B.A., Seoul National University, in South Korea, Psychology (2008)
M.A., University of Texas at Austin, Psychology (2015)
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, Developmental Psychology (2019)
Greg Walton, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Social and Emotional Learning
- Adolescents with an entity theory of personality are more vigilant to social status and use relational aggression to maintain social status SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 2019
An Entity Theory of Intelligence Predicts Higher Cortisol Levels When High School Grades Are Declining.
Grades often decline during the high school transition, creating stress. The present research integrates the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat with the implicit theories model to understand who shows maladaptive stress responses. A diary study measured declines in grades in the first few months of high school: salivary cortisol (N = 360 students, N = 3,045 observations) and daily stress appraisals (N = 499 students, N = 3,854 observations). Students who reported an entity theory of intelligence (i.e., the belief that intelligence is fixed) showed higher cortisol when grades were declining. Moreover, daily academic stressors showed a different lingering effect on the next day's cortisol for those with different implicit theories. Findings support a process model through which beliefs affect biological stress responses during difficult adolescent transitions.
View details for PubMedID 29992534
How to Improve Adolescent Stress Responses: Insights From Integrating Implicit Theories of Personality and Biopsychosocial Models
2016; 27 (8): 1078–91
This research integrated implicit theories of personality and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat, hypothesizing that adolescents would be more likely to conclude that they can meet the demands of an evaluative social situation when they were taught that people have the potential to change their socially relevant traits. In Study 1 (N = 60), high school students were assigned to an incremental-theory-of-personality or a control condition and then given a social-stress task. Relative to control participants, incremental-theory participants exhibited improved stress appraisals, more adaptive neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses, and better performance outcomes. In Study 2 (N = 205), we used a daily-diary intervention to test high school students' stress reactivity outside the laboratory. Threat appraisals (Days 5-9 after intervention) and neuroendocrine responses (Days 8 and 9 after intervention only) were unrelated to the intensity of daily stressors when adolescents received the incremental-theory intervention. Students who received the intervention also had better grades over freshman year than those who did not. These findings offer new avenues for improving theories of adolescent stress and coping.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0956797616649604
View details for Web of Science ID 000382446900004
View details for PubMedID 27324267
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4976003
- The incremental theory of personality intervention Handbook of wise interventions: How social-psychological insights can help solve problems. edited by Walton, G. M., Crum, A. J. Guildford Press. 2020
STRESS, SLEEP, AND COPING SELF-EFFICACY IN ADOLESCENTS
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2019
View details for Web of Science ID 000471071001028
Determining Optimal Parameters of the Self-Referent Encoding Task: A Large-Scale Examination of Self-Referent Cognition and Depression
2018; 30 (11): 1527–40
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Psychological Assessment on Aug 2 2018 (see record 2018-38659-001). In this article, there was an error in how exclusions for one of the three samples were reported, which resulted in inaccurate reporting of how many participants did not have complete data. This error did not change the primary results of the article or the conclusions. However, in the second paragraph of the Participant Attrition and Data Filtering section, the number of exclusions for the adolescent sample should be 301, not 163. As a result, n=408 should read n=270 in the abstract; in paragraph 3 of the Method section; and in the Figure 1 legend. In addition, the correct values for the Adolescents sample reported in Tables 1 and 2 are provided in the erratum.] Although the self-referent encoding task (SRET) is commonly used to measure self-referent cognition in depression, many different SRET metrics can be obtained. The current study used best subsets regression with cross-validation and independent test samples to identify the SRET metrics most reliably associated with depression symptoms in three large samples: a college student sample (n = 572), a sample of adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk (n = 293), and an adolescent sample from a school field study (n = 408). Across all 3 samples, SRET metrics associated most strongly with depression severity included number of words endorsed as self-descriptive and rate of accumulation of information required to decide whether adjectives were self-descriptive (i.e., drift rate). These metrics had strong intratask and split-half reliability and high test-retest reliability across a 1-week period. Recall of SRET stimuli and traditional reaction time (RT) metrics were not robustly associated with depression severity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
View details for DOI 10.1037/pas0000602
View details for Web of Science ID 000448896400012
View details for PubMedID 29878818
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6212341
Capitalizing on Appraisal Processes to Improve Affective Responses to Social Stress
2018; 10 (1): 30–39
Regulating affective responses to acute stress has the potential to improve health, performance, and well-being outcomes. Using the biopsychosocial (BPS) model of challenge and threat as an organizing framework, we review how appraisals inform affective responses and highlight research that demonstrates how appraisals can be used as regulatory tools. Arousal reappraisal, specifically, instructs individuals on the adaptive benefits of stress arousal so that arousal is conceptualized as a coping resource. By reframing the meaning of signs of arousal that accompany stress (e.g., racing heart), it is possible to break the link between stressful situations, and malignant physiological responses and experiences of negative affect. Applications of arousal reappraisal for academic contexts and clinical science, and directions for future research are discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1754073917693085
View details for Web of Science ID 000428125700004
View details for PubMedID 31178923
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6550483
- Author Reply: Arousal Reappraisal as an Affect Regulation Strategy EMOTION REVIEW 2018; 10 (1): 74–76
- Competence and motivation in adolescence Handbook of competence and motivation edited by Elliot, A. J., Dweck, C. S., Yeager, D. S. Guilford Press. 2017; 2nd
Using Design Thinking to Improve Psychological Interventions: The Case of the Growth Mindset During the Transition to High School
JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
2016; 108 (3): 374-391
There are many promising psychological interventions on the horizon, but there is no clear methodology for preparing them to be scaled up. Drawing on design thinking, the present research formalizes a methodology for redesigning and tailoring initial interventions. We test the methodology using the case of fixed versus growth mindsets during the transition to high school. Qualitative inquiry and rapid, iterative, randomized "A/B" experiments were conducted with ~3,000 participants to inform intervention revisions for this population. Next, two experimental evaluations showed that the revised growth mindset intervention was an improvement over previous versions in terms of short-term proxy outcomes (Study 1, N=7,501), and it improved 9th grade core-course GPA and reduced D/F GPAs for lower achieving students when delivered via the Internet under routine conditions with ~95% of students at 10 schools (Study 2, N=3,676). Although the intervention could still be improved even further, the current research provides a model for how to improve and scale interventions that begin to address pressing educational problems. It also provides insight into how to teach a growth mindset more effectively.
View details for DOI 10.1037/edu0000098
View details for Web of Science ID 000373687300007
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4981081
- Declines in efficacy of anti-bullying programs among older adolescents: Theory and a three-level meta-analysis JOURNAL OF APPLIED DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2015; 37: 36–51