As a young physician at Louisiana State University, Dr. Bonilla focused on the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS and HCV, two neglected and stigmatized diseases for which effective therapies were in their infancy. While learning the clinical aspects of the two diseases, Dr. Bonilla saw a need to create and organize a support community to promote understanding and management of the conditions. Subsequently, he went to Summa Health System in Akron, Ohio, and he continued his work where he specialized in HIV/HCV as well as in Infectious Diseases Clinical Practice. In addition to teaching medical residents and students, Dr. Bonilla participated in numerous clinical trials and developed clinical research projects. Furthermore, he led the Infection Renal Transplant Program, HIV and HCV clinics, and he participated in several cooperative studies with Case Western Reserve University. Dr. Bonilla’s interest in academia led him to the University Of Pittsburgh Medical Center where he was an Assistant Professor, Clinician, and Medical Educator in the Department of Medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases. Due to his interest in cytokines and immunological responses, Dr. Bonilla became a researcher at ImmunoScience Inc., a biotechnology company in California that works to develop a therapeutic HIV vaccine. Dr. Bonilla’s experience of treating HIV/HCV combined with his interest in inflammatory response is the driving force behind his desire to understand ME/CFS. Dr. Bonilla is a strong patient advocate, and he believes in integrated care—care in which physicians communicate and coordinate efforts to deliver the best medical outcome for patients. His ME/CFS patients are his inspiration, and he is committed to continuing research to seek answers to their health challenges.

Clinical Focus

  • Infectious Disease
  • ME/CFS and Post COVID-19 conditions
  • Diagnosis and therapeutics
  • Clinical Research

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Director, ME/CFS Clinic Co-Director, Stanford Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome Clinic, Stanford Health Care (2018 - Present)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Member, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) (1995 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship: University of Michigan Infectious Diseases Fellowship (1996) MI
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (1994)
  • Residency: Sinai Grace Hospital Internal Medicine Residency (1994) MI
  • Medical Education: Universidad Del Valle (1983) Colombia
  • MD, Universidad del Valle School of Medicine, Cali, Colombia, MD (1983)
  • Chief Medical Resident, Universidad del Valle, Internal Medicine (1988)
  • Visiting Physician, Henry Ford Hospital, Nephrology Department (1990)
  • Clinical Research, Sinai Hospital of Detroit, Clinical Research (1991)
  • Internship, Sinai Hospital of Detroit, Internal Medicine (1992)
  • Residency, Sinai Hospital of Detroit, Internal Medicine Residency (1994)
  • ID Fellow, University Of Michigan, Infectious Diseases (1996)

All Publications

  • Evaluation of acebilustat, a selective inhibitor of leukotriene B4 biosynthesis, for treatment of outpatients with mild-moderate COVID-19 disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled Phase 2 trial. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Levitt, J. E., Hedlin, H., Duong, S., Lu, D., Lee, J., Bunning, B., Elkarra, N., Pinsky, B. A., Heffernan, E., Springman, E., Moss, R. B., Bonilla, H. F., Parsonnet, J., Zamanian, R. T., Langguth, J. J., Bollyky, J., Khosla, C., Nicolls, M. R., Desai, M., Rogers, A. J. 2023


    The vast majority of COVID-19 disease occurs in outpatients where treatment is limited to anti-virals for high-risk subgroups. Acebilustat, a leukotriene B4 (LTB4) inhibitor, has potential to reduce inflammation and symptom duration.In a single-center trial spanning Delta and Omicron variants, outpatients were randomized to 100 mg of oral acebilustat or placebo for 28 days. Patients reported daily symptoms via electronic query through Day 28 with phone follow-up on Day 120 and collected nasal swabs on Days 1-10. The primary outcome was sustained symptom resolution to Day 28. Secondary 28-day outcomes included time to first symptom resolution, area under the curve (AUC) of longitudinal daily symptom scores; duration of viral shedding through Day 10; and symptoms on Day 120.Sixty participants were randomized to each study arm. At enrollment, median duration and number of symptoms were 4 (IQR 3-5) days and 9 (IQR 7-11) symptoms. Most patients (90%) were vaccinated with 73% having neutralizing antibodies. A minority (44%) of participants (35% in the acebilustat arm and 53% in placebo) had sustained symptom resolution at Day 28 (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.34-1.04, p = 0.07 favoring placebo). There was no difference in mean AUC of symptom scores over 28 days (difference in mean of AUC 9.4, 95% CI -42.1-60.9, p=0.72). Acebilustat did not impact viral shedding or symptoms at Day 120.Sustained symptoms through Day 28 were common in this low-risk population. Despite this, LTB4 antagonism with acebilustat did not shorten symptom duration in outpatients with COVID-19.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciad187

    View details for PubMedID 36996150

  • Therapeutic trials for long COVID-19: A call to action from the interventions taskforce of the RECOVER initiative. Frontiers in immunology Bonilla, H., Peluso, M. J., Rodgers, K., Aberg, J. A., Patterson, T. F., Tamburro, R., Baizer, L., Goldman, J. D., Rouphael, N., Deitchman, A., Fine, J., Fontelo, P., Kim, A. Y., Shaw, G., Stratford, J., Ceger, P., Costantine, M. M., Fisher, L., O'Brien, L., Maughan, C., Quigley, J. G., Gabbay, V., Mohandas, S., Williams, D., McComsey, G. A. 2023; 14: 1129459


