Clinical Focus

  • Minority and Immigrant Child Health
  • Health Disparities
  • Pediatrics
  • Health Workforce Diversity
  • Diversity, Inclusion, Equity in Medicine

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Associate Dean of Minority Advising and Programs, Office of Student Affairs (1983 - 2021)
  • Faculty Principal Investigator, Center of Excellence for Diversity In Medical Education (1992 - 2020)
  • Chief, Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics (1996 - 2014)
  • General Pediatric Service Chief, LPCH (1996 - 2014)
  • Fellowship Director, Academic General Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics, Stanford (1997 - 2014)

Honors & Awards

  • Oscar Salvatierra Award for Exceptional Service to Stanford Medical Student, Stanford School of Medicine (June 2022)
  • AOA Visiting Professor, University of Miami (May 2022)
  • Joseph W. St. Geme Jr. Leadership Award, Federation of Pediatric Organizations (April 2022)
  • Named Award -Fernando Mendoza Health Equity,, Research and Opportunity (HERO) Award, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine (May 20, 2021)
  • MCHRI- Visionary Leadership Award, Stanford University (November 6, 2020)
  • DRIVE Award, renamed the Fernando Mendoza DRIVE award, Stanford University, Department of Pediatrics (June 26,2020)
  • 38th Annual Nathan F. Mossell Lecturer on Health Equity, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine (October 2, 2019)
  • RISE Award, Stanford Medicine Alumni Association (April 2019)
  • Dr. Phil DeChavez LMSA National Mentor of the Year Award, The National Latino Medical Student Association (April 2016)
  • The Augustus A. White III and Family Faculty Professionalism Award, Stanford University, School of Medicine (June 2015)
  • Medical Staff Distinguish Service Award, Stanford Children's Health Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford (April 2015)
  • Ravenswood Family Health Center, Community Service Award, August, Ravenswood Family Health Center Board (August 2014)
  • Leonard P. Rome CATCH Visiting Professor, Children’s National Medical Center (April 2014)
  • Hispanic Child Health. Visiting Professor, University of Puerto Rico (February 2014)
  • Who's Who Worldwide, Who's Who (2012-2013)
  • CDC’s Health Equity Champion, CDC (September 2012)
  • President's Award for Excellence through Diversity, Stanford University (June 2012)
  • JE Wallace Sterling "Muleshoe" Lifetime Alumni Achievement Award, Stanford University Medical Center Alumni Association (May 2012)
  • Visiting Diversity Professor, Harvard Medical School (October 2009)
  • The Gardner Community Spirit Award, Gardner Family Health Services (September 2008)
  • 100 Most Influencial Latinos in Silicon Valley, Mexican American Community Service Agency (June 2007)
  • GSA-MAS Service Award, Association of American Medical Colleges (November 2005)
  • Dr. Fernando S. Mendoza Award, awarded by LSMA, SNMA, SAIMS (May 2005)
  • Juan Villagomez Humanitarian Award, California Latino Medical Association (September 2004)
  • Leadership Award, National Hispanic Medical Association (March 20, 2004)
  • 100 Most Influencial Hispanics in the United States, Hispanic Business Magazine (2002)
  • Hispanic Profile of Excellence, KGO Channel 7, (ABC Affiliate in San Francisco), (October 2002)
  • Top Doctors in Silicon Valley, San Jose Magazine (1999 to 2007)
  • Outstanding Research Advisor, The Stanford Society of Chicano/Latino Engineers and Scientists Stanford University (May 1993)
  • Henry J. Kaiser Award for Outstanding and Innovation Contribution in Medical Education,, Stanford University School of Medicine (June 1990)
  • Research Excellence Award,, National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations (COSSMHO) (September 1986)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Chair, Group on Student Affairs - Minority Affairs Section, Association of American Medical Colleges, Western Region (1986 - 1987)
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Medical Education (1986 - 1989)
  • Member, National Institutes of Health, Human Development and Aging Study Section (1993 - 1997)
  • Member, National Commission on Substance Abuse on College and University Campuses: Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University; Director, Joseph A. Califano, Jr (1993 - 2000)
  • Chair, Chairperson, 13 School Consortium Minority Affairs Section (1995 - 2000)
  • Member, Committee on the Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families, Institute of Medicine (1996 - 1998)
  • Executive Board Member, Hispanic Serving Health Professions School Inc. (1996 - 2012)
  • Chair, California Health Interview Survey , Child Technical Advisory Committee, UCLA (1999 - 2020)
  • Board Member, Stanford Medical Alumni Association (2004 - 2010)
  • Board Member, Pan American Health Education Foundation (2006 - 2012)
  • Co-Chair, Co-Chair, Vision Council, KIDS IN COMMON, Santa Clara County (2008 - Present)
  • Co-chair, American Pediatric Society, Diversity and Inclusion Committee (2011 - 2016)
  • Co-chair, Federation of Pediatric Organization's Working Group on Diversity and Inclusion (2012 - 2014)
  • Co-PI APA Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity, NIDDK (2012 - Present)
  • Council Member, National Advisory Council, NIMHD (2016 - 2020)
  • Member, AAP Task Force on Addressing Bias & Discrimination (2017 - 2019)
  • Member, Academic Pediatric Association Research Committee (2019 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship: Stanford University Dept of Pediatrics (1981) CA
  • Residency: Stanford Health Care at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (1978) CA
  • Internship: Stanford Health Care at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (1976) CA
  • Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (1975) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (1980)
  • M.P.H., Harvard University, Maternal and Child Health (1979)
  • B.A., San Jose State College, Biochemistry (1971)

Community and International Work

  • Board Secretary, Kids In Common, Santa Clara County


    Children's Wellness and Success

    Populations Served

    Children and Youth


    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Gardner Packard Children's Health Center, Palo Alto

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Gardner Family Health Center

    Populations Served



    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Co-Chair Children's Agenda, Santa Clara County


    Coalition development

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Kids In Common

    Populations Served

    Santa Clara County



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Ravenswood Family Health Center, East Palo Alto


    general pediatric services and edcuation

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Ravenswood Family Health Center

    Populations Served



    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Current Research and Scholarly Interests

I have two research interests: childhood health disparities and workforce diversity. My research on childhood health disparities centers on Latino and immigrant children with a focus on early childhood health and development. My work in workforce diversity examines the pipeline for diversity in academic pediatrics, with special attention on the pipeline for underrepresent minorities.

Children in immigrant families (CIF) represented that fastest growing child population, representing 75% of the growth of the US child population over the past two decades. CIF will become 1 out of every 3 children in the US, thus making the health and development issues of this population of children important for the future of the US. We have an interested in exploring the early health and development of this group of children, and the patterns of parenting that may affect their outcomes. Using the California Heath Interview Survey, we have examined the frequency of early book-sharing parental behaviors among immigrant parents, and the prevalence of chronic disease and health care utilization among their children.

Workforce diversity has been a goal of a number of organizations, and is an important aspect of preparing academic pediatrics to address the health needs of children resulting from the shifting demographics of US children. Working with national organizations, assessments of academic pediatrics diversity shows improved diversity in gender and ethnic/racial, but still low number of underrepresented minorities in academic pediatrics, particularly in leadership positions. Further exploring the process by which diversity can be improved is currently under way.

2023-24 Courses

All Publications

  • The Need for Enhancing Funding for Research on Children in Immigrant Families. Academic pediatrics Mendoza, F. S., Flores, G., Fuentes-Afflick, E. 2024; 24 (5S): 73-74

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2023.03.001

    View details for PubMedID 38991812

  • Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion, Child Health, and the Pediatric Subspecialty Workforce. Pediatrics Orr, C. J., Leslie, L. K., Schaechter, J., Williams, X. J., Montez, K. G., Deen, J. F., Evans, Y. N., Russell, C. J., Webb, J., Gaona, A. R., Mendoza, F. S. 2024; 153 (Suppl 2)


    Using multiple metrics, the diversity of the pediatric population in the United States is increasing. However, recent data suggest significant disparities in both the prevalence and management of child health conditions cared for by pediatric subspecialists. These inequities occur across multiple dimensions of diversity, including race and ethnicity, country of origin, socioeconomic status, sex and gender, and disability. Research also suggests that attending to diversity, equity, and inclusion in the medical workforce may positively affect health outcomes. High-quality pediatric subspecialty care thus requires knowledge of these data, attention to the effects of social drivers, including racism and discrimination, on health and wellbeing, and interventions to improve pediatric health equity through educational, practice, policy, and research innovations. In this article, we review data on the diversity of the pediatric population and pediatric subspecialty workforce, suggest potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of current diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives in academic pediatrics, and provide recommendations across 4 domains: education and training, practice, policy, and future research. The ultimate goal of pediatrics is to improve health equity for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults cared for in the United States by pediatric subspecialists.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2023-063678S

    View details for PubMedID 38300010

  • The 2022 Joseph W. St Geme, Jr, Leadership Award Address-Diversity and Social Justice: The Field of Pediatrics Can and Should Lead. Pediatrics Mendoza, F. S. 2023; 151 (4)


