Cerebrospinal fluid immune dysregulation during healthy brain aging and cognitive impairment.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains a tightly regulated immune system. However, knowledge is lacking about how CSF immunity is altered with aging or neurodegenerative disease. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on CSF from 45 cognitively normal subjects ranging from 54 to 82 years old. We uncovered an upregulation of lipid transport genes in monocytes with age. We then compared this cohort with 14 cognitively impaired subjects. In cognitively impaired subjects, downregulation of lipid transport genes in monocytes occurred concomitantly with altered cytokine signaling to CD8 Tcells. Clonal CD8T effector memory cells upregulated C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 6 (CXCR6) in cognitively impaired subjects. The CXCR6 ligand, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16), was elevated in the CSF of cognitively impaired subjects, suggesting CXCL16-CXCR6 signaling as a mechanism for antigen-specific Tcell entry into the brain. Cumulatively, these results reveal cerebrospinal fluid immune dysregulation during healthy brain aging and cognitive impairment.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2022.11.019
View details for PubMedID 36516855
Measuring biological age using omics data.
Nature reviews. Genetics
Age is the key risk factor for diseases and disabilities of the elderly. Efforts to tackle age-related diseases and increase healthspan have suggested targeting the ageing process itself to 'rejuvenate' physiological functioning. However, achieving this aim requires measures of biological age and rates of ageing at the molecular level. Spurred by recent advances in high-throughput omics technologies, a new generation of tools to measure biological ageing now enables the quantitative characterization of ageing at molecular resolution. Epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data can be harnessed with machine learning to build 'ageing clocks' with demonstrated capacity to identify new biomarkers of biological ageing.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41576-022-00511-7
View details for PubMedID 35715611
CD4+ T cells contribute to neurodegeneration in Lewy body dementia.
Science (New York, N.Y.)
[Figure: see text].
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.abf7266
View details for PubMedID 34648304
Methods to investigate intrathecal adaptive immunity in neurodegeneration.
2021; 16 (1): 3
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain. Historically, analysis of CSF has focused on protein changes, yet recent studies have shed light on cellular alterations. Evidence now exists for involvement of intrathecal T cells in the pathobiology of neurodegenerative diseases. However, a standardized method for long-term preservation of CSF immune cells is lacking. Further, the functional role of CSF T cells and their cognate antigens in neurodegenerative diseases are largely unknown.We present a method for long-term cryopreservation of CSF immune cells for downstream single cell RNA and T cell receptor sequencing (scRNA-TCRseq) analysis. We observe preservation of CSF immune cells, consisting primarily of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We then utilize unbiased bioinformatics approaches to quantify and visualize TCR sequence similarity within and between disease groups. By this method, we identify clusters of disease-associated, antigen-specific TCRs from clonally expanded CSF T cells of patients with neurodegenerative diseases.Here, we provide a standardized approach for long-term storage of CSF immune cells. Additionally, we present unbiased bioinformatic approaches that will facilitate the discovery of target antigens of clonally expanded T cells in neurodegenerative diseases. These novel methods will help improve our understanding of adaptive immunity in the central nervous system.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s13024-021-00423-w
View details for PubMedID 33482851