    Although most individuals recover from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, a significant number continue to suffer from Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), including the unexplained symptoms that are frequently referred to as long COVID, which could last for weeks, months, or even years after the acute phase of illness. The National Institutes of Health is currently funding large multi-center research programs as part of its Researching COVID to Enhance Recover (RECOVER) initiative to understand why some individuals do not recover fully from COVID-19. Several ongoing pathobiology studies have provided clues to potential mechanisms contributing to this condition. These include persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antigen and/or genetic material, immune dysregulation, reactivation of other latent viral infections, microvascular dysfunction, and gut dysbiosis, among others. Although our understanding of the causes of long COVID remains incomplete, these early pathophysiologic studies suggest biological pathways that could be targeted in therapeutic trials that aim to ameliorate symptoms. Repurposed medicines and novel therapeutics deserve formal testing in clinical trial settings prior to adoption. While we endorse clinical trials, especially those that prioritize inclusion of the diverse populations most affected by COVID-19 and long COVID, we discourage off-label experimentation in uncontrolled and/or unsupervised settings. Here, we review ongoing, planned, and potential future therapeutic interventions for long COVID based on the current understanding of the pathobiological processes underlying this condition. We focus on clinical, pharmacological, and feasibility data, with the goal of informing future interventional research studies.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1129459

    View details for PubMedID 36969241

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10034329

  • Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is common in post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC): Results from a post-COVID-19 multidisciplinary clinic. Frontiers in neurology Bonilla, H., Quach, T. C., Tiwari, A., Bonilla, A. E., Miglis, M., Yang, P. C., Eggert, L. E., Sharifi, H., Horomanski, A., Subramanian, A., Smirnoff, L., Simpson, N., Halawi, H., Sum-Ping, O., Kalinowski, A., Patel, Z. M., Shafer, R. W., Geng, L. C. 2023; 14: 1090747


    The global prevalence of PASC is estimated to be present in 0·43 and based on the WHO estimation of 470 million worldwide COVID-19 infections, corresponds to around 200 million people experiencing long COVID symptoms. Despite this, its clinical features are not well-defined.We collected retrospective data from 140 patients with PASC in a post-COVID-19 clinic on demographics, risk factors, illness severity (graded as one-mild to five-severe), functional status, and 29 symptoms and principal component symptoms cluster analysis. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2015 criteria were used to determine the Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) phenotype.The median age was 47 years, 59.0% were female; 49.3% White, 17.2% Hispanic, 14.9% Asian, and 6.7% Black. Only 12.7% required hospitalization. Seventy-two (53.5%) patients had no known comorbid conditions. Forty-five (33.9%) were significantly debilitated. The median duration of symptoms was 285.5 days, and the number of symptoms was 12. The most common symptoms were fatigue (86.5%), post-exertional malaise (82.8%), brain fog (81.2%), unrefreshing sleep (76.7%), and lethargy (74.6%). Forty-three percent fit the criteria for ME/CFS, majority were female, and obesity (BMI > 30 Kg/m2) (P = 0.00377895) and worse functional status (P = 0.0110474) were significantly associated with ME/CFS.Most PASC patients evaluated at our clinic had no comorbid condition and were not hospitalized for acute COVID-19. One-third of patients experienced a severe decline in their functional status. About 43% had the ME/CFS subtype.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fneur.2023.1090747

    View details for PubMedID 36908615

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9998690

  • Development of a Definition of Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. JAMA Thaweethai, T., Jolley, S. E., Karlson, E. W., Levitan, E. B., Levy, B., McComsey, G. A., McCorkell, L., Nadkarni, G. N., Parthasarathy, S., Singh, U., Walker, T. A., Selvaggi, C. A., Shinnick, D. J., Schulte, C. C., Atchley-Challenner, R., Horwitz, L. I., Foulkes, A. S., RECOVER Consortium, Alba, G. A., Alicic, R., Altman, N., Anglin, K., Argueta, U., Ashktorab, H., Baslet, G., Bassett, I. V., Bateman, L., Bedi, B., Bhattacharyya, S., Bind, M., Blomkalns, A. L., Bonilla, H., Bush, P. A., Castro, M., Chan, J., Charney, A. W., Chen, P., Chibnik, L. B., Chu, H. Y., Clifton, R. G., Costantine, M. M., Cribbs, S. K., Davila Nieves, S. I., Deeks, S. G., Duven, A., Emery, I. F., Erdmann, N., Erlandson, K. M., Ernst, K. C., Farah-Abraham, R., Farner, C. E., Feuerriegel, E. M., Fleurimont, J., Fonseca, V., Franko, N., Gainer, V., Gander, J. C., Gardner, E. M., Geng, L. N., Gibson, K. S., Go, M., Goldman, J. D., Grebe, H., Greenway, F. L., Habli, M., Hafner, J., Han, J. E., Hanson, K. A., Heath, J., Hernandez, C., Hess, R., Hodder, S. L., Hoffman, M. K., Hoover, S. E., Huang, B., Hughes, B. L., Jagannathan, P., John, J., Jordan, M. R., Katz, S. D., Kaufman, E. S., Kelly, J. D., Kelly, S. W., Kemp, M. M., Kirwan, J. P., Klein, J. D., Knox, K. S., Krishnan, J. A., Kumar, A., Laiyemo, A. O., Lambert, A. A., Lanca, M., Lee-Iannotti, J. K., Logarbo, B. P., Longo, M. T., Luciano, C. A., Lutrick, K., Maley, J. H., Marathe, J. G., Marconi, V., Marshall, G. D., Martin, C. F., Matusov, Y., Mehari, A., Mendez-Figueroa, H., Mermelstein, R., Metz, T. D., Morse, R., Mosier, J., Mouchati, C., Mullington, J., Murphy, S. N., Neuman, R. B., Nikolich, J. Z., Ofotokun, I., Ojemakinde, E., Palatnik, A., Palomares, K., Parimon, T., Parry, S., Patterson, J. E., Patterson, T. F., Patzer, R. E., Peluso, M. J., Pemu, P., Pettker, C. M., Plunkett, B. A., Pogreba-Brown, K., Poppas, A., Quigley, J. G., Reddy, U., Reece, R., Reeder, H., Reeves, W. B., Reiman, E. M., Rischard, F., Rosand, J., Rouse, D. J., Ruff, A., Saade, G., Sandoval, G. J., Schlater, S. M., Shepherd, F., Sherif, Z. A., Simhan, H., Singer, N. G., Skupski, D. W., Sowles, A., Sparks, J. A., Sukhera, F. I., Taylor, B. S., Teunis, L., Thomas, R. J., Thorp, J. M., Thuluvath, P., Ticotsky, A., Tita, A. T., Tuttle, K. R., Urdaneta, A. E., Valdivieso, D., VanWagoner, T. M., Vasey, A., Verduzco-Gutierrez, M., Wallace, Z. S., Ward, H. D., Warren, D. E., Weiner, S. J., Welch, S., Whiteheart, S. W., Wiley, Z., Wisnivesky, J. P., Yee, L. M., Zisis, S. 2023