    The following is an address given by the 2022 recipient of the Joseph W. St. Geme, Jr. Leadership Award, presented by the Federation of Pediatric Organizations at the Pediatric Academic Societies meeting on April 22, 2022.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2022-059080

    View details for PubMedID 36970864

  • Children in Immigrant Families Deserve Health Care. Pediatrics Mendoza, F. S., Sanders, L., Laitin, D. D. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2022-057672

    View details for PubMedID 36004547

  • The Intergenerational Health Effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program on Families With Mixed Immigration Status ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS El-Banna, G., Higuera, K., Mendoza, F. S. 2022; 22 (5): 729-735
  • Program Evaluation of the Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID): Impact on Career Development and Professional Society Diversity. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Flores, G. n., Mendoza, F. n., Brimacombe, M. B., Frazier, W. n. 2020


    Despite a demographic surge in U.S. minority children, pediatric workforce diversity has failed to keep pace. The study aim was to evaluate the Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID), a research-education program aimed at recruiting, retaining, and professionally advancing diverse early-career faculty in general pediatrics who are pursuing research careers.RAPID includes the following components: small research grants, mentoring by nationally renowned senior investigators, mentoring and networking at an annual breakfast, an annual career-development conference, and monthly mentoring conference calls. Outcomes data from the first 5 years (2012-2017) of RAPID were analyzed. Data sources were Academic Pediatric Association (APA) membership data and post-conference, baseline, and end-of-program/follow-up surveys. Outcome measures included mentoring quality, presentations, publications, subsequent grants, impact on career success, conference ratings, and APA membership diversity.For the 10 scholars from the first 4 cohorts, mean scores were 4.5 (5 = strongly agree) for RAPID fostering mentoring, developing research skills, and helping scholars feel more comfortable as underrepresented minority (URM) faculty; 78% delivered platform or poster presentations on their project. They published 56 total articles and received a mean of 2.5 subsequent grants. Their mean score for RAPID "advancing my career by facilitating promotion or getting a job" was 4.6. The first 4 RAPID Conferences were highly rated (mean scores = 4.2-4.8) and brought in 33 additional URM young investigators. Pre-RAPID, URM APA membership stagnated at 6%-7% for 5 years. In RAPID's first year, URM APA membership rose to 8%, then to 10% by 2017 (43% increase; P < .001).RAPID Scholars generated multiple presentations and publications. RAPID mentoring and conferences were highly rated. RAPID was associated with career advancement and increased professional society diversity. RAPID could serve as a national model for enhancing URM career development and professional society diversity.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000003531

    View details for PubMedID 32496290

  • Public Health Insurance Expansion for Immigrant Children and Interstate Migration of Low-Income Immigrants JAMA Pediatrics Yasenov, V. I., Lawrence, D., Mendoza, F. S., Hainmueller, J. 2019
  • Diversity and inclusion in pediatrics: imperative, not optional. Pediatric research Mendoza, F. S., Fuentes-Afflick, E. n., Walker-Harding, L. R. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41390-019-0515-4

    View details for PubMedID 31351438

  • Immigration Policy: Valuing Children. Academic pediatrics Mendoza, F. S., Cueto, V., Lawrence, D., Sanders, L., Weintraub, D. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 29966712

  • Protecting unauthorized immigrant mothers improves their children’s mental health Science Hainmueller, J., Lawrence, D., Martén, L., Black, B., Figueroa, L., Hotard, M., Jiménez, T., Mendoza, F., Rodriguez, M., Swartz, J., Laitin, D. 2017: eaan5893


    The United States is embroiled in a debate about whether to protect or deport its estimated 11 million unauthorized immigrants, but the fact that these immigrants are also parents to more than 4 million U.S.-born children is often overlooked. We provide causal evidence of the impact of parents' unauthorized immigration status on the health of their U.S. citizen children. The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program granted temporary protection from deportation to more than 780,000 unauthorized immigrants. We used Medicaid claims data from Oregon and exploited the quasi-random assignment of DACA eligibility among mothers with birthdates close to the DACA age qualification cutoff. Mothers' DACA eligibility significantly decreased adjustment and anxiety disorder diagnoses among their children. Parents' unauthorized status is thus a substantial barrier to normal child development and perpetuates health inequalities through the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aan5893

  • Diversity and inclusion training in pediatric departments. Pediatrics Mendoza, F. S., Walker, L. R., Stoll, B. J., Fuentes-Afflick, E., St Geme, J. W., Cheng, T. L., Gonzalez del Rey, J. A., Harris, C. E., Rimsza, M. E., Li, J., Sectish, T. C. 2015; 135 (4): 707-713


    The diversifying US population of children necessitates assessing the diversity of the pediatric academic workforce and its level of cultural competency training. Such data are essential for workforce and educational policies.An 8-question survey was sent to 131 US pediatric chairs to assess plans for diversity, targeted groups, departmental diversity, diversity measures, perceived success in diversity, and presence and type of cultural competency training.In all, 49.6% of chairs responded, and three-quarters of them reported having a plan for diversity, which targeted racial; ethnic; gender; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender; disabled; and social class groups. Of the residents, 75% were women, as compared with 54% of faculty and 26% of chairs. Racial and ethnic diversity was limited among trainees, faculty, and leaders; <10% of each group was African American, Hispanic, or Native American. Asian Americans were more common among trainees (15%-33%) but were less common in faculty and leadership positions (0%-14%). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender physicians were represented in some groups. Measures of diversity included the number of trainees and faculty, promotion success, climate assessments, and exit interviews. Overall, 69% of chairs reported being successful in diversity efforts. A total of 90% reported cultural competency training for trainees, and 74% reported training for faculty and staff. Training in cultural competency included linguistic training, primarily in Spanish.Pipeline issues for minorities are ongoing challenges. Pediatric leadership needs more representation of racial and ethnic minorities, women, and LGBT. Suggestions for workforce and educational policies are made.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-1653

    View details for PubMedID 25755235

  • Disparities in early exposure to book sharing within immigrant families. Pediatrics Festa, N., Loftus, P. D., Cullen, M. R., Mendoza, F. S. 2014; 134 (1): e162-8


    This study examined the early developmental context of children in immigrant families (CIF), measured by the frequency with which parents share books with their children.Trends in the frequency with which parents report book sharing, defined in this analysis as reading or sharing picture books with their young children, were analyzed across immigrant and nonimmigrant households by using data from the 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Survey. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression assessed the likelihood that CIF shared books with parents daily.In this study, 57.5% of parents in immigrant families reported daily book sharing (DBS), compared with 75.8% of native-born parents. The lowest percentage of DBS was seen in Hispanic families with 2 foreign-born parents (47.1%). When controlling for independent variables, CIF with 2 foreign-born parents had the lowest odds of sharing books daily (odds ratio [OR]: 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54-0.68). When stratified by race/ethnicity, separate multivariate logistic regressions revealed CIF status to be associated with lower odds of DBS for Asian (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.38-0.81) and Hispanic CIF (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.42-0.58).There is an association between the lower odds of DBS and parental immigrant status, especially for Hispanic and Asian children. This relationship holds after controlling for variables thought to explain differences in literacy-related practices, such as parental education and income. Because book sharing is central to children's development of early literacy and language skills, this disparity merits further exploration with the aim of informing future interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2013-3710

    View details for PubMedID 24918215

  • New American children: supporting the health and well-being of immigrant populations. JAMA pediatrics Mendoza, F. S., Festa, N. K. 2013; 167 (1): 12-13

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.877

    View details for PubMedID 23183957

  • Health disparities and children in immigrant families: a research agenda. Pediatrics Mendoza, F. S. 2009; 124: S187-95


    Children in immigrant families now comprise 1 in 5 children in the United States. Eighty percent of them are US citizens, and 53% live in mixed-citizenship families. Their families are among the poorest, least educated, least insured, and least able to access health care. Nonetheless, these children demonstrate better-than-expected health status, a finding termed "the immigrant paradox" and one suggesting that cultural health behaviors among immigrant families might be protective in some areas of health. In this article the strength of the immigrant paradox, the effect of acculturation on health, and the relationships of acculturation, enculturation, language, and literacy skills to health disparities are reviewed. The current public policy issues that affect the health disparities of children of immigrant families are presented, and a research agenda for improving our knowledge about children in immigrant families to develop effective interventions and public policies that will reduce their health disparities is set forth.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2009-1100F

    View details for PubMedID 19861469

  • The Death of George Floyd: Bending the Arc of History Towards Justice for Generations of Children Pediatrics Dreyer, B., Trent, M., et. al. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2020-009639

  • Social Determinants of Health Berkowitz’s Pediatrics, A Primary Care Approach Cueto, V., Floyd, B., Mendoza, F. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2020; 6th: 1061–1069
  • Association Between Parent Comfort with English and Adverse Events Among Hospitalized Children JAMA Pediatrics Khan, A., Yin, H., Brach, C., Graham, D., Romotar, M., William, D., Spector, N., Landrigan, C., Dreyer, B., The Patient and Family Centered I-Pass Health Literacy subcommittee 2020: E1-9


