auto-proteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain produces two protomers-N-terminal and C-terminal fragments-that remain non-covalently attached after receptors reach the cell surface1. Upon dissociation of the N-terminal fragment, the C-terminus of the GAIN domain acts as a tethered agonist (TA) peptide to activate the seven-transmembrane domain with a mechanism that has been poorly understood2-5. Here we provide cryo-electron microscopy snapshots of two distinct members of the aGPCR family, GPR56 (also known as ADGRG1) and latrophilin3 (LPHN3 (also known as ADGRL3)). Low-resolution maps of the receptors in their N-terminal fragment-bound state indicate that the GAIN domain projects flexibly towards the extracellular space, keeping the encrypted TA peptide away from the seven-transmembrane domain. High-resolution structures of GPR56 and LPHN3 in their active, G-protein-coupled states, reveal that after dissociation of the extracellular region, the decrypted TA peptides engage the seven-transmembrane domain core with a notable conservation of interactions that also involve extracellular loop 2. TA binding stabilizes breaks in the middle of transmembrane helices 6 and 7 that facilitate aGPCR coupling and activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Collectively, these results enable us to propose a general model for aGPCR activation.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-04575-7
View details for PubMedID 35418682
Structural basis of the XPB helicase-Bax1 nuclease complex interacting with the repair bubble DNA
NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH
2020; 48 (20): 11695-11705
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes various DNA lesions caused by UV light and chemical carcinogens. The DNA helicase XPB plays a key role in DNA opening and coordinating damage incision by nucleases during NER, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report crystal structures of XPB from Sulfurisphaera tokodaii (St) bound to the nuclease Bax1 and their complex with a bubble DNA having one arm unwound in the crystal. StXPB and Bax1 together spirally encircle 10 base pairs of duplex DNA at the double-/single-stranded (ds-ss) junction. Furthermore, StXPB has its ThM motif intruding between the two DNA strands and gripping the 3'-overhang while Bax1 interacts with the 5'-overhang. This ternary complex likely reflects the state of repair bubble extension by the XPB and nuclease machine. ATP binding and hydrolysis by StXPB could lead to a spiral translocation along dsDNA and DNA strand separation by the ThM motif, revealing an unconventional DNA unwinding mechanism. Interestingly, the DNA is kept away from the nuclease domain of Bax1, potentially preventing DNA incision by Bax1 during repair bubble extension.
View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkaa801
View details for Web of Science ID 000606018600039
View details for PubMedID 32986831
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7672443
Structural basis of the XPB-Bax1 complex as a dynamic helicase-nuclease machinery for DNA repair
NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH
2020; 48 (11): 6326-6339
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major DNA repair pathway for a variety of DNA lesions. XPB plays a key role in DNA opening at damage sites and coordinating damage incision by nucleases. XPB is conserved from archaea to human. In archaea, XPB is associated with a nuclease Bax1. Here we report crystal structures of XPB in complex with Bax1 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (Af) and Sulfolobus tokodaii (St). These structures reveal for the first time four domains in Bax1, which interacts with XPB mainly through its N-terminal domain. A Cas2-like domain likely helps to position Bax1 at the forked DNA allowing the nuclease domain to incise one arm of the fork. Bax1 exists in monomer or homodimer but forms a heterodimer exclusively with XPB. StBax1 keeps StXPB in a closed conformation and stimulates ATP hydrolysis by XPB while AfBax1 maintains AfXPB in the open conformation and reduces its ATPase activity. Bax1 contains two distinguished nuclease active sites to presumably incise DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that protein-protein interactions regulate the activities of XPB ATPase and Bax1 nuclease. These structures provide a platform to understand the XPB-nuclease interactions important for the coordination of DNA unwinding and damage incision in eukaryotic NER.
View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkaa324
View details for Web of Science ID 000574284500044
View details for PubMedID 32374860
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7293015
DNA-binding mechanism of the Hippo pathway transcription factor TEAD4
2017; 36 (30): 4362-4369
TEA domain (TEAD) family transcription factors are key regulators in development, tissue homeostasis and cancer progression. TEAD4 acts as a critical downstream effector of the evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway. The well-studied oncogenic protein YAP forms a complex with TEAD4 to regulate gene transcription; so does the tumor suppressor VGLL4. Although it is known that TEAD proteins can bind promoter regions of target genes through the TEA domain, the specific and detailed mechanism of DNA recognition by the TEA domain remains partially understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of TEAD4 TEA domain in complex with a muscle-CAT DNA element. The structure revealed extensive interactions between the TEA domain and the DNA duplex involving both the major and minor grooves of DNA helix. The DNA recognition helix, α3 helix, determines the specificity of the TEA domain binding to DNA sequence. Structure-guided biochemical analysis identified two major binding sites on the interface of the TEA domain-DNA complex. Mutation of TEAD4 at either site substantially decreases its occupancy on the promoter region of target genes, and largely impaired YAP-induced TEAD4 transactivation and target gene transcription, leading to inhibition of growth and colony formation of gastric cancer cell HGC-27. Collectively, our work provides a structural basis for understanding the regulatory mechanism of TEAD-mediated gene transcription.
