All Publications

  • Home Snack Environments in the United States: Latent Class Analysis Findings From a Home Food Environment Survey. Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education Hermstad, A., Kegler, M. C., Woodruff, R. C., Raskind, I. G., Haardorfer, R. 2021: 1090198121995777


    Snacking occasions have increased in frequency and energy density in recent decades, with considerable implications for diet. Studies have linked presence of foods in the home with intake of those foods. This study examines home snack food inventories among a large sample of U.S. adults using latent class analysis findings to present latent classes of home snack food inventories and multinomial regression to model classes as correlates of percent of calories from fat. Participants (n = 4,896) completed an online household food environment survey including presence of 23 snack foods in the home and demographics. Less healthy snack foods were more commonly reported than healthier snack foods (M = 4.3 vs. M = 3.5). Among White and Latinx participants, high-income households reported greater numbers of both healthier and less healthy snack foods than lower income households, with larger income-based differences in inventory sizes for healthier snack foods. Latent class analysis revealed three classes by inventory size (Small, Medium, and Large) and three classes by inventory content (Healthy Snacks, Standard American, and Limited Standard American). Compared with the Small Inventory class, the Healthy Snacks class had lower caloric intake from fat (p = .002), the Large and Medium Inventory classes had much higher caloric intake from fat (p < .0001), and Standard American and Limited Standard American class members had somewhat higher caloric intake from fat (p < .0001, and p = .0001, respectively). Future research should explore the role of snacks in Americans' diets, their impact on diet quality and health, and how interventions can support healthy home food and snack food environments to foster healthy eating.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1090198121995777

    View details for PubMedID 33739191

  • Association between density and proximity of tobacco retail outlets with smoking: A systematic review of youth studies. Health & place Marsh, L., Vaneckova, P., Robertson, L., Johnson, T. O., Doscher, C., Raskind, I. G., Schleicher, N. C., Henriksen, L. 2021; 67: 102275


    BACKGROUND: Reducing the retail availability of tobacco has been proposed as a component of tobacco endgame, yet it is not known whether retail availability has a direct impact on smoking behaviours. A narrative review and a meta-analysis have been undertaken to examine the density and proximity of tobacco retail outlets, but were limited in scope, exposure and outcome variables. The aim of this current study was to undertake a systematic review of the international literature on the density and proximity of tobacco retail outlets to homes, schools and communities and their association with smoking behaviours among youth.METHODS: We reviewed and critically appraised the evidence documenting the association between density or proximity of tobacco retail outlets and smoking behaviours among school-age youth (18 and under), between 1 January 1990 and 21 October 2019. We reviewed original quantitative research that examined the associations of tobacco retail outlet density and proximity with individual smoking status or population-level smoking prevalence; initiation of smoking; frequency of tobacco use; sales to minors; purchasing by minors; susceptibility to smoking among non-smokers; perceived prevalence of smoking, and quitting behaviours.FINDINGS: Thirty-five peer-reviewed papers met the inclusion criteria. This review provided evidence of a relationship between density of tobacco retail outlets and smoking behaviours, particularly for the density near youths' home. A study using activity spaces also found a significant positive association between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and daily tobacco use. The review did not provide evidence of an association between the proximity of tobacco retail outlets to homes or schools and smoking behaviours among youth.CONCLUSIONS: The existing evidence supports a positive association between tobacco retail outlet density and smoking behaviours among youth, particularly for the density near youths' home. This review provides evidence for the development and implementation of policies to reduce the density of tobacco retail outlets to reduce smoking prevalence among youth.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102275

    View details for PubMedID 33526204

  • Food Acquisition Practices, Body Mass Index, and Dietary Outcomes by Level of Rurality. The Journal of rural health : official journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association Kegler, M. C., Prakash, R., Hermstad, A., Anderson, K., Haardorfer, R., Raskind, I. G. 2020