    Children of parents expressing limited comfort with English (LCE) or limited English proficiency may be at increased risk of adverse events (harms due to medical care). No prior studies have examined, in a multicenter fashion, the association between language comfort or language proficiency and systematically, actively collected adverse events that include family safety reporting.To examine the association between parent LCE and adverse events in a cohort of hospitalized children.This multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2017, concurrent with data collection from the Patient and Family Centered I-PASS Study, a clinician-family communication and patient safety intervention study. The study included 1666 Arabic-, Chinese-, English-, and Spanish-speaking parents of general pediatric and subspecialty patients 17 years and younger in the pediatric units of 7 North American hospitals. Data were analyzed from January 2018 to May 2020.Language-comfort data were collected through parent self-reporting. LCE was defined as reporting any language besides English as the language in which parents were most comfortable speaking to physicians or nurses.The primary outcome was adverse events; the secondary outcome was preventable adverse events. Adverse events were collected using a systematic 2-step methodology. First, clinician abstractors reviewed patient medical records, solicited clinician reports, hospital incident reports, and family safety interviews. Then, review and consensus classification were completed by physician pairs. To examine the association of LCE with adverse events, a multivariable logistic regression was conducted with random intercepts to adjust for clustering by site.Of 1666 parents providing language-comfort data, 1341 (80.5%) were female, and the mean (SD) age of parents was 35.4 (10.0) years. A total of 147 parents (8.8%) expressed LCE, most of whom (105 [71.4%]) preferred Spanish. Children of parents who expressed LCE had higher odds of having 1 or more adverse events compared with children whose parents expressed comfort with English (26 of 147 [17.7%] vs 146 of 1519 [9.6%]; adjusted odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.7), after adjustment for parent race and education, complex chronic conditions, length of stay, site, and the intervention period. Similarly, children whose parents expressed LCE were more likely to experience 1 or more preventable adverse events (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.2).Hospitalized children of parents expressing LCE were twice as likely to experience harms due to medical care. Targeted strategies are needed to improve communication and safety for this vulnerable group of children.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.3215

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7573792

  • Keys to academic success for under-represented minority young investigators: recommendations from the Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) National Advisory Committee. International journal for equity in health Flores, G., Mendoza, F. S., DeBaun, M. R., Fuentes-Afflick, E., Jones, V. F., Mendoza, J. A., Raphael, J. L., Wang, C. J. 2019; 18 (1): 93


    BACKGROUND: Although Latinos, African-Americans, and American Indians/Alaska Natives comprise 34% of Americans, these under-represented minorities (URMs) account for only 7% of US medical-school faculty. Even when URMs become faculty, they face many substantial challenges to success. Little has been published, however, on keys to academic success for URM young faculty investigators.METHODS: The Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) goal is to enhance the professional advancement of URM junior faculty pursuing research careers in general academic pediatrics. One important RAPID component is the annual mentoring/career-development conference, which targets URM residents, fellows, and junior faculty, and has included 62 URM participants since its 2013 inception. A conference highlight is the panel discussion on keys to academic success for URM young investigators, conducted by the RAPID National Advisory Committee, a diverse group of leading senior researchers. The article aim was to provide a guide to academic success for URM young investigators using the 2018 RAPID Conference panel discussion. A modified Delphi technique was used to provide a systematic approach to obtaining answers to six key questions using an expert panel: the single most important key to success for URM young investigators; ensuring optimal mentorship; how to respond when patients/families say, "I don't want you to see my child because you are ____"; best strategies for maximizing funding success; how to balance serving on time-consuming committees with enough time to advance research/career objectives; and the single thing you wish someone had told you which would have substantially enhanced your success early on.RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: This is the first published practical guide on keys to academic success for URM young investigators. Identified keys to success included having multiple mentors, writing prolifically, being tenaciously persistent, having mentors who are invested in you, dealing with families who do not want you to care for their child because of your race/ethnicity by seeking to understand the reasons and debriefing with colleagues, seeking non-traditional funding streams, balancing committee work with having enough time to advance one's research and career by using these opportunities to generate scholarly products, and asking for all needed resources when negotiating for new jobs.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12939-019-0995-1

    View details for PubMedID 31215424

  • In-Person Interpreter Use and Hospital Length of Stay among Infants with Low Birth Weight International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Eneriz-Wiemer, M., Sanders, L., McIntrye, M., Mendoza, F., Do, D., Wang, C. 2018; 15 (8)


    To ensure timely appropriate care for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants, healthcare providers must communicate effectively with parents, even when language barriers exist. We sought to evaluate whether non-English primary language (NEPL) and professional in-person interpreter use were associated with differential hospital length of stay for LBW infants, who may incur high healthcare costs. We analyzed data for 2047 infants born between 1 January 2008 and 30 April 2013 with weight <2500 g at one hospital with high NEPL prevalence. We evaluated relationships of NEPL and in-person interpreter use on length of stay, adjusting for medical severity. Overall, 396 (19%) had NEPL parents. Fifty-three percent of NEPL parents had documented interpreter use. Length of stay ranged from 1 to 195 days (median 11). Infants of NEPL parents with no interpreter use had a 49% shorter length of stay (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43⁻0.61) compared to English-speakers. Infants of parents with NEPL and low interpreter use (<25% of hospital days) had a 26% longer length of stay (adjusted IRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06⁻1.51). NEPL and high interpreter use (>25% of hospital days) showed a trend for an even longer length of stay. Unmeasured clinical and social/cultural factors may contribute to differences in length of stay.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph15081570

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6121500

  • Cross-cultural Training of Residents and Medical Students in Global Child Health Principles of Global Child Health: Education and Research,Laraque-Arena D, Stanton BF, eds Mendoza, F. S., Garcia, R., Barr, D. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2018; 1
  • Families as Partners in Hospital Error and Adverse Event Surveillance. JAMA pediatrics Khan, A., Coffey, M., Litterer, K. P., Baird, J. D., Furtak, S. L., Garcia, B. M., Ashland, M. A., Calaman, S., Kuzma, N. C., O'Toole, J. K., Patel, A., Rosenbluth, G., Destino, L. A., Everhart, J. L., Good, B. P., Hepps, J. H., Dalal, A. K., Lipsitz, S. R., Yoon, C. S., Zigmont, K. R., Srivastava, R., Starmer, A. J., Sectish, T. C., Spector, N. D., West, D. C., Landrigan, C. P., Allair, B. K., Alminde, C., Alvarado-Little, W., Atsatt, M., Aylor, M. E., Bale, J. F., Balmer, D., Barton, K. T., Beck, C., Bismilla, Z., Blankenberg, R. L., Chandler, D., Choudhary, A., Christensen, E., Coghlan-McDonald, S., Cole, F. S., Corless, E., Cray, S., Da Silva, R., Dahale, D., Dreyer, B., Growdon, A. S., Gubler, L., Guiot, A., Harris, R., Haskell, H., Kocolas, I., Kruvand, E., Lane, M. M., Langrish, K., Ledford, C. J., Lewis, K., Lopreiato, J. O., Maloney, C. G., Mangan, A., Markle, P., Mendoza, F., Micalizzi, D. A., Mittal, V., Obermeyer, M., O'Donnell, K. A., Ottolini, M., Patel, S. J., Pickler, R., Rogers, J. E., Sanders, L. M., Sauder, K., Shah, S. S., Sharma, M., Simpkin, A., Subramony, A., Thompson, E. D., Trueman, L., Trujillo, T., Turmelle, M. P., Warnick, C., Welch, C., White, A. J., Wien, M. F., Winn, A. S., Wintch, S., Wolf, M., Yin, H. S., Yu, C. E. 2017


    Medical errors and adverse events (AEs) are common among hospitalized children. While clinician reports are the foundation of operational hospital safety surveillance and a key component of multifaceted research surveillance, patient and family reports are not routinely gathered. We hypothesized that a novel family-reporting mechanism would improve incident detection.To compare error and AE rates (1) gathered systematically with vs without family reporting, (2) reported by families vs clinicians, and (3) reported by families vs hospital incident reports.We conducted a prospective cohort study including the parents/caregivers of 989 hospitalized patients 17 years and younger (total 3902 patient-days) and their clinicians from December 2014 to July 2015 in 4 US pediatric centers. Clinician abstractors identified potential errors and AEs by reviewing medical records, hospital incident reports, and clinician reports as well as weekly and discharge Family Safety Interviews (FSIs). Two physicians reviewed and independently categorized all incidents, rating severity and preventability (agreement, 68%-90%; κ, 0.50-0.68). Discordant categorizations were reconciled. Rates were generated using Poisson regression estimated via generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures on the same patient.Error and AE rates.Overall, 746 parents/caregivers consented for the study. Of these, 717 completed FSIs. Their median (interquartile range) age was 32.5 (26-40) years; 380 (53.0%) were nonwhite, 566 (78.9%) were female, 603 (84.1%) were English speaking, and 380 (53.0%) had attended college. Of 717 parents/caregivers completing FSIs, 185 (25.8%) reported a total of 255 incidents, which were classified as 132 safety concerns (51.8%), 102 nonsafety-related quality concerns (40.0%), and 21 other concerns (8.2%). These included 22 preventable AEs (8.6%), 17 nonharmful medical errors (6.7%), and 11 nonpreventable AEs (4.3%) on the study unit. In total, 179 errors and 113 AEs were identified from all sources. Family reports included 8 otherwise unidentified AEs, including 7 preventable AEs. Error rates with family reporting (45.9 per 1000 patient-days) were 1.2-fold (95% CI, 1.1-1.2) higher than rates without family reporting (39.7 per 1000 patient-days). Adverse event rates with family reporting (28.7 per 1000 patient-days) were 1.1-fold (95% CI, 1.0-1.2; P = .006) higher than rates without (26.1 per 1000 patient-days). Families and clinicians reported similar rates of errors (10.0 vs 12.8 per 1000 patient-days; relative rate, 0.8; 95% CI, .5-1.2) and AEs (8.5 vs 6.2 per 1000 patient-days; relative rate, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.8-2.2). Family-reported error rates were 5.0-fold (95% CI, 1.9-13.0) higher and AE rates 2.9-fold (95% CI, 1.2-6.7) higher than hospital incident report rates.Families provide unique information about hospital safety and should be included in hospital safety surveillance in order to facilitate better design and assessment of interventions to improve safety.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.4812

