Dr. Beykin is an ophthalmologist and glaucoma specialist at the Byers Eye Institute at Stanford Health Care. She is also a clinical instructor in the Department of Ophthalmology at Stanford University School of Medicine.
Dr. Beykin completed clinical and surgical training in glaucoma at the Byers Eye Institute. She specializes in caring for patients with all types of ophthalmic conditions, including glaucoma and cataract.
She has expertise in clinical trial design and implementation, and studies novel biomarkers and candidate therapeutics for vision protection and restoration in glaucoma. Her research efforts include numerous clinical trials investigating new therapies for eye conditions. Dr. Beykin has participated in multiple studies evaluating drugs targeting retinal disease such as AMD and diabetes-related vision loss, as well as ongoing clinical trials assessing new treatment strategies for neuroprotection, neuroregeneration and neuroenhancement in glaucoma. These include implants that could potentially stop or slow the progression of and help improve vision.
Dr. Beykin has published her work in numerous peer-reviewed journals, including the British Journal of Ophthalmology and Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. She has presented her work at national and international meetings, including those for the International Symposium on Retinal Degeneration and the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
She is a member of the Israeli Ophthalmology Society, the Israeli Society for Eye and Vision Research, and the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
Clinical Instructor, Ophthalmology
Fellowship: Stanford University Glaucoma Fellowship (2023) CA
Board Certification: Ministry of Health State of Israel, Ophthalmology (2016)
Residency: Hadassah Medical Center (2016) Israel
Medical Education: Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School (2011) Israel
Additional Clinical Info
Phase I NT-501 Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Implant Trial for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Safety, Neuroprotection, and Neuroenhancement.
2023; 3 (3): 100298
Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) intraocular implant on neuroprotection and neuroenhancement in glaucoma.Design: Open-label, prospective, phase I clinical trial.Participants: A total of 11 participants were diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). One eye of each patient was assigned as the study (implant) eye.Methods: The study eye was implanted with a high-dose CNTF-secreting NT-501 implant, whereas the other eye served as a control. All patients were followed up for 18 months. Analysis was limited to descriptive statistics.Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was safety through 18 months after implantation assessed by serial eye examinations, structural and functional testing, and adverse events (AEs) recording. Parameters measured included visual acuity (VA), Humphrey visual field (HVF), pattern electroretinogram, scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC), and OCT. These parameters were also used for secondary analysis of efficacy outcome.Results: All NT-501 implants were well tolerated with no serious AEs associated with the implant. The majority of AEs were related to the implant placement procedure and were resolved by 12 weeks after surgery. Foreign-body sensation was the most commonly reported AE and was self-limited to the postoperative period. The most common implant-related AE was pupil miosis; no patients underwent explant. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity decreased more in fellow eyes than in study eyes (VA,-5.82 vs.-0.82 letters; and contrast sensitivity,-1.82 vs.-0.37 letters, for fellow vs. study eyes, respectively). The median HVF visual field index and mean deviation measurements worsened (decreased) in fellow eyes (-13.0%,-3.9 dB) and improved (increased) in study eyes (2.7%, 1.2 dB). Implanted eyes showed an increase in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by OCT and by GDx VCC (OCT, 2.66 mum vs. 10.16 mum; and GDx VCC, 1.58mumvs. 8.36mum in fellow vs. study eyes, respectively).Conclusions: The NT-501 CNTF implant was safe and well tolerated in eyes with POAG. Eyes with the implant demonstrated both structural and functional improvements suggesting biological activity, supporting the premise for a randomized phase II clinical trial of single and dual NT-501 CNTF implants in patients with POAG, which is now underway.Financial Disclosures: Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xops.2023.100298
View details for PubMedID 37197702
Long-term outcome of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: association between treatment outcome and major risk alleles.