    Importance: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects occurring after acute infection, termed postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), also known as long COVID. Characterizing PASC requires analysis of prospectively and uniformly collected data from diverse uninfected and infected individuals.Objective: To develop a definition of PASC using self-reported symptoms and describe PASC frequencies across cohorts, vaccination status, and number of infections.Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective observational cohort study of adults with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection at 85 enrolling sites (hospitals, health centers, community organizations) located in 33 states plus Washington, DC, and Puerto Rico. Participants who were enrolled in the RECOVER adult cohort before April 10, 2023, completed a symptom survey 6 months or more after acute symptom onset or test date. Selection included population-based, volunteer, and convenience sampling.Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection.Main Outcomes and Measures: PASC and 44 participant-reported symptoms (with severity thresholds).Results: A total of 9764 participants (89% SARS-CoV-2 infected; 71% female; 16% Hispanic/Latino; 15% non-Hispanic Black; median age, 47 years [IQR, 35-60]) met selection criteria. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.5 or greater (infected vs uninfected participants) for 37 symptoms. Symptoms contributing to PASC score included postexertional malaise, fatigue, brain fog, dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, changes in sexual desire or capacity, loss of or change in smell or taste, thirst, chronic cough, chest pain, and abnormal movements. Among 2231 participants first infected on or after December 1, 2021, and enrolled within 30 days of infection, 224 (10% [95% CI, 8.8%-11%]) were PASC positive at 6 months.Conclusions and Relevance: A definition of PASC was developed based on symptoms in a prospective cohort study. As a first step to providing a framework for other investigations, iterative refinement that further incorporates other clinical features is needed to support actionable definitions of PASC.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2023.8823

    View details for PubMedID 37278994

  • Establishing a consensus on ME/CFS exclusionary illnesses FATIGUE-BIOMEDICINE HEALTH AND BEHAVIOR Jason, L. A., Ravichandran, S., Katz, B. Z., Natelson, B. H., Bonilla, H. 2022
  • Early immune markers of clinical, virological, and immunological outcomes in patients with COVID-19: a multi-omics study. eLife Hu, Z., van der Ploeg, K., Chakraborty, S., Arunachalam, P. S., Mori, D. A., Jacobson, K. B., Bonilla, H., Parsonnet, J., Andrews, J. R., Holubar, M., Subramanian, A., Khosla, C., Maldonado, Y., Hedlin, H., de la Parte, L., Press, K., Ty, M., Tan, G. S., Blish, C., Takahashi, S., Rodriguez-Barraquer, I., Greenhouse, B., Butte, A. J., Singh, U., Pulendran, B., Wang, T. T., Jagannathan, P. 2022; 11


    The great majority of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are mild and uncomplicated, but some individuals with initially mild COVID-19 progressively develop more severe symptoms. Furthermore, there is substantial heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2-specific memory immune responses following infection. There remains a critical need to identify host immune biomarkers predictive of clinical and immunological outcomes in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.Leveraging longitudinal samples and data from a clinical trial (N=108) in SARS-CoV-2-infected outpatients, we used host proteomics and transcriptomics to characterize the trajectory of the immune response in COVID-19 patients. We characterized the association between early immune markers and subsequent disease progression, control of viral shedding, and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and antibody responses measured up to 7 months after enrollment. We further compared associations between early immune markers and subsequent T cell and antibody responses following natural infection with those following mRNA vaccination. We developed machine-learning models to predict patient outcomes and validated the predictive model using data from 54 individuals enrolled in an independent clinical trial.We identify early immune signatures, including plasma RIG-I levels, early IFN signaling, and related cytokines (CXCL10, MCP1, MCP-2, and MCP-3) associated with subsequent disease progression, control of viral shedding, and the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and antibody response measured up to 7 months after enrollment. We found that several biomarkers for immunological outcomes are shared between individuals receiving BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine and COVID-19 patients. Finally, we demonstrate that machine-learning models using 2-7 plasma protein markers measured early within the course of infection are able to accurately predict disease progression, T cell memory, and the antibody response post-infection in a second, independent dataset.Early immune signatures following infection can accurately predict clinical and immunological outcomes in outpatients with COVID-19 using validated machine-learning models.Support for the study was provided from National Institute of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID) (U01 AI150741-01S1 and T32-AI052073), the Stanford's Innovative Medicines Accelerator, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH/NIDA) DP1DA046089, and anonymous donors to Stanford University. Peginterferon lambda provided by Eiger BioPharmaceuticals.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.77943

    View details for PubMedID 36239699

  • TNF-alpha+ CD4+ Tcells dominate the SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response in COVID-19 outpatients and are associated with durable antibodies. Cell reports. Medicine van der Ploeg, K., Kirosingh, A. S., Mori, D. A., Chakraborty, S., Hu, Z., Sievers, B. L., Jacobson, K. B., Bonilla, H., Parsonnet, J., Andrews, J. R., Press, K. D., Ty, M. C., Ruiz-Betancourt, D. R., de la Parte, L., Tan, G. S., Blish, C. A., Takahashi, S., Rodriguez-Barraquer, I., Greenhouse, B., Singh, U., Wang, T. T., Jagannathan, P. 2022: 100640