    View details for PubMedID 28241211

  • Hot topics, urgent priorities, and ensuring success for racial/ethnic minority young investigators in academic pediatrics INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR EQUITY IN HEALTH Flores, G., Mendoza, F. S., Fuentes-Afflick, E., Mendoza, J. A., Pachter, L., Espinoza, J., Fernandez, C. R., Arnold, D. D., Brown, N. M., Gonzalez, K. M., Lopez, C., Owen, M. C., Parks, K. M., Reynolds, K. L., Russell, C. J. 2016; 15


    The number of racial/ethnic minority children will exceed the number of white children in the USA by 2018. Although 38% of Americans are minorities, only 12% of pediatricians, 5% of medical-school faculty, and 3% of medical-school professors are minorities. Furthermore, only 5% of all R01 applications for National Institutes of Health grants are from African-American, Latino, and American Indian investigators. Prompted by the persistent lack of diversity in the pediatric and biomedical research workforces, the Academic Pediatric Association Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) was initiated in 2012. RAPID targets applicants who are members of an underrepresented minority group (URM), disabled, or from a socially, culturally, economically, or educationally disadvantaged background. The program, which consists of both a research project and career and leadership development activities, includes an annual career-development and leadership conference which is open to any resident, fellow, or junior faculty member from an URM, disabled, or disadvantaged background who is interested in a career in academic general pediatrics.As part of the annual RAPID conference, a Hot Topic Session is held in which the young investigators spend several hours developing a list of hot topics on the most useful faculty and career-development issues. These hot topics are then posed in the form of six "burning questions" to the RAPID National Advisory Committee (comprised of accomplished, nationally recognized senior investigators who are seasoned mentors), the RAPID Director and Co-Director, and the keynote speaker.The six compelling questions posed by the 10 young investigators-along with the responses of the senior conference leadership-provide a unique resource and "survival guide" for ensuring the academic success and optimal career development of young investigators in academic pediatrics from diverse backgrounds. A rich conversation ensued on the topics addressed, consisting of negotiating for protected research time, career trajectories as academic institutions move away from an emphasis on tenure-track positions, how "non-academic" products fit into career development, racism and discrimination in academic medicine and how to address them, coping with isolation as a minority faculty member, and how best to mentor the next generation of academic physicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12939-016-0494-6

    View details for PubMedID 27938389

  • The Hispanic Clinic for Pediatric Surgery: A model to improve parent-provider communication for Hispanic pediatric surgery patients JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC SURGERY Jaramillo, J., Snyder, E., Dunlap, J. L., Wright, R., Mendoza, F., Bruzoni, M. 2016; 51 (4): 670-674


    26 million Americans have limited English proficiency (LEP). It is well established that language barriers adversely affect health and health care. Despite growing awareness of language barriers, there is essentially a void in the medical literature regarding the influence of language disparity on pediatric surgery patients. This study was designed to assess the impact of patient-provider language concordance on question-asking behavior and patient satisfaction for pediatric surgery patients.Participants included families of patients in a General Pediatric Surgery Clinic categorized into 3 groups by patient-provider language concordance: concordant English-speaking, LEP concordant Spanish-speaking, and LEP discordant Spanish-speaking using an interpreter. Clinical visits were audio recorded and the number of patient-initiated questions and the length of clinical encounter were measured. Families were administered a surgery-specific, 5-point Likert scale questionnaire modeled after validated surveys concerning communication, trust, perceived discrimination and patient-provider language concordance. Regression models were performed to analyze associations between language concordance and patient's question-asking behavior and between language concordance and survey results.A total of 156 participants were enrolled including 57 concordant-English, 52 LEP concordant-Spanish and 47 LEP-discordant-Spanish. There was significant variation in the mean number of patient-initiated questions among the groups (p=0.002). Both the English and Spanish concordant groups asked a similar number of questions (p=0.9), and they both asked more questions compared to the Spanish-discordant participants (p=0.002 and p=0.001). Language discordance was associated with fewer questions asked after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Language concordant participants rated higher scores of communication. Both Spanish-concordant and Spanish-discordant patients reported significantly increased preference for, and value of language concordant care. Language discordant participants reported that they desired to ask more questions but were limited by a language barrier (p=0.001).In a pediatric surgery clinic, language concordant care increases the number of patient-asked questions during a clinical visit and improves communication suggesting that discordant care is a potential source of disparities in access to information. Future efforts should focus on expanding access to language concordant providers in other surgery subspecialties as a step towards limiting disparities in surgical care for all patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.08.065

    View details for PubMedID 26474548

  • Caring for Children in Immigrant Families: Vulnerabilities, Resilience, and Opportunities PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Linton, J. M., Choi, R., Mendoza, F. 2016; 63 (1): 115-?


    Demographics indicate that pediatricians increasingly care for children in immigrant families in routine practice. Although these children may be at risk for health disparities relating to socioeconomic disadvantage and cultural or linguistic challenges, immigrant families have unique strengths and potential for resilience. Adaptive and acculturation processes concerning health and well-being can be mediated by cultural media. Pediatricians have a professional responsibility to address the medical, mental health, and social needs of immigrant families. Advocacy and research at the practice level and beyond can further explore the unique needs of this population and evidence-based strategies for health promotion.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pcl.2015.08.006

    View details for PubMedID 26613692

  • Training Health Care Professionals for 21st-Century Practice: A Systematic Review of Educational Interventions on Chronic Care ACADEMIC MEDICINE Bogetz, J. F., Rassbach, C. E., Bereknyei, S., Mendoza, F. S., Sanders, L. M., Braddock, C. H. 2015; 90 (11): 1561-1572


    To systematically review the evidence for high-quality and effective educational strategies to train health care professionals across the education continuum on chronic disease care.A search of English-language publications and conference proceedings was performed in November 2013 and updated in April 2014. Studies that evaluated a newly developed curriculum targeting chronic disease care with learner outcomes were included. Two primary reviewers and one adjudicating reviewer evaluated the studies and assessed their quality using the validated Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Studies were also mapped onto elements of Wagner's chronic care model (CCM) to evaluate their use of established evidence-based models for chronic care delivery. Miller's classification of clinical competence was used to assess the quality of learner achievements for each educational intervention.A total of 672 articles were found for this review. Twenty-two met criteria for data extraction. The majority of studies were of moderate quality according to MERSQI scoring. Only three studies reported both learner and patient outcomes. The highest-quality studies incorporated more elements of Wagner's CCM and showed high-level learner competence according to Miller's classification. Successful interventions redesigned health care delivery systems to include team-based care, emphasized training of health care professionals on patient self-management, and included learner-based quality improvement initiatives.The growing number of children and adults with chronic disease necessitates improved educational interventions for health care professionals that involve evidence-based models for restructuring chronic care delivery, aim for high-level learner behavioral outcomes, and evolve through quality improvement initiatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000773

    View details for PubMedID 26039140

  • The effects of language concordant care on patient satisfaction and clinical understanding for Hispanic pediatric surgery patients. Journal of pediatric surgery Dunlap, J. L., Jaramillo, J. D., Koppolu, R., Wright, R., Mendoza, F., Bruzoni, M. 2015; 50 (9): 1586-1589


    Hispanics account for over 60% of the U.S. population growth and 25% speak little-to-no English. This language barrier adversely affects both access to and quality of care. Surgical specialties trail other medical fields in assessing the effects of language barriers to surgical clinical care and patient satisfaction. This study was designed to assess the effects of patient-provider language concordance on a pediatric surgery practice.A surgery-specific, 7-point Likert scale questionnaire was designed with 14 questions modeled after validated patient satisfaction surveys from the literature. Questions concerning provider-patient language concordance, quality of understanding, and general satisfaction were included. Surveys were administered to families of patients in the General Pediatric Surgery Clinic at our institution. Families were categorized into three groups: English-speaking, regardless of race/ethnicity; Spanish-speaking using interpreter services with an English-speaking medical team; and Spanish-speaking communicating directly with a Spanish-speaking medical team (Hispanic Center for Pediatric Surgery, HCPS). One-way analysis of variance was used to test for group differences.We administered 226 surveys; 49 were removed due to lack literacy proficiency. Families in the HCPS group reported a higher level of satisfaction than the interpreter and English groups (p<0.01). The HCPS group also indicated improved understanding of the information from the visit (p<0.001). Spanish-speaking only families felt that communicating directly with their health care team in their primary language was more important than their English-speaking counterparts (p<0.001).In a pediatric surgery clinic, language concordant care improves patient satisfaction and understanding for Hispanic families in comparison to language discordant care. Other clinics in other surgery sub-specialties may consider using this model to eliminate language barriers and improve patient satisfaction and understanding of surgical care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.12.020

