Food Acquisition Practices, Body Mass Index, and Dietary Outcomes by Level of Rurality.
The Journal of rural health : official journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association
PURPOSE: Rural residents are more likely to be obese than urban residents. Research on how people navigate their local food environments through food acquisition behaviors, such as food shopping and restaurant use, in different types of communities may help to create a deeper understanding of the multilevel determinants of obesity.METHODS: Data are from a national sample of US adults ages 18-75. Respondents were recruited from an online survey panel in 2015 and asked about food shopping, restaurant use, diet and weight (N = 3,883). Comparisons were made by level of rurality as assessed by Rural-Urban Continuum Codes (RUCC) and self-reported rurality of the area around their home.FINDINGS: Food acquisition behaviors varied minimally by RUCC-defined level of rurality, with the exceptions of type and distance to primary food store. Rural residents drove further and were more likely to shop at small grocery stores and supercenters than were residents of semiurban or urban counties. In contrast, all of the food acquisition behaviors varied by self-reported rurality of residential areas. Respondents living in rural areas shopped for groceries less frequently, drove further, more commonly shopped at small grocery stores and supercenters, and used restaurants less frequently. In multivariable analyses, rural, small town, and suburban areas were each significantly associated with BMI and fruit and vegetable intake, but not percent energy from fat.CONCLUSION: Findings show that self-reported rurality of residential area is associated with food acquisition behaviors and may partly explain rural-urban differences in obesity and diet quality.
View details for DOI 10.1111/jrh.12536
View details for PubMedID 33200835
An activity space approach to understanding how food access is associated with dietary intake and BMI among urban, low-income African American women.
Health & place
2020; 66: 102458
Inconclusive evidence for how food environments affect health may result from an emphasis on residential neighborhood-based measures of exposure. We used an activity space approach to examine whether 1) measures of food access and 2) associations with diet and BMI differ between residential and activity space food environments among low-income African American women in Atlanta, Georgia (n=199). Although residential and activity space environments differed across all dimensions of food access, being located farther away from 'unhealthy' outlets was associated with lower BMI in both environments. Future research should move beyond asking whether residential and activity space environments differ, toward examining if, how, and under what conditions these differences impact the estimation of health effects.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healthplace.2020.102458
View details for PubMedID 33035746
- Hunger Does Discriminate: Addressing Structural Racism and Economic Inequality in Food Insecurity Research. American journal of public health 2020; 110 (9): 1264–65
Household Chores or Play Outdoors? The Intersecting Influence of Gender and School Type on Physical Activity Among Indian Adolescents.
Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Most Indian adolescents, particularly girls and private school students, do not engage in sufficient physical activity (PA). Current understanding of these sociodemographic differences is limited by a focus on exercise, which may not fully capture PA in developing countries. We examined how gender and school type are associated with multiple PA domains and whether associations with gender differ by school type. We randomly selected an equal number of girls and boys (ages 13-16 years) from public and private schools in Southern India (n = 395). Cross-sectional 24-hour time-use surveys measured PA, which was categorized into three domains: chores, errands, and work; play; and transportation. Negative binomial and logistic regression modeled relative differences in domain-specific PA minutes and the probability of engaging in ≥60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), respectively, in the prior 24 hours. Girls and boys were equally likely to meet MVPA recommendations. However, girls spent twice as much active time completing chores, errands, and work (rate ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval = [1.32, 2.98]), while boys spent twice as much active time playing (rate ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval = [1.23, 3.62]). Public and private school girls spent more active time in chores, errands, and work than boys; however, gender differences were greater among public school students (p value for interaction <.05). Although comparable MVPA levels for girls and boys are beneficial for physical health, girls may gain fewer cognitive, social, and emotional benefits associated with play. Additional research may clarify why the gendered burden of household responsibilities was greater among public school students. School-based programs to engage girls in active play may help reduce inequities.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1090198120931040
View details for PubMedID 32517521