    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific CD4+ Tcells are likely important in immunity against coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), but our understanding of CD4+ longitudinal dynamics following infection and of specific features that correlate with the maintenance of neutralizing antibodies remains limited. Here, we characterize SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ Tcells in a longitudinal cohort of 109 COVID-19 outpatients enrolled during acute infection. The quality of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ response shifts from cells producing interferon gamma (IFNgamma) to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from 5days to 4months post-enrollment, with IFNgamma-IL-21-TNF-alpha+ CD4+ Tcells the predominant population detected at later time points. Greater percentages of IFNgamma-IL-21-TNF-alpha+ CD4+ Tcells on day 28 correlate with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies measured 7months post-infection (⍴= 0.4, p= 0.01). mRNA vaccination following SARS-CoV-2 infection boosts both IFNgamma- and TNF-alpha-producing, spike-protein-specific CD4+ Tcells. These data suggest that SARS-CoV-2-specific, TNF-alpha-producing CD4+ Tcells may play an important role in antibody maintenance following COVID-19.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100640

    View details for PubMedID 35588734

  • Favipiravir for treatment of outpatients with asymptomatic or uncomplicated COVID-19: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Holubar, M., Subramanian, A., Purington, N., Hedlin, H., Bunning, B., Walter, K. S., Bonilla, H., Boumis, A., Chen, M., Clinton, K., Dewhurst, L., Epstein, C., Jagannathan, P., Kaszynski, R. H., Panu, L., Parsonnet, J., Ponder, E. L., Quintero, O., Sefton, E., Singh, U., Soberanis, L., Truong, H., Andrews, J. R., Desai, M., Khosla, C., Maldonado, Y. 2022


    Favipiravir is an oral, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor with in vitro activity against SARS-CoV2. Despite limited data, favipiravir is administered to patients with COVID-19 in several countries.We conducted a phase 2 double-blind randomized controlled outpatient trial of favipiravir in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic adults with a positive SARS-CoV2 RT-PCR within 72 hours of enrollment. Participants were randomized 1: 1 to receive placebo or favipiravir (1800mg BID Day 1, 800 mg BID Days 2-10). The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 shedding cessation in a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) cohort of participants with positive enrollment RT-PCRs. Using SARS-CoV-2 amplicon-based sequencing, we assessed favipiravir's impact on mutagenesis.From July 8, 2020 - March 23, 2021, we randomized 149 participants with 116 included in the mITT cohort. The participants' mean age was 43 years (SD 12.5) and 57 (49%) were women. We found no difference in time to shedding cessation by treatment arm overall (HR 0.76 favoring placebo, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-1.20) or in sub-group analyses (age, sex, high-risk comorbidities, seropositivity or symptom duration at enrollment). We observed no difference in time to symptom resolution (initial: HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.54-1.29; sustained: HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.52-1.45). We detected no difference in accumulation of transition mutations in the viral genome during treatment.Our data do not support favipiravir use at commonly used doses in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19. Further research is needed to ascertain if higher doses of favipiravir are effective and safe for patients with COVID-19.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciac312

    View details for PubMedID 35446944

  • Gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA suggest prolonged gastrointestinal infection. Med (New York, N.Y.) Natarajan, A., Zlitni, S., Brooks, E. F., Vance, S. E., Dahlen, A., Hedlin, H., Park, R. M., Han, A., Schmidtke, D. T., Verma, R., Jacobson, K. B., Parsonnet, J., Bonilla, H. F., Singh, U., Pinsky, B. A., Andrews, J. R., Jagannathan, P., Bhatt, A. S. 2022


    COVID-19 manifests with respiratory, systemic, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.1,2 SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in respiratory and fecal samples, and recent reports demonstrate viral replication in both the lung and intestinal tissue.3-5 Although much is known about early fecal RNA shedding, little is known about the long term shedding, especially in those with mild COVID-19. Furthermore, most reports of fecal RNA shedding do not correlate these findings with GI symptoms.6.We analyze the dynamics of fecal RNA shedding up to 10 months after COVID-19 diagnosis in 113 individuals with mild to moderate disease. We also correlate shedding with disease symptoms.Fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in 49.2% [95% Confidence interval = 38.2%-60.3%] of participants within the first week after diagnosis. Whereas there was no ongoing oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in subjects at and after 4 months, 12.7% [8.5%-18.4%] of participants continued to shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces at 4 months after diagnosis and 3.8% [2.0%-7.3%] shed at 7 months. Finally, we find that GI symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting) are associated with fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.The extended presence of viral RNA in feces, but not respiratory samples, along with the association of fecal viral RNA shedding with GI symptoms suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infects the GI tract, and that this infection can be prolonged in a subset of individuals with COVID-19.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.medj.2022.04.001

    View details for PubMedID 35434682

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9005383

  • Comparative Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles in Patients with Severe and Mild Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Frontiers in immunology Bonilla, H., Hampton, D., Marques de Menezes, E. G., Deng, X., Montoya, J. G., Anderson, J., Norris, P. J. 2022; 13: 841910


    Myalgic encephalomyelitis, or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a serious disease whose cause has yet to be identified. Objective markers of the disease are also not well understood and would serve as important tools in diagnosis and management. One potential biomarker or transmitter of immune signals in ME/CFS is the extracellular vesicle (EV) compartment. These small, membrane bound particles have been shown to play a key role in intercellular signaling. Our laboratory has focused on methods of detection of EVS in clinical samples. In this study we explored whether the prevalence of EVs in the plasma of participants with mild or severe ME/CFS differed from the plasma of healthy control participants. By staining for multiple cell surface molecules, plasma EVs could be fingerprinted as to their cell of origin. Our study revealed a significant correlation between severe ME/CSF and levels of EVs bearing the B cell marker CD19 and the platelet marker CD41a, though these changes were not significant after correction for multiple comparisons. These findings point to potential dysregulation of B cell and platelet activation or homeostasis in ME/CFS, which warrants validation in a replication cohort and further exploration of potential mechanisms underlying the association.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2022.841910