    View details for PubMedID 25783324

  • Blueprint for Action: Visioning Summit on the Future of the Workforce in Pediatrics. Pediatrics Sectish, T. C., Hay, W. W., Mahan, J. D., Mendoza, F. S., Spector, N. D., Stanton, B., Szilagyi, P. G., Turner, T. L., Walker, L. R., Slaw, K. 2015; 136 (1): 161-169


    The Federation of Pediatric Organizations engaged members of the pediatric community in an 18-month process to envision the future of the workforce in pediatrics, culminating in a Visioning Summit on the Future of the Workforce in Pediatrics. This article documents the planning process and methods used. Four working groups were based on the 4 domains that are likely to affect the future workforce: Child Health Research and Training, Diversity and Inclusion, Gender and Generations, and Pediatric Training Along the Continuum. These groups identified the issues and trends and prioritized their recommendations. Before the summit, 5 key megatrends cutting across all domains were identified:1. Aligning Education to the Emerging Health Needs of Children and Families2. Promoting Future Support for Research Training and for Child Health Research3. Striving Toward Mastery Within the Profession4. Aligning and Optimizing Pediatric Practice in a Changing Health Care Delivery System5. Taking Advantage of the Changing Demographics and Expertise of the Pediatric WorkforceAt the Visioning Summit, we assembled members of each of the working groups, the Federation of Pediatric Organizations Board of Directors, and several invited guests to discuss the 5 megatrends and develop the vision, solutions, and actions for each megatrend. Based on this discussion, we offer 10 recommendations for the field of pediatrics and its leading organizations to consider taking action.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-3493

    View details for PubMedID 26034250

  • Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Educational Intervention to Train Pediatric Residents on Caring for Children With Special Health Care Needs CLINICAL PEDIATRICS Bogetz, J. F., Gabhart, J. M., Rassbach, C. E., Sanders, L. M., Mendoza, F. S., Bergman, D. A., Blankenburg, R. L. 2015; 54 (7): 659-666


    Objective. To evaluate an innovative curriculum meeting new pediatric residency education guidelines, Special Care Optimization for Patients and Education (SCOPE). Methods. Residents were randomized to intervention (n = 23) or control (n = 25) groups. Intervention residents participated in SCOPE, pairing them with a child with special health care needs (CSHCN) and faculty mentor to make a home visit, complete care coordination toolkits, and participate in case discussions. The primary outcome was resident self-efficacy in nine skills in caring for CSHCN. Secondary outcomes included curriculum feasibility/acceptance, resident attitudes, and family satisfaction. Results. Response rates were ≥65%. Intervention residents improved in their self-efficacy for setting patient-centered goals compared with controls (mean change on 4-point Likert-type scale, 1.36 vs 0.56, P < .05). SCOPE was feasible/acceptable, residents had improved attitudes toward CSHCN, and families reported high satisfaction. Conclusion. SCOPE may serve as a model for efforts to increase residents' self-efficacy in their care of patients with chronic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0009922814564050

    View details for PubMedID 25561698

  • Parental limited English proficiency and health outcomes for children with special health care needs: a systematic review. Academic pediatrics Eneriz-Wiemer, M., Sanders, L. M., Barr, D. A., Mendoza, F. S. 2014; 14 (2): 128-136


    One in 10 US adults of childbearing age has limited English proficiency (LEP). Parental LEP is associated with worse health outcomes among healthy children. The relationship of parental LEP to health outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) has not been systematically reviewed.To conduct a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature examining relationships between parental LEP and health outcomes for CSHCN.PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Social Science Abstracts, bibliographies of included studies. Key search term categories: language, child, special health care needs, and health outcomes.US studies published between 1964 and 2012 were included if: 1) subjects were CSHCN; 2) studies included some measure of parental LEP; 3) at least 1 outcome measure of child health status, access, utilization, costs, or quality; and 4) primary or secondary data analysis.Three trained reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Two separate reviewers appraised studies for methodological rigor and quality.From 2765 titles and abstracts, 31 studies met eligibility criteria. Five studies assessed child health status, 12 assessed access, 8 assessed utilization, 2 assessed costs, and 14 assessed quality. Nearly all (29 of 31) studies used only parent- or child-reported outcome measures, rather than objective measures. LEP parents were substantially more likely than English-proficient parents to report that their CSHCN were uninsured and had no usual source of care or medical home. LEP parents were also less likely to report family-centered care and satisfaction with care. Disparities persisted for children with LEP parents after adjustment for ethnicity and socioeconomic status.Parental LEP is independently associated with worse health care access and quality for CSHCN. Health care providers should recognize LEP as an independent risk factor for poor health outcomes among CSHCN. Emerging models of chronic disease care should integrate and evaluate interventions that target access and quality disparities for LEP families.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2013.10.003

    View details for PubMedID 24602575

  • Reframing the disparities agenda: a time to rethink, a time to focus. Academic pediatrics Horn, I. B., Mendoza, F. S. 2014; 14 (2): 115-116

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2013.12.005

    View details for PubMedID 24602572

  • Resident Cross-Cultural Training, Satisfaction, and Preparedness ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS Frintner, M. P., Mendoza, F. S., Dreyer, B. P., Cull, W. L., Laraque, D. 2013; 13 (1): 65-71


    To describe the diversity of pediatric residents and examine relationships of cross-cultural training experiences with training satisfaction, perceived preparedness for providing culturally effective care, and attitudes surrounding care for underserved populations.A cross-sectional survey was conducted of a national random sample of graduating pediatric residents and an additional sample of minority residents. Using weighted analysis, we used multivariate regression to test for differences in satisfaction, preparedness, and attitudes between residents with more and less cross-cultural experiences during residency, controlling for residents' characteristics and experiences before training.The survey response rate was 57%. Eleven percent were Hispanic, 61% white, 21% Asian, 9% African American, 9% other racial/ethnic groups; 34% grew up in a bi- or multilingual family. Ninety-three percent of residents were satisfied with their residency training, 81% with the instruction they received on health and health care disparities, and 54% on global health issues. Ninety-six percent of residents felt they were prepared to care for patients from diverse backgrounds, but fewer felt prepared to care for families with beliefs at odds with Western medicine (49%) and families who receive alternative or complementary care (37%). Residents with more cross-cultural experiences during residency reported being better prepared than those with less experience to care for families with limited English proficiency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-3.17), new immigrants (aOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.32-2.75), and with religious beliefs that might affect clinical care (aOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.13-2.32).Pediatric residents begin their training with diverse cross-cultural backgrounds and experiences. Residency experiences in cross-cultural care contribute to feelings of preparedness to care for diverse US children.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313932900011

    View details for PubMedID 23312858

  • Children with Special Health Care Needs: How Immigrant Status is Related to Health Care Access, Health Care Utilization, and Health Status MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL Javier, J. R., Huffman, L. C., Mendoza, F. S., Wise, P. H. 2010; 14 (4): 567-579


    To compare health care access, utilization, and perceived health status for children with SHCN in immigrant and nonimmigrant families. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey to identify 1404 children (ages 0-11) with a special health care need. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relations between immigrant status and health access, utilization, and health status variables. Compared to children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in nonimmigrant families, CSHCN in immigrant families are more likely to be uninsured (10.4 vs. 4.8%), lack a usual source of care (5.9 vs. 1.9%), report a delay in medical care (13.0 vs. 8.1%), and report no visit to the doctor in the past year (6.8 vs. 2.6%). They are less likely to report an emergency room visit in the past year (30.0 vs. 44.0%), yet more likely to report fair or poor perceived health status (33.0 vs. 16.0%). Multivariate analyses suggested that the bivariate findings for children with SHCN in immigrant families largely reflected differences in family socioeconomic status, parent's language, parental education, ethnicity, and children's insurance status. Limited resources, non-English language, and limited health-care use are some of the barriers to staying healthy for CSHCN in immigrant families. Public policies that improve access to existing insurance programs and provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care will likely decrease health and health care disparities for this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10995-009-0487-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279477400010

    View details for PubMedID 19554437

  • Lessons learned from a community-academic partnership addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino American families. Progress in community health partnerships : research, education, and action Javier, J. R., Chamberlain, L. J., Rivera, K. K., Gonzalez, S. E., Mendoza, F. S., Huffman, L. C. 2010; 4 (4): 305-313


    Filipino Americans have more adolescent pregnancies than other Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs). Few community-academic collaborations have addressed adolescent pregnancy prevention in this community.We sought to describe the lessons learned from and impact of a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program for Filipino Americans implemented by a Filipina pediatrics resident.We formed a community-academic partnership between the Filipino Youth Coalition, a community-based organization (CBO) in San Jose, California, and the Stanford School of Medicine's Pediatric Advocacy Program. We developed a culturally tailored parent-teen conference addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino Americans. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated this intervention by collecting both pre- and post-conference data using a convenience sample design.Engaging particular aspects of Filipino culture (i.e., religion and intergenerational differences) helped to make this community-academic partnership successful. For physicians-in-training who are conducting community-based participatory research (CBPR), project challenges may include difficulties in building and maintaining academic- community relationships, struggles to promote sustainability, and conflicting goals of "community insiders" and "academic outsiders." Authors offer insights and implications for residents interested in practicing CBPR.CBPR is a key tool for exploring health issues in understudied populations. CBPR experiences can provide meaningful educational opportunities for physicians-in-training and can build sustained capacity in CBOs. They can also help residents to develop analytic skills, directly affect the health of the communities they serve, and, for minority physicians, give back to the communities they call home.