The British journal of ophthalmology
2022; 106 (11): 1555-1560
To evaluate the long-term functional and anatomical outcomes of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) for up to 10 years, and to identify associated risk factors.Clinical and optical coherence tomography findings were retrieved for nvAMD cases treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF compounds using a treat-and-extend protocol. In addition, the major risk alleles for AMD in the CFH (rs1061170), HTRA1 (rs1200638) and C3 (rs2230199) genes were genotyped.From 276 eligible eyes in 206 patients, 80 eyes (29%) in 66 patients (32.0%) had a follow-up period of ≥8 years and were included in this study. Over a 10-year period, 73.3±28.0 (mean±SD) anti-VEGF injections were administered. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; LogMAR) deteriorated from 0.55±0.53 at baseline to 1.00±0.73 at 10 years (p<0.0005). Central subfield thickness (CST) decreased from 415.8±162.1 µm at baseline to 323±113.6 µm (p<0.0005) after three monthly injections and remained lower than baseline throughout the follow-up period. Visual outcome was associated with BCVA and intraretinal fluid (IRF) at baseline, macular atrophy, and macular thinning at follow-up. The decrease in CST was inversely correlated with the number of CFH and/or C3 risk alleles carried by the patient (Pearson's r: -0.608; p=0.003).Patients with nvAMD who received anti-VEGF therapy for 10 years developed substantial vision loss associated with the presence of IRF at baseline and macular atrophy. Major risk alleles for AMD in two complement genes were associated with a reduced long-term reduction in macular thickness.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-319054
View details for PubMedID 34083208
- Corrigendum to Phase 1b Randomized Controlled Study of Short Course Topical Recombinant Human Nerve Growth Factor (rhNGF) for Neuroenhancement in Glaucoma: Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy Measure Outcomes. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;234:223-234. American journal of ophthalmology 2022
Structural and Metabolic Imaging after Short-term Use of the Balance Goggles System in Glaucoma Patients: A Pilot Study.
Journal of glaucoma
Short-term use of the Balance Goggles System in glaucoma patients was not associated with observable changes in conventional OCT imaging but metabolic imaging using peripapillary flavoprotein fluorescence may represent a useful adjuctive investigation.To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effects of the Balance Goggles System (BGS) are accompanied by changes in retinal thickness measured by ocular coherence tomography, retinal vascular density measured by OCT-angiography, or novel peripapillary metabolic profiling using flavoprotein fluorescence (FPF) measured by a fundus camera.Prospective comparative case-series.8 eyes from 8 patients with open-angle glaucoma ranging from mild to severe.In this prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized, single-arm study patients received a baseline evaluation including retinal imaging, then one hour of negative pressure application through the BGS, followed by repeat retinal imaging. Participants then used the BGS at home for 1 month and underwent a repeat evaluation at the conclusion of the trial.Changes in nerve fiber layer thickness, OCTA vascular parameters and FPF scores.Mean baseline IOP was 18.0±3.1 mmHg and there was no significant change in IOP at follow-up. At 1 month compared to baseline, there was a statistically significant improvement in FPF optic nerve head rim scores (12.7±11.6 to 10.5±7.5; P=0.04). Additionally, there was there was a trend towards an increase in RNFL thickness after 1 month (69.5±14.2 to 72.0±13.7; P=0.1), but there were no statistically significant differences observable with any of the OCTA vascular parameters either at 1 hour or after 1 month.There were no significant changes observable using conventional OCT imaging following short-term use of the BGS, although metabolic imaging using FPF may be a useful potential biomarker to complement existing investigations. Additional studies are warranted to further investigate these changes.
View details for DOI 10.1097/IJG.0000000000002066
View details for PubMedID 35696700
Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) metrics in healthy and glaucomatous eyes
ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2022
View details for Web of Science ID 000844437002007
Analysis of the Aqueous Humor Proteome in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
2021; 62 (10): 18
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with altered gene and protein expression in the retina. We characterize the aqueous humor (AH) proteome in AMD to gain insight into the pathogenesis of the disease and identify potential biomarkers.AH was collected from age and gender matched neovascular AMD (nvAMD; n = 10) patients and controls (n = 10). AH was pooled to create two samples (nvAMD and control), followed by intensity-based label-free quantification (MS1). Functional and bioinformatic analysis were then performed. A validation set (20 controls, 15 atrophic AMD and 15 nvAMD) was tested via multiplex ELISA for nine differentially expressed proteins according to the MS1 findings.MS1 identified 674 proteins in the AH. 239 proteins were upregulated in nvAMD (nvAMD/control > 2, peptide tags (PT) > 2), and 86 proteins were downregulated (nvAMD/control < 0.5, PT > 2). Functional analysis of proteins upregulated in AMD demonstrated enrichment for platelet degranulation (enrichment score (ES):28.1), negative regulation of endopeptidase activity (ES:18.8), cellular protein metabolic process (ES:11.8), epidermal growth factor-like domain (ES:10.3), sushi/SCR/CCP (ES:10.1), and complement/coagulation cascades (ES:9.2). AMD protein clusters were upregulated for 3/6 (χ2 < 0.05 compared to randomization). Validation via ELISA confirmed MS1 in 2/9 proteins (Clusterin and Serpin A4, P < 0.05), while 3/9 showed differential expression between aAMD and nvAMD (Clusterin, Serpin A4, and TF P < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve calculation identified the area under the curve of 0.82 for clusterin as a biomarker for distinction of AMD.AH proteomics in AMD patients identified several proteins and functional clusters with altered expression. Further research should confirm if these proteins may serve as biomarkers or therapeutic target for the disease.