    View details for PubMedID 35309313

  • Characterization of autonomic symptom burden in long COVID: A global survey of 2,314 adults. Frontiers in neurology Larsen, N. W., Stiles, L. E., Shaik, R., Schneider, L., Muppidi, S., Tsui, C. T., Geng, L. N., Bonilla, H., Miglis, M. G. 2022; 13: 1012668


    Background: Autonomic dysfunction is a known complication of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC)/long COVID, however prevalence and severity are unknown.Objective: To assess the frequency, severity, and risk factors of autonomic dysfunction in PASC, and to determine whether severity of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with severity of autonomic dysfunction.Design: Cross-sectional online survey of adults with PASC recruited through long COVID support groups between October 2020 and August 2021.Participants: 2,413 adults ages 18-64 years with PASC including patients who had a confirmed positive test for COVID-19 (test-confirmed) and participants who were diagnosed with COVID-19 based on clinical symptoms alone.Main measures: The main outcome measure was the Composite Autonomic Symptom 31 (COMPASS-31) total score, used to assess global autonomic dysfunction. Test-confirmed hospitalized vs. test-confirmed non-hospitalized participants were compared to determine if the severity of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with the severity autonomic dysfunction.Key results: Sixty-six percent of PASC patients had a COMPASS-31 score >20, suggestive of moderate to severe autonomic dysfunction. COMPASS-31 scores did not differ between test-confirmed hospitalized and test-confirmed non-hospitalized participants [28.95 (15.62, 46.60) vs. 26.4 (13.75, 42.10); p = 0.06].Conclusions: Evidence of moderate to severe autonomic dysfunction was seen in 66% of PASC patients in our study, independent of hospitalization status, suggesting that autonomic dysfunction is highly prevalent in the PASC population and independent of the severity of acute COVID-19 illness.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fneur.2022.1012668

    View details for PubMedID 36353127

  • Long Term Accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 Interferon-γ Release Assay and its Application in Household Investigation. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Murugesan, K., Jagannathan, P., Altamirano, J., Maldonado, Y. A., Bonilla, H. F., Jacobson, K. B., Parsonnet, J., Andrews, J. R., Shi, R. Z., Boyd, S., Pinsky, B. A., Singh, U., Banaei, N. 2022


    An immunodiagnostic assay that sensitively detects a cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is needed for epidemiological investigation and for clinical assessment of T cell-mediated immune response to vaccines, particularly in the context of emerging variants that might escape antibody responses.The performance of a whole blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific T cells was evaluated in COVID-19 convalescents tested serially up to 10 months post-infection and in healthy blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 IGRA was applied in contacts of households with index cases. Freshly collected blood in the lithium heparin tube was left unstimulated, stimulated with a SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool, and stimulated with mitogen.The overall sensitivity and specificity of IGRA were 84.5% (153/181; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.0-89.0) and 86.6% (123/142; 95% CI;80.0-91.2), respectively. The sensitivity declined from 100% (16/16; 95% CI 80.6-100) at 0.5-month post-infection to 79.5% (31/39; 95% CI 64.4-89.2) at 10 months post-infection (P<0.01). The IFN-γ response remained relatively robust at 10 months post-infection (3.8 vs. 1.3 IU/mL, respectively). In 14 households, IGRA showed a positivity rate of 100% (12/12) and 65.2% (15/23), and IgG of 50.0% (6/12) and 43.5% (10/23) in index cases and contacts, respectively, exhibiting a difference of +50% (95% CI +25.4-+74.6) and +21.7% (95% CI, +9.23-+42.3), respectively. Either IGRA or IgG was positive in 100% (12/12) of index cases and 73.9% (17/23) of contacts.The SARS-CoV-2 IGRA is a useful clinical diagnostic tool for assessing cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciac045

    View details for PubMedID 35079772

  • Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Essentials of Diagnosis and Management. Mayo Clinic proceedings Bateman, L., Bested, A. C., Bonilla, H. F., Chheda, B. V., Chu, L., Curtin, J. M., Dempsey, T. T., Dimmock, M. E., Dowell, T. G., Felsenstein, D., Kaufman, D. L., Klimas, N. G., Komaroff, A. L., Lapp, C. W., Levine, S. M., Montoya, J. G., Natelson, B. H., Peterson, D. L., Podell, R. N., Rey, I. R., Ruhoy, I. S., Vera-Nunez, M. A., Yellman, B. P. 2021


    Despite myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) affecting millions of people worldwide, many clinicians lack the knowledge to appropriately diagnose or manage ME/CFS. Unfortunately, clinical guidance has been scarce, obsolete, or potentially harmful. Consequently, up to 91% of patients in the United States remain undiagnosed, and those diagnosed often receive inappropriate treatment. These problems are of increasing importance because after acute COVID-19, a significant percentage of people remain ill for many months with an illness similar to ME/CFS. In 2015, the US National Academy of Medicine published new evidence-based clinical diagnostic criteria that have been adopted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Furthermore, the United States and other governments as well as major health care organizations have recently withdrawn graded exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy as the treatment of choice for patients with ME/CFS. Recently, 21 clinicians specializing in ME/CFS convened to discuss best clinical practices for adults affected by ME/CFS. This article summarizes their top recommendations for generalist and specialist health care providers based on recent scientific progress and decades of clinical experience. There are many steps that clinicians can take to improve the health, function, and quality of life of those with ME/CFS, including those in whom ME/CFS develops after COVID-19. Patients with a lingering illness that follows acute COVID-19 who do not fully meet criteria for ME/CFS may also benefit from these approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.07.004

    View details for PubMedID 34454716

  • SARS-CoV-2 Antiviral Therapy. Clinical microbiology reviews Tao, K., Tzou, P. L., Nouhin, J., Bonilla, H., Jagannathan, P., Shafer, R. W. 2021: e0010921