    PURPOSE: Rural residents are more likely to be obese than urban residents. Research on how people navigate their local food environments through food acquisition behaviors, such as food shopping and restaurant use, in different types of communities may help to create a deeper understanding of the multilevel determinants of obesity.METHODS: Data are from a national sample of US adults ages 18-75. Respondents were recruited from an online survey panel in 2015 and asked about food shopping, restaurant use, diet and weight (N = 3,883). Comparisons were made by level of rurality as assessed by Rural-Urban Continuum Codes (RUCC) and self-reported rurality of the area around their home.FINDINGS: Food acquisition behaviors varied minimally by RUCC-defined level of rurality, with the exceptions of type and distance to primary food store. Rural residents drove further and were more likely to shop at small grocery stores and supercenters than were residents of semiurban or urban counties. In contrast, all of the food acquisition behaviors varied by self-reported rurality of residential areas. Respondents living in rural areas shopped for groceries less frequently, drove further, more commonly shopped at small grocery stores and supercenters, and used restaurants less frequently. In multivariable analyses, rural, small town, and suburban areas were each significantly associated with BMI and fruit and vegetable intake, but not percent energy from fat.CONCLUSION: Findings show that self-reported rurality of residential area is associated with food acquisition behaviors and may partly explain rural-urban differences in obesity and diet quality.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jrh.12536

    View details for PubMedID 33200835

  • An activity space approach to understanding how food access is associated with dietary intake and BMI among urban, low-income African American women. Health & place Raskind, I. G., Kegler, M. C., Girard, A. W., Dunlop, A. L., Kramer, M. R. 2020; 66: 102458


    Inconclusive evidence for how food environments affect health may result from an emphasis on residential neighborhood-based measures of exposure. We used an activity space approach to examine whether 1) measures of food access and 2) associations with diet and BMI differ between residential and activity space food environments among low-income African American women in Atlanta, Georgia (n=199). Although residential and activity space environments differed across all dimensions of food access, being located farther away from 'unhealthy' outlets was associated with lower BMI in both environments. Future research should move beyond asking whether residential and activity space environments differ, toward examining if, how, and under what conditions these differences impact the estimation of health effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healthplace.2020.102458

    View details for PubMedID 33035746

  • Hunger Does Discriminate: Addressing Structural Racism and Economic Inequality in Food Insecurity Research. American journal of public health Raskind, I. G. 2020; 110 (9): 1264–65

    View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2020.305841

    View details for PubMedID 32783742

  • Household Chores or Play Outdoors? The Intersecting Influence of Gender and School Type on Physical Activity Among Indian Adolescents. Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education Raskind, I. G., Patil, S. S., Tandon, N., Thummalapally, S., Kramer, M. R., Cunningham, S. A. 2020: 1090198120931040


    Most Indian adolescents, particularly girls and private school students, do not engage in sufficient physical activity (PA). Current understanding of these sociodemographic differences is limited by a focus on exercise, which may not fully capture PA in developing countries. We examined how gender and school type are associated with multiple PA domains and whether associations with gender differ by school type. We randomly selected an equal number of girls and boys (ages 13-16 years) from public and private schools in Southern India (n = 395). Cross-sectional 24-hour time-use surveys measured PA, which was categorized into three domains: chores, errands, and work; play; and transportation. Negative binomial and logistic regression modeled relative differences in domain-specific PA minutes and the probability of engaging in ≥60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), respectively, in the prior 24 hours. Girls and boys were equally likely to meet MVPA recommendations. However, girls spent twice as much active time completing chores, errands, and work (rate ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval = [1.32, 2.98]), while boys spent twice as much active time playing (rate ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval = [1.23, 3.62]). Public and private school girls spent more active time in chores, errands, and work than boys; however, gender differences were greater among public school students (p value for interaction <.05). Although comparable MVPA levels for girls and boys are beneficial for physical health, girls may gain fewer cognitive, social, and emotional benefits associated with play. Additional research may clarify why the gendered burden of household responsibilities was greater among public school students. School-based programs to engage girls in active play may help reduce inequities.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1090198120931040

    View details for PubMedID 32517521

  • Food Shopping Practices of Low-income African American Women: Associations With Features of the Food Environment Raskind, I. G., Kegler, M. C., Girard, A. W., Dunlop, A. L., Kramer, M. R. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020