View details for DOI 10.1167/iovs.62.10.18
View details for PubMedID 34406330
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8374990
Repeatability of metrics from swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in normal and glaucomatous eyes
ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2021
View details for Web of Science ID 000720324200027
Socioeconomic status and visual outcome in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
European journal of ophthalmology
2021; 31 (3): 1094-1100
Visual outcome in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration is variable. We aimed to evaluate for association between socioeconomic status visual acuity in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.A retrospective single-center study of a consecutive group of neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients was performed. Socioeconomic status was determined for each patient based on the 2008 Israeli census. Medical information was extracted from medical records and included visual acuity and optical coherence tomography parameters. Associations between socioeconomic status and clinical outcomes were analyzed.A total of 233 patients were included in the analysis. A correlation was found between low baseline visual acuity of the first eye diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and low socioeconomic status (r = -0.13, p = 0.049; n = 233). The difference between the visual acuity of the lowest and the highest socioeconomic status categories at baseline was approximately 3 ETDRS lines (p = 0.048). Socioeconomic status and baseline visual acuity of the second eye of the same individual with neovascular age-related macular degeneration were not correlated (r = -0.05, p = 0.95). Socioeconomic status was not associated with the number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections of the first or second eye, or the visual acuity outcome of the first or second eye after 1 year of therapy (p = 0.421, p = 0.9, respectively). Central subfield thickness of the first eye at presentation as measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was associated with socioeconomic status (r = -0.31 p = 0.001).Individuals of lower socioeconomic status presented at more advanced stage of the disease when developing neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the first eye but not in the second eye. The research underscores the importance of improving referral patterns and awareness for the lowest socioeconomic status classes.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1120672120920783
View details for PubMedID 32363931
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8369906
Phase 1b randomized controlled study of short course topical recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) for neuroenhancement in glaucoma: safety, tolerability and efficacy measure outcomes.
American journal of ophthalmology
No approved therapies directly target retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) for neuroprotection or neuroenhancement in glaucoma. Recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) has been shown to promote RGC survival and function in animal models of optic neuropathy. Here we evaluate safety, tolerability, and efficacy of short-term, high-dose rhNGF eye drops versus placebo in a cohort of glaucoma patients.This study is a single-center, randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel group study designed to assess safety and tolerability as well as short-term neuroenhancement of structure and function (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02855450). Sixty open-angle glaucoma patients were randomized 40:20 to receive either 180 μg/ml rhNGF or vehicle control eye drops in both eyes, three times daily for 8 weeks, with a 24-week post-treatment follow-up. One eye was officially selected as the study eye, although both eyes were studied and dosed. Primary endpoints were safety, as assessed through adverse events, and tolerability, as assessed through patient reported outcomes. Secondary outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Humphrey visual field (HVF), electroretinogram (ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment, and at 4 and 24 weeks after treatment (12- and 32-weeks total).Of the 60 randomized subjects, 23 were female (38%) and the average age was 66.1 years. Through week 32, there were no treatment-related serious adverse events, including no unexpectedly severe progression of optic neuropathy, no adverse events affecting ocular function or pressure, and no drug-related systemic toxicity. Topical high-dose rhNGF was tolerated well, with low level of symptom burden mainly eliciting periocular ache (in 52% of treated, 5% of placebo) and only 3 patients (7.5%) discontinuing treatment due to discomfort, out of whom 1 patient (2.5%) prematurely withdrawing from the study. There were no statistically significant differences in global indices of HVF, and no meaningful differences in total, quadrant, or clock-hour mean RNFL thickness between the groups, although both of these function and structure measures showed non-significant trends towards significance in favor of rhNGF. Real-world participant data was used to generate an estimate of cohort size needed to power subsequent studies.rhNGF is safe and tolerable in a topical 180 μg/ml formulation. Although no statistically significant short-term neuroenhancement was detected in this trial, given the strong effects of NGF in preclinical models and trends detected in this study, analysis for efficacy in a neuroprotection trial is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajo.2021.11.002
View details for PubMedID 34780798
Discovery and clinical translation of novel glaucoma biomarkers.