    The development of effective antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is critical for those awaiting vaccination, as well as for those who do not respond robustly to vaccination. This review summarizes 1 year of progress in the race to develop antiviral therapies for COVID-19, including research spanning preclinical and clinical drug development efforts, with an emphasis on antiviral compounds that are in clinical development or that are high priorities for clinical development. The review is divided into sections on compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 enzymes, including its polymerase and proteases; compounds that inhibit virus entry, including monoclonal antibodies; interferons; and repurposed drugs that inhibit host processes required for SARS-CoV-2 replication. The review concludes with a summary of the lessons to be learned from SARS-CoV-2 drug development efforts and the challenges to continued progress.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/CMR.00109-21

    View details for PubMedID 34319150

  • Patients with uncomplicated COVID-19 have long-term persistent symptoms and functional impairment similar to patients with severe COVID-19: a cautionary tale during a global pandemic. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Jacobson, K. B., Rao, M., Bonilla, H., Subramanian, A., Hack, I., Madrigal, M., Singh, U., Jagannathan, P., Grant, P. 2021


    To assess the prevalence of persistent functional impairment after COVID-19, we assessed 118 individuals 3-4 months after their initial COVID-19 diagnosis with a symptom survey, work productivity and activity index questionnaire, and 6-minute walk test. We found significant persistent symptoms and functional impairment, even in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciab103

    View details for PubMedID 33624010

  • Off label use of Aripiprazole shows promise as a treatment for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): a retrospective study of 101 patients treated with a low dose of Aripiprazole. Journal of translational medicine Crosby, L. D., Kalanidhi, S., Bonilla, A., Subramanian, A., Ballon, J. S., Bonilla, H. 2021; 19 (1): 50

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12967-021-02721-9

    View details for PubMedID 33536023

  • Peginterferon Lambda-1a for treatment of outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Nature communications Jagannathan, P. n., Andrews, J. R., Bonilla, H. n., Hedlin, H. n., Jacobson, K. B., Balasubramanian, V. n., Purington, N. n., Kamble, S. n., de Vries, C. R., Quintero, O. n., Feng, K. n., Ley, C. n., Winslow, D. n., Newberry, J. n., Edwards, K. n., Hislop, C. n., Choong, I. n., Maldonado, Y. n., Glenn, J. n., Bhatt, A. n., Blish, C. n., Wang, T. n., Khosla, C. n., Pinsky, B. A., Desai, M. n., Parsonnet, J. n., Singh, U. n. 2021; 12 (1): 1967


    Type III interferons have been touted as promising therapeutics in outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT04331899) in 120 outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 to determine whether a single, 180 mcg subcutaneous dose of Peginterferon Lambda-1a (Lambda) within 72 hours of diagnosis could shorten the duration of viral shedding (primary endpoint) or symptoms (secondary endpoint). In both the 60 patients receiving Lambda and 60 receiving placebo, the median time to cessation of viral shedding was 7 days (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 1.19). Symptoms resolved in 8 and 9 days in Lambda and placebo, respectively, and symptom duration did not differ significantly between groups (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.39). Both Lambda and placebo were well-tolerated, though liver transaminase elevations were more common in the Lambda vs. placebo arm (15/60 vs 5/60; p = 0.027). In this study, a single dose of subcutaneous Peginterferon Lambda-1a neither shortened the duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding nor improved symptoms in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-22177-1

    View details for PubMedID 33785743

  • SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNA kinetics in longitudinal clinical samples Open Forum Infectious Diseases Verma, R., Kim, E., Martinez, G., Jagannathan, ., Rustagi, A., Parsonnet, J., Bonilla, H., Khosla, C., Holubar, M., Subramanian, A., Singh, ., Maldonado, Y., Blish, C., Andrews, J. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ofid/ofab310

  • Inflammatory but not respiratory symptoms are associated with ongoing upper airway viral shedding in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease Jacobson, K. B., Purington, N., Parsonnet, J., Andrews, J., Balasubramanian, V., Bonilla, H., Edwards, K., Desai, M., Singh, U., Hedlin, H., Jagannathan, P. 2021; 102 (3): 115612


    Although the vast majority of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are uncomplicated, our understanding of predictors of symptom resolution and viral shedding cessation remains limited. We characterized symptom trajectories and oropharyngeal viral shedding among 120 outpatients with uncomplicated Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) enrolled in a clinical trial of Peginterferon Lambda, which demonstrated no clinical or virologic benefit compared with placebo. In the combined trial cohort, objective fever was uncommon, inflammatory symptoms (myalgias, fatigue) peaked at 4 to 5 days postsymptom onset, and cough peaked at 9 days. The median time to symptom resolution from earliest symptom onset was 17 days (95% confidence interval 14-18). SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity at enrollment was associated with hastened resolution of viral shedding (hazard ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.1, P = 0.03), but not with symptom resolution. Inflammatory symptoms were associated with a significantly greater odds of oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection; respiratory symptoms were not. These findings have important implications for COVID-19 screening approaches and trial design.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2021.115612

    View details for PubMedID 34974350

  • Interferon-gamma release assay for accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 T cell response. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Murugesan, K. n., Jagannathan, P. n., Pham, T. D., Pandey, S. n., Bonilla, H. F., Jacobson, K. n., Parsonnet, J. n., Andrews, J. R., Weiskopf, D. n., Sette, A. n., Pinsky, B. A., Singh, U. n., Banaei, N. n. 2020


    We investigated feasibility and accuracy of an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) for detection of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2. Whole blood IGRA accurately distinguished between convalescents and uninfected healthy blood donors with a predominantly CD4+ T cell response. SARS-CoV-2 IGRA may serve as a useful diagnostic tool in managing the COVID-19 pandemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciaa1537

    View details for PubMedID 33035306

  • Beta-Glucanemia after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Case Report JOURNAL OF FUNGI Styczynski, A., Bonilla, H., Treynor, E., Shashank, J., Zhang, Y., Finkelman, M. 2018; 4 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jof4040114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000452635800002

  • Beta-Glucanemia after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Case Report. Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland) Styczynski, A., Bonilla, H., Treynor, E., Shashank, J., Zhang, Y., Finkelman, M. 2018; 4 (4)