    View details for DOI 10.1353/cpr.2010.0023

    View details for PubMedID 21169708

  • The relationship of immigrant status with access, utilization, and health status for children with asthma AMBULATORY PEDIATRICS Javier, J. R., Wise, P. H., Mendoza, F. S. 2007; 7 (6): 421-430


    Despite their high levels of poverty and less access to health care, children in immigrant families have better than expected health outcomes compared with children in nonimmigrant families. However, this observation has not been confirmed in children with chronic illness. The objective of this study was to determine whether children with asthma in immigrant families have better than expected health status than children with asthma in nonimmigrant families.Data from the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were used to identify 2600 children, aged 1 to 11, with physician-diagnosed asthma. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression were performed to examine health care access, utilization, and health status measures by our primary independent variable, immigrant family status.Compared with children with asthma in nonimmigrant families, children with asthma in immigrant families are more likely to lack a usual source of care (2.6% vs 1.0%; P < .05), report a delay in medical care (8.9% vs 5.2%; P < .01), and report no visit to the doctor in the past year (7.0% vs 3.8%; P < .05). They are less likely to report asthma symptoms (60.8% vs 74.4%; P < .01) and an emergency room visit in the past year (14.1% vs 21.1%; P < .01), yet more likely to report fair or poor perceived health status (25.0% vs 10.5%; P < .01). Multivariate models revealed that the relationship of immigrant status with health measures was complex. These models suggested that lack of insurance and poverty was associated with reduced access and utilization. Children in immigrant families were less likely to visit the emergency room for asthma in the past year (odds ratio 0.58, confidence interval, 0.36-0.93). Poverty was associated with having a limitation in function and fair or poor perceived health, whereas non-English interview language was associated with less limitation in function but greater levels of fair or poor perceived health.Clinicians should be aware of important barriers to care that may exist for immigrant families who are poor, uninsured, and non-English speakers. Reduced health care access and utilization by children with asthma in immigrant families requires policy attention. Further research should examine barriers to care as well as parental perceptions of health for children with asthma in immigrant families.

    View details for PubMedID 17996835

  • Filipino child health in the United States: do health and health care disparities exist? Preventing chronic disease Javier, J. R., Huffman, L. C., Mendoza, F. S. 2007; 4 (2): A36-?


    Filipinos are the second largest Asian subgroup in the United States, but few studies have examined health and health care disparities in Filipino children. The objectives of this review are 1) to appraise current knowledge of Filipino children's health and health care and 2) to present the implications of these findings for research, clinical care, and policy.We identified articles for review primarily via a Medline search emphasizing the terms Filipino and United States crossed with specific topics in child and adolescent health that fall under one of Healthy People 2010's 28 focus areas.Filipino children are underrepresented in medical research. Studies that compare Filipino children and adolescents with white children or children of other Asian Pacific Islander subgroups suggest disparities with regard to gestational diabetes, rates of neonatal mortality and low birth weight, malnutrition in young children, overweight, physical inactivity and fitness, tuberculosis, dental caries, and substance abuse. Studies that compare Filipino adults with white adults describe adult Filipino health problems similar to those of Filipino children, including higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Health care disparities remain to be determined.Health and health care disparities appear to exist for Filipino children, but more research is needed to confirm these findings. Practitioners serving this population need to consider social and cultural factors that can increase or diminish risk for health problems. There are priorities in research and policy that, if pursued, may improve the health care and health outcomes of Filipino children.

    View details for PubMedID 17362627

  • Preventing Obesity in Mexican-American Children and Adolescents. In Joint U.S.-Mexico Workshop on Preventing Obesity in Children and Youth of Mexican Origin Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., Trowbridge, R., Mendoza, F 2007: 128-186
  • Health of Children in Immigrant Families In Lansford, JE, Deater-Deckard, K, and Bornsten, MH, (eds) Immigrant Families in Contemporary Society. Guilford Press Mendoza, F., Javier, JR., Burgos, AE 2007
  • Filipino American families and intergenerational communication about sex. Ambulatory pediatrics Javier, J. R., Chamberlain, L., Huffman, L., Mendoza, F. 2006; 6 (2): 120-?

    View details for PubMedID 16530151

  • Importance of generational status in examining access to and utilization of health care services by Mexican American children PEDIATRICS Burgos, A. E., Schetzina, K. E., Dixon, L. B., Mendoza, F. S. 2005; 115 (3): E322-E330


    To describe the sociodemographic differences among Mexican American children (first, second, and third generation), non-Hispanic black children, and non-Hispanic white children; to compare the health status and health care needs of Mexican American children (first, second, and third generation) with those of non-Hispanic black children and non-Hispanic white children; and to determine whether first-generation Mexican American children have poorer health care access and utilization than do non-Hispanic white children, after controlling for health insurance status and socioeconomic status.The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to create a sample of 4372 Mexican American children (divided into 3 generational groups), 4138 non-Hispanic black children, and 4594 non-Hispanic white children, 2 months to 16 years of age. We compared parent/caregiver reports of health status and needs (perceived health of the child and reported illnesses), health care access (usual source of health care and specific provider), and health care utilization (contact with a physician within the past year, use of prescription medications, physician visit because of earache/infection, and hearing and vision screenings) for different subgroups within the sample.More than two thirds of first-generation Mexican American children were poor and uninsured and had parents with low educational attainment. More than one fourth of first-generation children were perceived as having poor or fair health, despite experiencing similar or better rates of illnesses, compared with other children. Almost one half of first-generation Mexican American children had not seen a doctor in the past year, compared with one fourth or less for other groups. Health care needs among first-generation Mexican American children were lower, on the basis of reported illnesses, but perceived health status was worse than for all other groups. After controlling for health insurance coverage and socioeconomic status, first-generation Mexican American children and non-Hispanic black children were less likely than non-Hispanic white children to have a usual source of care, to have a specific provider, or to have seen or talked with a physician in the past year.Of the 3 groups of children, Mexican American children had the least health care access and utilization, even after controlling for socioeconomic status and health insurance status. Our findings showed that Mexican American children had much lower levels of access and utilization than previously reported for Hispanic children on the whole. As a subgroup, first-generation Mexican American children fared substantially worse than second- or third-generation children. The discrepancy between poor perceived health status and lower rates of reported illnesses in the first-generation group leads to questions regarding generalized application of the "epidemiologic paradox." Given the overall growth of the Hispanic population in the United States and the relative growth of individual immigrant subgroups, the identification of subgroups in need is essential for the development of effective research and policy. Furthermore, taking generational status into account is likely to be revealing with respect to disparities in access to and utilization of pediatric services.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2004-1353

    View details for PubMedID 15713905

  • Are immigrant Mexican American children at greater risk for asthma? Agredano, Y. Z., Schetzina, K. E., Mendoza, F. S. INT PEDIATRIC RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC. 2004: 234A
  • Associations among familism, language preference, and education in Mexican-American mothers and their children JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL PEDIATRICS Romero, A. J., Robinson, T. N., Haydel, K. F., Mendoza, F., Killen, J. D. 2004; 25 (1): 34-40


    Latino families who express a higher degree of familism are characterized by positive interpersonal familial relationships, high family unity, social support, interdependence in the completion of daily activities, and close proximity with extended family members. Retention of cultural values, such as familism, may be linked to positive health outcomes; however, little is known about how families retain culture of origin values in the face of acculturation pressures. The current study explores acculturation influences as indexed by language preference and household education on maternal and child familism. Mothers and children of Mexican descent (fourth grade students) (n = 219) completed measures of demographics, household education, language preference, and familism. Three hypotheses were examined. First, we predicted that lower household education would be correlated with higher familism scores. However, contrary to our prediction, a higher familism score was significantly associated with a higher level of household education (p <.05). Second, we predicted that higher child familism would be associated with the preference for speaking Spanish. Children who preferred to use both English and Spanish (p <.01) or English alone (p <.05) had higher familism scores than those who preferred Spanish. Third, we predicted that lower child familism scores would be associated with greater differences in mother and child language preferences. There were no significant differences in child familism based on differences between parent and child language. Protective influences of cultural maintenance deserve further attention in longitudinal studies and in relation to the physical and mental health of youth.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189076300005