Progress in retinal and eye research
Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies are characterized by progressive dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Given the high prevalence of glaucoma-related blindness and the availability of treatment options, improving the diagnosis and precise monitoring of progression in these conditions is paramount. Here we review recent progress in the development of novel biomarkers for glaucoma in the context of disease pathophysiology and we propose future steps for the field, including integration of exploratory biomarker outcomes into prospective therapeutic trials. We anticipate that, when validated, some of the novel glaucoma biomarkers discussed here will prove useful for clinical diagnosis and prediction of progression, as well as monitoring of clinical responses to standard and investigational therapies.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2020.100875
View details for PubMedID 32659431
An Open-Label Phase Ib Study to Evaluate Retinal Imaging After Short-term Use of the Balance Goggles System (BGS) in Patients with Glaucoma
ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2020
View details for Web of Science ID 000554528303047
Association of a Variant in VWA3A with Response to Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment in Neovascular AMD.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
2020; 61 (2): 48
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for neovascular AMD (nvAMD) obtains a variable outcome. We performed a genome-wide association study for anti-VEGF treatment response in nvAMD to identify variants potentially underlying such a variable outcome.Israeli patients with nvAMD who underwent anti-VEGF treatment (n = 187) were genotyped on a whole exome chip containing approximately 500,000 variants. Genotyping was correlated with delta visual acuity (deltaVA) between baseline and after three injections of anti-VEGF. Top principal components, age, and baseline VA were included in the analysis. Two lead associated variants were genotyped in an independent validation set of patients with nvAMD (n = 108).Linear regression analysis on 5,353,842 variants revealed five exonic variants with an association P value of less than 6 × 10-5. The top variant in the gene VWA3A (P = 1.77 × 10-6) was tested in the validation cohort. The minor allele of the VWA3A variant was associated with worse response to treatment (P = 0.02). The average deltaVA of discovery plus validation was -0.214 logMAR (≈ a gain of 10.7 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters) for homozygote for the major allele, 0.172 logMAR for heterozygotes (≈ a loss of 8.6 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters), and 0.21 logMAR for homozygote for the minor allele (≈ a loss of 10.5 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters). Minor allele carriers had a higher frequency of macular hemorrhage at baseline.An VWA3A gene variant was associated with worse response to anti-VEGF treatment in Israeli patients with nvAMD. The VWA3A protein is a precursor of the multimeric von Willebrand factor which is involved in blood coagulation, a system previously associated with nvAMD.
View details for DOI 10.1167/iovs.61.2.48
View details for PubMedID 32106291
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7329947
Molecular Biomarkers for Glaucoma.
Current ophthalmology reports
2019; 7 (3): 171–76
Purpose of review: This article summarizes the current studies on molecular biomarkers with potential implications in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to treatment in patients with glaucoma.Recent findings: Important advances have occurred in the understanding of the pathogenesis of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Protein biomarkers associated with inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and other molecular pathways have been described in glaucoma patients in tear film, aqueous fluid, vitreous fluid, and serum, however, we are still far from having a clear picture of the whole molecular network that relates to the disease and its implications in clinical use.Summary: Although more studies are needed, current and emerging molecular biomarkers candidates in glaucoma may eventually transition into clinical use and contribute to outline the concept of precision medicine and precision health in glaucoma.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s40135-019-00213-0
View details for PubMedID 33133776
Bevacizumab treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the setting of a clinic: "real life" long-term outcome.
2015; 15: 39
To evaluate the long-term outcome of bevacizumab therapy for neovascular age related macular degeneration (NVAMD) in the setting of a clinic.Consecutive group of NVAMD patients who were treated in a single 3(rd) referral center with bevacizumab using a loading dosage of 3 monthly injections followed by variable dosing for at least 48 months were retrospectively evaluated. Genotyping was performed for CFH (rs1061170), HTRA1 (rs1200638), and C3 (rs2230199). Main outcome measures included functional and morphological treatment outcomes as well as their risk allele associations.Out of 128 patients who started bevacizumab treatment over 4 years before the study endpoint [mean (± SD): 60 ± 10.9 months], 75 eyes of 67 (52.3%) patients, were still followed. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMAR ± SEM) improved from 0.66 ± 0.07 at baseline to 0.48 ± 0.05 (p = 0.012) at 1 year, but deteriorated from the 3(rd) year on and at the final exam reduced to 0.69 ± 0.07 (p = 0.6, compared with initial BCVA). Macular thickness mirrored visual acuity (VA) changes showing initial thinning followed by thickening from the 3(rd) year on. Individuals carrying the CFH risk -allele had a mean thickening (microns ± SEM) of 66.9 ± 70.4 versus a mean thinning of 76.8 ± 22 in non-carriers (p = 0.015).Bevacizumab therapy for NVAMD using a flexible treatment algorithm in a "real life" clinical setting initially obtained VA gain and thinning of the macula that were maintained for two years, but were lost later on.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12886-015-0019-x
View details for PubMedID 25881145
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4404564
Paediatric and adolescent elevated conjunctival lesions in the plical area: lymphoma or reactive lymphoid hyperplasia?