    Blood salvage techniques are increasingly being used during surgical procedures to reduce the need for exogenous blood products. The blood recovered from the surgical field through aspiration or absorption by surgical sponges is reinfused into a patient. A 65-year old patient who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting using blood salvage techniques developed a fever on post-op day 3 and was noted to have an elevated beta-d-glucan level, a marker of systemic fungal infections. Ultimately, no fungal infection was identified, beta-d-glucan levels slowly decreased and the patient demonstrated clinical improvement. To determine whether blood salvage procedures led to his elevated beta-d-glucan levels, the surgical sponges were tested for elutable levels of beta-d-glucan. The beta-d-glucan content of the eluents was measured using the Fungitell IVD kit (Associates of Cape Cod, Inc.; East Falmouth, MA). The beta-d-glucan levels were found to be in concentrations 10,000-times greater than the limit of detection for human serum. While various studies have demonstrated both the immunomodulatory and pro-inflammatory effects of beta-d-glucan, the physiologic impact of such high levels of beta-d-glucan post-operatively remains unknown. Additionally, the persistence of detectable beta-d-glucan up to several weeks after surgical procedures presents a challenge for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. Further studies are needed to assess the beta-glucanemia-related safety of surgical materials and their potential biological effects.

    View details for PubMedID 30279391

  • Defining the incidence and risk factors of colistin-induced acute kidney injury by KDIGO criteria PLOS ONE Shields, R. K., Anand, R., Clarke, L. G., Paronish, J. A., Weirich, M., Perone, H., Kieserman, J., Freedy, H., Andrzejewski, C., Bonilla, H. 2017; 12 (3): e0173286


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a treatment-limiting toxicity of colistin. Recently developed clinical practice guidelines from the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group have harmonized definitions of AKI, but have not been widely applied to patients receiving colistin.We retrospectively defined AKI by KDIGO definitions among adult patients receiving intravenous colistin for ≥ 3 days. Risk factors for AKI within 48 hours and 7 days of initiating colistin were determined by multivariable logistic regression.Among 249 patients treated with colistin, rates of AKI were 12% and 29% at 48 hours and 7 days, respectively. At 48 hours, patients in the intensive care unit were at increased risk for AKI. Within 7 days, colistin daily doses >5mg/kg, chronic liver disease, and concomitant vancomycin were independent predictors. Seven percent of patients required renal replacement therapy at a median of 5 days (range: 3-7) following colistin initiation.Safe use of colistin is promoted by early detection of AKI with KDIGO criteria, avoiding nephrotoxins, and limiting duration of therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 28267779

  • Atorvastatin and Fluvastatin Are Associated With Dose-Dependent Reductions in Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Among Patients With Hepatitis C Virus: Results From ERCHIVES HEPATOLOGY Simon, T. G., Bonilla, H., Yan, P., Chung, R. T., Butt, A. A. 2016; 64 (1): 47–57


    Statins are associated with delayed fibrosis progression and a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Limited data exist regarding the most effective type and dose of statin in this population. We sought to determine the impact of statin type and dose upon fibrosis progression and HCC in patients with HCV. Using the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES) database, we identified all subjects initiated on HCV antibody (anti-HCV) therapy from 2001 to 2014, and all incident cases of cirrhosis and HCC. Statin use was measured using cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD). Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the relationship between statin use and development of cirrhosis and HCC. Among 9,135 eligible subjects, 1,649 developed cirrhosis and 239 developed incident HCC. Statin use was associated with a 44% reduction in development of cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53, 0.68). The adjusted HRs (95% CI) of fibrosis progression with statin cDDD 28-89, 89-180, and >180 were 0.74 (0.59, 0.93), 0.71 (0.59, 0.88), and 0.6 (0.53, 0.68), respectively. Mean change in FIB-4 score with atorvastatin (n = 944) and fluvastatin (n = 34) was -0.17 and -0.13, respectively (P = 0.04), after adjustment for baseline FIB-4 score and established predictors of cirrhosis. Statin use was also associated with a 49% reduction in incident HCC (adjusted HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.72). A similar dose-response relationship was observed.In patients with chronic HCV, statin use was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in incident cirrhosis and HCC. Atorvastatin and fluvastatin were associated with the most significant antifibrotic effects, compared with other statins. (Hepatology 2016;64:47-57).

    View details for PubMedID 26891205

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4917438

  • Does Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriuria Predict Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Bacteremia? Analysis of 274 Patients With Staphylococcus aureus Blood Stream Infection INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Manandhar, S., Pai, G., Gidwani, H., Nazim, S., Buehrle, D., Shutt, K. A., Bonilla, H. 2016; 24 (3): 151–54
  • Effect of addition of statins to antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus-infected persons: Results from ERCHIVES HEPATOLOGY Butt, A. A., Yan, P., Bonilla, H., Abou-Samra, A., Shaikh, O. S., Simon, T. G., Chung, R. T., Rogal, S. S., ERCHIVES Elect Retrieved Cohort 2015; 62 (2): 365–74


    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been variably noted to affect hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment response, fibrosis progression, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence, with some having a more potent effect than others. We sought to determine the impact of adding statins to antiviral therapy upon sustained virological response (SVR) rates, fibrosis progression, and HCC development among HCV-infected persons using the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), an established, longitudinal, national cohort of HCV-infected veterans. Within ERCHIVES, we identified those who received HCV treatment and a follow-up of >24 months after treatment completion. We excluded those with human immunodeficiency virus coinfection, hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, cirrhosis, and HCC at baseline. Our main outcomes were liver fibrosis progression measured by FIB-4 scores, SVR rates, and incident HCC (iHCC). Among 7,248 eligible subjects, 46% received statin therapy. Statin use was significantly associated with attaining SVR (39.2% vs. 33.3%; P < 0.01), decreased cirrhosis development (17.3% vs. 25.2%; P < 0.001), and decreased iHCC (1.2% vs. 2.6%; P < 0.01). Statins remained significantly associated with increased odds of SVR (odds ratio = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29, 1.61), but lower fibrosis progression rate, lower risk of progression to cirrhosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56; 95% CI = -0.50, 0.63), and of incident HCC (HR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.76) after adjusting for other relevant clinical factors.Statin use was associated with improved virological response (VR) rates to antiviral therapy and decreased progression of liver fibrosis and incidence of HCC among a large cohort of HCV-positive Veterans. These data support the use of statins in patients with HCV.