    View details for PubMedID 14767354

  • Use of the pediatric symptom checklist in a low-income, Mexican American population ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Jutte, D. P., Burgos, A., Mendoza, F., Ford, C. B., Huffman, L. C. 2003; 157 (12): 1169-1176


    To evaluate the usefulness of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) in identifying behavioral problems in low-income, Mexican American children.A cross-sectional study design was used to examine the PSC as a screening test, with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as the criterion standard.The study was conducted at a health center in a diverse low-income community. Patients Eligible patients were children and adolescents, 4 to 16 years of age, who were seen for nonemergent, well-child care. Of 253 eligible children during a 9-month study period, 210 agreed to participate in the study. There was a 100% completion rate of the questionnaires. The average age of the children was 7.5 years, and 45% were female. Ninety-five percent of patients were of Hispanic descent (Mexican American); 86% of families spoke only Spanish. Socioeconomic status was low (more than three fourths of families earned <$20 000 annually).The CBCL Total scale determined that 27 (13%) of the children had clinical levels of behavioral problems. With a cutoff score of 24, the PSC screened 2 (1%) of the 210 children as positive for behavioral problems. Using the CBCL as the criterion standard, the PSC sensitivity was 7.4%, and the specificity was 100%. Receiver operator characteristic analysis determined that a PSC cutoff score of 12 most correctly classified children with and without behavioral problems (sensitivity, 0.74; specificity, 0.94).When using the PSC, a new cutoff score of 12 for clinical significance should be considered if screening low-income, Mexican American children for behavioral problems. Additional study is indicated to determine the causes of the PSC's apparently lower sensitivity in Mexican American populations.

    View details for PubMedID 14662568

  • Barriers to obtaining health insurance among patients served by a mobile community health van Lopez, O. F., Schetzina, K. E., Haiman, A., Mendoza, F. INT PEDIATRIC RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC. 2003: 192A–193A
  • Effects of a videotape to increase use of poison control centers by low-income and Spanish-speaking families: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics Kelly NR, Huffman LC, Mendoza FS, Robinson TN 2003; 111 (1): 21-26
  • Socioeconomic and Cultural Issues in Pediatrics In Daniel Bernstein and Steven Shelov (eds), Pediatrics for Medical Students, 2nd Edition. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins Mendoza, F. 2003: 112-120
  • The health of Latino children - Urgent priorities, unanswered questions, and a research agenda JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Flores, G., Fuentes-Afflick, E., Barbot, O., Carter-Pokras, O., Claudio, L., Lara, M., McLaurin, J. A., Pachter, L., Gomez, F. R., Mendoza, F., Valdez, R. B., Villarruel, A. M., Zambrana, R. E., Greenberg, R., Weitzman, M. 2002; 288 (1): 82-90


    Latinos recently became the largest racial/ethnic minority group of US children. The Latino Consortium of the American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research, consisting of 13 expert panelists, identified the most important urgent priorities and unanswered questions in Latino child health. Conclusions were drawn when consensus was reached among members, with refinement through multiple iterations. A consensus statement with supporting references was drafted and revised. This article summarizes the key issues, including lack of validated research instruments, frequent unjustified exclusion from studies, and failure to analyze data by pertinent subgroups. Latino children are at high risk for behavioral and developmental disorders, and there are many unanswered questions about their mental health needs and use of services. The prevalence of dental caries is disproportionately higher for Latino children, but the reasons for this disparity are unclear. Culture and language can profoundly affect Latino children's health, but not enough cultural competency training of health care professionals and provision of linguistically appropriate care occur. Latinos are underrepresented at every level of the health care professions. Latino children are at high risk for school dropout, environmental hazards, obesity, diabetes mellitus, asthma, lack of health insurance, nonfinancial barriers to health care access, and impaired quality of care, but many key questions in these areas remain unanswered. This article suggests areas in which more research is needed and ways to improve research and care of Latino children.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176573400023

    View details for PubMedID 12090866

  • ?Dolor Aqui? ?Fiebre? A little knowledge requires caution ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Flores, G., Mendoza, F. S. 2002; 156 (7): 638-640

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176695100001

    View details for PubMedID 12090826

  • Impact of child advocacy training on pediatric residents Chamberlain, L. J., Huffman, L. C., Shocket, S., Sanders, L. M., Sectish, T. C., Mendoza, F. S., Takayama, J. I. INT PEDIATRIC RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC. 2002: 77A
  • Racial/ethnic differences in maternal perception of children's weight Klaudt, M. R., Schetzina, K. E., Mendoza, F. S., Robinson, T. N. INT PEDIATRIC RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC. 2002: 196A
  • Why ethnicity and race are so important in child health services research today ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Flores, G., Fuentes-Afflick, E., Carter-Pokras, O., Claudio, L., Lamberty, G., Lara, M., Pachter, L., Gomez, F. R., Mendoza, F., Valdez, R. B., Zambrana, R. E., Greenberg, R., Weltzman, M. 2001; 155 (10): 1178-1179

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171320800022

    View details for PubMedID 11576022

  • A book a day keeps the doctor away: A look at the implementation and effects of reach out and read, a pediatric clinic-based early literacy promotion program Resources in Education Orr JE, Baker S, Shirling E, Sanders L, Huffman LC, Mendoza FS 2001
  • Are perceived neighborhood hazards a barrier to physical activity in children? Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Romero AJ, Robinson TN, Kraemer HC, Erickson SJ, Haydel KF, Mendoza FS, Killen J 2001; 155: 1143-1148
  • Prescribing books for immigrant children - A pilot study to promote emergent literacy among the children of Hispanic immigrants ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Sanders, L. M., Gershon, T. D., Huffman, L. C., Mendoza, F. S. 2000; 154 (8): 771-777


    To assess book-sharing activities within first-generation Hispanic immigrant families, and to assess the effect of pediatricians giving books to their patients.Survey.Convenience sample of 122 predominantly Hispanic immigrant parents of children aged 2 months to 5 years. Of these parents, 56 had received children's books from the pediatrician, and 66 had not.House staff continuity clinic at a university children's hospital.Frequent Book Sharing (FBS) was defined as a parent's reporting more than 3 days per week of sharing books with the child. Main independent variables included the following: (1) exposure to the Reach Out and Read program, defined as having received a children's book from the pediatrician; (2) socioeconomics, as measured by parents' years of education and Medicaid enrollment; (3) acculturation, as defined by 4 questions relating to parents' proficiency with the English language; (4) parent's country of origin; (5) parent literacy, as measured by a parent's reporting more than 3 days per week of reading alone; (6) parent's age; (7) marital status; (8) household size; (9) child's age; (10) child's sex.Ninety percent of the parents were born outside of the United States (71% in Mexico), 85% spoke Spanish in the home, and 63% had completed less than a high-school education. Seventy-five percent of children's medical insurance was provided by Medi-Cal (Medicaid), and 9% of children were uninsured. Sixty-seven percent spoke exclusively Spanish at home, and 84% of parents want their children to learn to read in both English and Spanish. High FBS was reported among parents whose children had received books from the physician when compared with parents whose children had received no books. The odds ratio (OR) was 3.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-9.37; P<.05). Also associated with FBS were parents reading frequently to themselves (OR = 9.52; 95% CI, 2.09-43.27; P<.05) and national origin outside Mexico (OR = 5.54; 95% CI, 1.59-19.27; P<.05). These findings were independent of parent's educational level, parent's employment, parent's age, acculturation, and family size.Pediatricians can promote literacy development among Hispanic immigrant children through the provision of free books at well-child visits. Our findings also suggest the independent effects of adult literacy and child age. Further research is needed to understand the effect of pediatric literacy programs on Hispanic immigrant children, their bilingual environments, and their readiness for school entry. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:771-777