The British journal of ophthalmology
2014; 98 (5): 645-50
To report clinical, histopathological and molecular features of 'salmon patch'-like conjunctival lesions in paediatric and adolescent patients, and discuss management of these patients and outcome.Patients who presented between 2000 and 2011 with a conjunctival 'salmon-patch'-like lesion in the plical area, were identified by chart review. Clinical parameters, demographic characteristics and details of ophthalmic imaging were collected, and the effect of treatment examined.Eleven patients aged 6-21 years, presented with an elevated pink conjunctival mass in the plical area of one or both eyes. Nine patients underwent an excisional biopsy that histopathologically disclosed extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (also termed 'MALT lymphoma') in two cases and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) in seven cases. Molecular diagnosis showed polyclonal B cells in six patients, monoclonal B cells in two patients, and a questionable status in one patient. Systemic examination disclosed localised ocular adnexal disease in the patients with MALT lymphoma, and none had either local or systemic recurrence during follow-up. Two other patients were treated with antiallergic medication with resolution of the lesion, and were therefore diagnosed clinically with RLH.It is clinically difficult to differentiate between conjunctival RLH and MALT lymphoma in the paediatric and adolescent population. Both lesions are rare in this age group, particularly MALT lymphoma. Molecular analysis of excised lesions does not always correlate with histopathology. A short treatment course with antiallergic drops may sometimes assist diagnosis without compromising the patients due to the indolent nature of lymphoma in that area.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303527
View details for PubMedID 24162623
- New era in understanding age-related macular degeneration’s genetics Annual Journal of the Israeli Association for Eye Health and Blindness Prevention (LIROT) 2014
Pars plana vitrectomy to repair retinal detachment following brachytherapy for uveal melanoma.
The British journal of ophthalmology
2013; 97 (12): 1534-7
Retinal detachment can develop following brachytherapy for uveal melanoma. This complication may result in substantial visual loss and poses a significant therapeutic dilemma due to the required surgical intervention for correction of the detachment. We report the incidence of retinal detachment in eyes treated with brachytherapy for posterior uveal melanoma and the outcome of pars plana vitrectomy in those eyes.Patients who developed tractional or combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment following brachytherapy for posterior uveal melanoma in a single referral centre were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical findings, demographics, and ophthalmic imaging findings were recorded, as well as the manner of treatment and its success.Seven of the 473 posterior uveal melanoma patients (1.48%), who were treated between 2000 and 2011 with brachytherapy, developed tractional or combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Retinal detachment developed at a mean of 50.1 months (range 3.5-120 months) following brachytherapy. All patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy. Retinas remained attached in each of the cases. In five of seven patients there was substantial improvement in visual acuity following repair of the retinal detachment. No tumour growth or dissemination were observed during the mean follow-up of 18.4 months after vitrectomy (range 10-36 months).Tractional and tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment are rare complications of treated uveal melanoma. Pars plana vitrectomy appears to be an effective and safe procedure in such cases.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303331
View details for PubMedID 24064939
- New era in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy Annual Journal of the Israeli Association for Eye Health and Blindness Prevention (LIROT) 2011
Complement, age-related macular degeneration and a vision of the future.
Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
2010; 128 (3): 349-58
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most well-characterized late-onset, complex trait diseases. Remarkable advances in our understanding of the genetic and biological foundations of this disease were derived from a recent convergence of scientific and clinical data. Importantly, the more recent identification of AMD-associated variations in a number of complement pathway genes has provided strong support for earlier, paradigm-shifting studies that suggested that aberrant function of the complement system plays a key role in disease etiology. Collectively, this wealth of information has provided an impetus for the development of powerful tools to accurately diagnose disease risk and progression and complement-based therapeutics that will ultimately delay or prevent AMD. Indeed, we are poised to witness a new era of a personalized approach toward the assessment, management, and treatment of this debilitating, chronic disease.
View details for DOI 10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.18
View details for PubMedID 20212207
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4405117