    View details for PubMedID 25847403

  • Patience Is a Virtue: An Argument for Delayed Surgical Intervention in Fulminant Clostridium difficile Colitis AMERICAN SURGEON Clanton, J., Fawley, R., Haller, N., Daley, T., Porter, J., Paranjape, C., Bonilla, H. 2014; 80 (6): 614–19


    Recently, the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased. In cases of fulminant infection, surgery is a viable therapeutic option but associated with high mortality. We sought to examine factors associated with mortality in a large sample of patients with severe CDI that underwent surgery. A retrospective study was conducted in patients with severe CDI undergoing colectomy. Demographics, risk factors, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory data, and time between admission/diagnosis of CDI and colectomy were collected. Conventional markers of severity were evaluated as predictors of mortality. Sixty-four cases were included for analysis. The overall observed mortality rate was 45.3 per cent. Few conventional markers of severity were significantly associated with mortality. Risk factors that correlated with postsurgical mortality were vasopressor use (odds ratio, 3.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 9.92) and shorter time between diagnosis and surgery (median time, 2 vs 3 days, P = 0.009). This study suggests that a delay in surgery after diagnosis of severe CDI may improve overall outcomes. The finding regarding timing of surgery is contrary to traditional teaching and may be the result of improved medical treatment and stabilization before surgery. Consideration should be given to the importance of timing of colectomy in fulminant CDI, whereas prospective studies should be conducted to elucidate causal relationships.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337747600028

    View details for PubMedID 24887802

  • Dissemination of a pSCFS3-Like cfr-Carrying Plasmid in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates Recovered from Hospitals in Ohio ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Mendes, R. E., Deshpande, L. M., Bonilla, H. F., Schwarz, S., Huband, M. D., Jones, R. N., Quinn, J. P. 2013; 57 (7): 2923-2928


    Nineteen linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and two Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from two medical institutions in northeast Ohio and an S. aureus cfr index strain previously collected in the same facilities during the 2007 SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program were investigated for the genetic basis of oxazolidinone resistance and the location of cfr. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The location of cfr was determined by Southern blotting and hybridization. Plasmid sequencing was performed using the 454 Life Sciences (Roche) GS-FLX DNA platform. The two S. aureus isolates showed unique PFGE patterns but were multilocus sequence type 5 (ST5) and spa type t002, whereas the S. aureus index strain was ST239 and t037. Southern blot and hybridization experiments showed that cfr was plasmid located and that the S. epidermidis isolates, one of the S. aureus isolates, and the S. aureus index strain shared an identical cfr-carrying plasmid (39.3 kb). Sequencing results confirmed these findings. A 10-kb fragment containing cfr showed the highest identity (99.9%) to a 9.5-kb fragment of plasmid pSCFS3 from a bovine Staphylococcus lentus isolate from Germany. In addition, these 39.3-kb plasmids from human S. epidermidis and S. aureus exhibited BglII restriction profiles very similar to that observed for plasmid pSCFS3. The cfr-carrying plasmid detected in the remaining S. aureus isolate (7.9 kb) was distinct and showed the highest identity to the chromosomal cfr integrate found in the chromosomal DNA of a Proteus vulgaris isolate from a pig in China.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/AAC.00071-13

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320229600003

    View details for PubMedID 23571552

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3697371

  • Can a vancomycin assay be utilised to predict plasma telavancin concentrations? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS Evans, D. J., Windisch, R. M., Freedy, H. R., Bonilla, H. F. 2013; 41 (5): 495-497
  • Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of patients with Fusobacterium bacteraemia EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Goldberg, E. A., Venkat-Ramani, T., Hewit, M., Bonilla, H. F. 2013; 141 (2): 325–29


    This 10-year retrospective study assessed the epidemiology and outcomes of patients with Fusobacterium bacteraemia (FB) at a tertiary-care hospital in the USA - this is the second study focusing on FB in adults to be conducted in the USA in 30 years. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected and statistically analysed. Nineteen patients with FB were identified, representing 0·11% of bacteraemia cases. Mean age was 58·6 years with equal gender distribution. Common comorbidities included cardiovascular disease (CVD) and immunosuppression. Thirty-day mortality was 21·1%, and 68·4% of FB patients required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Elevated creatinine levels and mental status changes were associated with higher mortality (P = 0·0181 and 0·0374, respectively). CVD, diabetes, and ICU admission were associated with increased length of hospital stay (P = 0·0017, 0·0010, and 0·0379, respectively). The prevalence of FB at our hospital was very low, with poor outcomes associated with increased creatinine level, mental status changes, CVD, diabetes and ICU admission.

    View details for PubMedID 22717143

  • In Vitro Activities of LTX-109, a Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptide, against Methicillin-Resistant, Vancomycin-Intermediate, Vancomycin-Resistant, Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible, and Linezolid-Nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Saravolatz, L. D., Pawlak, J., Johnson, L., Bonilla, H., Saravolatz, L. D., Fakih, M. G., Fugelli, A., Olsen, W. 2012; 56 (8): 4478–82


    LTX-109 and eight other antimicrobial agents were evaluated against 155 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, including strains resistant to vancomycin and strains with decreased susceptibility to daptomycin and linezolid, by microdilution tests to determine MICs. Time-kill assays were performed against representative MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) isolates. LTX-109 demonstrated a MIC range of 2 to 4 μg/ml and dose-dependent rapid bactericidal activity against S. aureus. This activity was not influenced by resistance to other antistaphylococcal agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/AAC.00194-12

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306826300058

    View details for PubMedID 22585222

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3421571