    View details for PubMedID 10922272

  • Health Risk Profiles and Race, Culture, and Socioeconomic Status 31st Ross Roundtable, Child Health in the Multicultural Environment Mendoza FS 2000: 5-26
  • Nutritional Status of Immigrant Children In Children in Immigrant Families: Issues for California?s Future. California Policy Research Center, California Program on Access to Care and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research Mendoza FS 2000: 11-12
  • Comparison of growth patterns of first, second and third generation Mexican American children to African American and non-hispanic white children ages 2-16. Agredano, Y. Z., Dizon, B., Mendoza, F. S. SLACK INC. 1999: 68A
  • The Health and Nutritional Status of Immigrant Hispanic Children: Analyses of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey In D Hernandez (ed) Children of Immigrants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press Mendoza FS, Dixon LB 1999
  • Latino Children's Health and the Family-Community Health Profmotion Model. Western Journal of Medicine Mendoza, F., Fuentes-Afflick, E 1999; 170 (2): 85-92
  • From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press Committee member and Contributor 1998
  • Health Issues of Immigrant Children of Color In H. Fitzgerald, B. Lester, and B. Zuckerman (ed), Children of Color, Research, Health, and Policy Issues. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York and London Mendoza FS, Rosales N 1997: 141-158
  • My Obligation to Others: A Tradition Carried Forward In Ellen Bassuk (ed.), The Doctor Activist: Physician Fighting For Social Change. New York, New York: Plenum Publication Corporation Mendoza FS 1996
  • Socioeconomic, Cultural, and Ethical Issues in Pediatrics. In Daniel Bernstein and Steven Shelov (eds), Pediatrics for Medical Students. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins Mendoza FS 1996: 99-105
  • Our Nation?s Challenge, Vaccinating Latino Children; Can We Do It? Medico InterAmericano Mendoza FS, Villarreal S 1996; 15 (1): 7-8
  • Stanford Medical School?s Minority Faculty Development and the Center of Excellence In L. Bergeisen (ed) Minority Faculty in the Health Professions For the 21st Century. Selected Proceedings, Leesburg, Virginia, September 6-8, Mendoza FS 1995
  • The health of Latino children in the United States. Current Problems in Pediatrics Mendoza FS 1995; Nov-Dec: 314-335
  • Physical Growth, Sexual Maturation, and Obesity in Puerto Rican Children In Cynthia Garcia Cole and Gontran Lamberty (eds.), Health and Development of Puerto Rican Mothers and Children in the Mainland, New York, New York: Plenum Publication Corporation Martorell R, Mendoza F, Baisden K, Pawson I 1994
  • Measures of Health Status and Health Care Access for Mainland Puerto Rican Children: Results from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In C.G. Cole and G. Lamberty (eds.), Health and Development of Puerto Rican Mothers and Children in the Mainland Mendoza F., Takata G. 1994
  • PHYSICAL GROWTH, SEXUAL-MATURATION, AND OBESITY IN PUERTO-RICAN CHILDREN Conference on Puerto Rican Women and Children: Issues in Health, Growth, and Development Martorell, R., Mendoza, F. S., BAISDEN, K., Pawson, I. G. PLENUM PRESS DIV PLENUM PUBLISHING CORP. 1994: 119–135
  • Latino child health policy issues The Future of Children. Center for the Future of Children, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Mendoza FS 1994; 4 (3): 43-72
  • Health Status of U.S. Hispanic Children In Antonio Furino (ed.), Health Policy and the Hispanic, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press Mendoza FS, Ventura S, Saldivar L, Baisden K, Martorell R. 1992


    The dental restorative treatment needs of Mexican-American children, aged 1-17 years, were assessed from the 1982-83 Southwestern US Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). This report analyzed those needs and applied a dollar cost to them, using 1982 median fees of US general practitioners. The total estimated cost required to meet those needs for the population estimate of 3,396,770 children was $236,856,772 (95% CI: $198,575,174 to $275,138,370). The mean cost per child was $69.73 (SE: 5.75). Although a majority of the children had no unmet need, 15-, 16-, and 17-year-olds had extensive needs for crowns, endodontics, and prosthetic replacement of teeth, with accompanying high costs: mean total cost per examinee was $177 (SE: 28.97), $161 (SE: 32.20), and $237 (SE: 33.26), respectively. The treatment needs were compared with the previously published regional data from the 1979-80 NIDR survey, which used the same dental restorative treatment needs (DRTN) index. The findings indicated a great need for dental treatment among Mexican-American children that appeared to exceed that of the general school-aged population. Our analysis, in providing estimates of the cost of needed treatment, might be useful in planning dental treatment programs and in comparing surveys.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GK59600001

    View details for PubMedID 1941770



    Previous studies showed that Hispanics have higher levels of overweight and obesity than do US whites. The Hispanic Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (1982-1984) provides the basis for examining the physical characteristics of this population on a wider scale than previously possible. Data for body mass index (BMI; weight/height2) and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were examined for the 7052 Mexican Americans, 1307 Cubans, and 2690 Puerto Ricans for whom each of these measurements were available. Prevalence of obesity and overweight was defined as BMI in excess of the 95th and 85th percentiles, respectively, of US reference standards. In male adults prevalence values were, respectively, 10.6% and 33.5% for Mexican Americans, 9.6% and 31.3% for Puerto Ricans, and 9.0% and 34.0% for Cubans. In female adults prevalence values were, respectively, 15.1% and 42.3% for Mexican Americans, 7.8% and 40.7% for Puerto Ricans, and 15.0% and 38.2% for Cubans. Skinfold-thickness data for these populations indicate a centralized distribution of adipose tissue, especially in males, and increased subscapular skinfold thicknesses in older women.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FP05900005


    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FE15300030

    View details for PubMedID 2008878



    The 1987 National Vital Statistics System and the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982 through 1984) were used to assess the health status of Mexican-American, mainland Puerto Rican, and Cuban-American children by examining the prevalences of pregnancy outcomes and chronic medical conditions. The low-birth-weight rate among Hispanics (7.0%) compared favorably with that of non-Hispanic whites (7.1%) despite the greater poverty and lower levels of education among Hispanics. When examined by Hispanic subgroup, however, significant differences were present, with mainland Puerto Ricans having the highest prevalences of low-birth-weight infants. Premature births were more common among all three Hispanic subgroups than among non-Hispanic whites. Mexican-American and Cuban-American children had a similar prevalence of (3.9% and 2.5%, respectively) chronic medical conditions compared with non-Hispanic white children; Puerto Rican children had a higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions (6.2%). When assessed by these health status indicators, Hispanic children seem to have a health status similar to non-Hispanic white children. However, mainland Puerto Rican children seem at greater risk for poor health, reflecting the US Hispanic population's heterogeneity. Health programs targeted at US Hispanics should appropriately consider these group differences.

    View details for PubMedID 1984152

  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity in US Hispanic Populations American Journal of Clinic Nutrition Pawson IG, Martorell R, Mendoza FS 1991; 53: 1522S-1528S
  • An evaluation of four food group intakes by Mexican-American children The Journal of the American Dietetic Association Murphy SP, Castillo RO, Martorell R, Mendoza FS 1990; 90 (3): 388-393
  • IRON (FE) STATUS OF UNITED-STATES HISPANIC CHILDREN Castillo, R. O., Garcia, M., Pawson, I. G., BAISDEN, K., Martorell, R., Mendoza, F. S. SLACK INC. 1990: A189–A189
  • BLOOD-PRESSURE IN HISPANIC CHILDREN SALDIVAR, L. E., Mendoza, F. S., Martorell, R., Pawson, I. G., Castillo, R. O. SLACK INC. 1990: A214–A214
  • HEALTH-CARE ACCESS PROBLEMS OF MEXICAN-AMERICAN CHILDREN Takata, G. S., Mendoza, F. S., Martorell, R., Castillo, R. O. SLACK INC. 1990: A179–A179


    Height and weight data from the Mexican-American portion of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) are shown for children of ages 2 to 17 years and compared with data for non-Hispanic white children from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference curves. Differences in stature between the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the reference populations were minor prior to adolescence and could be entirely attributed to the greater poverty of Mexican-Americans. However, differences increased during adolescence (ie, median stature was less than the 25th percentile of the NCHS reference population at 17 years of age) and, in contrast with earlier ages, were independent of poverty. Similar growth patterns were observed in samples of upper-class subjects from Mexico and Guatemala. Nonetheless, the extent to which the short stature of Mexican-American adolescents is genetic is unclear because there is an apparent time trend toward greater stature in the Mexican-American population. In conclusion, the NCHS reference curves are appropriate growth standards for preadolescent Mexican-American children. Whether they are valid for Mexican-American adolescents remains unclear.

    View details for PubMedID 2797981

  • Sexual maturation in Mexican-American adolescents American Journal of Human Biology Villarreal SF, Martorell R, Mendoza FS 1989; 1: 87-95
  • Fatness and fat distribution in Mexican American children and youths from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey American Journal of Human Biology Kaplowitz H, Martorell R, Mendoza FS. 1989; 1: 631-648
  • Which Side to Measure: Right or Left? In TG Lohman, AF Roche, and R. Martorell (eds.), Anthropometry Standardization Reference ManualChampaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. Martorell R, Mendoza FS, Mueller WH, Pawson IG 1988: 87-91
  • Poverty and Stature in Children In John C. Waterlow (ed.), Linear Growth Retardation in Less Developed Countries, Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series. New York: Vavey/Raven Press. Martorell R, Mendoza FS, Castillo R 1988; 14
  • Elevated serum iron concentration in adolescent alcohol users American Journal of Diseases of Children Friedman IM, Kraemer HC, Mendoza FS, Hammer LD 1988; 142 (2): 156-159
  • Vitamin A intoxication presenting with ascites and a normal vitamin A level The Western Journal of Medicine Mendoza FS, Johnson F, Kerner JA, Tune BM, Shochat SJ 1988; 148 (1): 88-90
  • MINORITY ADMISSIONS - QUO-VADIS JOURNAL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION Prieto, D. O., Mendoza, N. S. 1987; 62 (8): 698-700

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J611000017

    View details for PubMedID 3612737

  • Short and plump physique of Mexican-American Children American Journal of Physical Anthropology Martorell R, Mendoza FS, Castillo RO, Pawson IG, Budge CC 1987; 73: 475-487
  • Rhabdomyolysis complicating doxylamine overdose. Clinical Pediatrics Mendoza FS, Atiba JO, Krensky AK, Scannell LM 1987; 26 (11): 595-597

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E393500017

    View details for PubMedID 3761351