View details for DOI 10.1038/onc.2017.24
View details for Web of Science ID 000406360600012
View details for PubMedID 28368398
Structural Insights into Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling Protein (MAVS)-Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) Signaling
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2015; 290 (44): 26811-26820
In response to viral infection, cytosolic retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors sense viral RNA and promote oligomerization of mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), which then recruits tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family proteins, including TRAF6, to activate an antiviral response. Currently, the interaction between MAVS and TRAF6 is only partially understood, and atomic details are lacking. Here, we demonstrated that MAVS directly interacts with TRAF6 through its potential TRAF6-binding motif 2 (T6BM2; amino acids 455-460). Further, we solved the crystal structure of MAVS T6BM2 in complex with the TRAF6 TRAF_C domain at 2.95 Å resolution. T6BM2 of MAVS binds to the canonical adaptor-binding groove of the TRAF_C domain. Structure-directed mutational analyses in vitro and in cells revealed that MAVS binding to TRAF6 via T6BM2 instead of T6BM1 is essential but not sufficient for an optimal antiviral response. Particularly, a MAVS mutant Y460E retained its TRAF6-binding ability as predicted but showed significantly impaired signaling activity, highlighting the functional importance of this tyrosine. Moreover, these observations were further confirmed in MAVS(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Collectively, our work provides a structural basis for understanding the MAVS-TRAF6 antiviral response.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M115.666578
View details for Web of Science ID 000364793600043
View details for PubMedID 26385923
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4646334
Striatins Contain a Noncanonical Coiled Coil That Binds Protein Phosphatase 2A A Subunit to Form a 2: 2 Heterotetrameric Core of Striatin- interacting Phosphatase and Kinase ( STRIPAK) Complex*
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2014; 289 (14): 9651-9661
The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and kinases such as germinal center kinase III (GCKIII) can interact with striatins to form a supramolecular complex called striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex. Despite the fact that the STRIPAK complex regulates multiple cellular events, it remains only partially understood how this complex itself is assembled and regulated for differential biological functions. Our recent work revealed the activation mechanism of GCKIIIs by MO25, as well as how GCKIIIs heterodimerize with CCM3, a molecular bridge between GCKIII and striatins. Here we dissect the structural features of the coiled coil domain of striatin 3, a novel type of PP2A regulatory subunit that functions as a scaffold for the assembly of the STRIPAK complex. We have determined the crystal structure of a selenomethionine-labeled striatin 3 coiled coil domain, which shows it to assume a parallel dimeric but asymmetric conformation containing a large bend. This result combined with a number of biophysical analyses provide evidence that the coiled coil domain of striatin 3 and the PP2A A subunit form a stable core complex with a 2:2 stoichiometry. Structure-based mutational studies reveal that homodimerization of striatin 3 is essential for its interaction with PP2A and therefore assembly of the STRIPAK complex. Wild-type striatin 3 but not the mutants defective in PP2A binding strongly suppresses apoptosis of Jurkat cells induced by the GCKIII kinase MST3, most likely through a mechanism in which striatin recruits PP2A to negatively regulate the activation of MST3. Collectively, our work provides structural insights into the organization of the STRIPAK complex and will facilitate further functional studies.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M113.529297
View details for Web of Science ID 000333807000019
View details for PubMedID 24550388
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3975014
A Peptide Mimicking VGLL4 Function Acts as a YAP Antagonist Therapy against Gastric Cancer
2014; 25 (2): 166-180
The Hippo pathway has been implicated in suppressing tissue overgrowth and tumor formation by restricting the oncogenic activity of YAP. However, transcriptional regulators that inhibit YAP activity have not been well studied. Here, we uncover clinical importance for VGLL4 in gastric cancer suppression and find that VGLL4 directly competes with YAP for binding TEADs. Importantly, VGLL4's tandem Tondu domains are not only essential but also sufficient for its inhibitory activity toward YAP. A peptide mimicking this function of VGLL4 potently suppressed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that disruption of YAP-TEADs interaction by a VGLL4-mimicking peptide may be a promising therapeutic strategy against YAP-driven human cancers.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2014.01.010
View details for Web of Science ID 000331498000006
View details for PubMedID 24525233