- Pediatrics, General
Clinical Professor, Pediatrics - General Pediatrics
Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine Registrar (1996) CA
Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1996)
Medical Education:University Of Virginia (1993) VA
Internship:Stanford University Medical Center (1994) CA
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
My interest is in the care and evaluation of newborns. In particular, I have been focusing on improving the educational experience for our residents and students in the nursery regarding the examination and management of term or near-term infants.
- Pregnancy, Birth, and Infancy
OBGYN 282, PEDS 282 (Spr)
- Independent Studies (5)
- Prior Year Courses
Identification of risk for neonatal haemolysis.
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)
AIM: To identify neonates at risk of haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia through near-concurrent measurements of total serum/plasma bilirubin (TB) or transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) and end-tidal breath carbon monoxide (CO), corrected for ambient CO (ETCOc), an index of bilirubin production and haemolysis.METHODS: Paired TB/TcB (mg/dL) and ETCOc (ppm) measurements were obtained in newborns (n = 283) at 20 to <60 hours of age in five nurseries. TB/TcB values were assigned TB/TcB percentile risk values using the Bhutani hour-specific nomogram. In infants having two serial TB/TcB measurements (n = 76), TB rate of rise (ROR, mg/dL/h) was calculated.RESULTS: For the entire cohort (n = 283), 67.1% and 32.9% had TB/TcB<75th and ≥75th percentile, respectively. TB/TcB (5.79 ± 1.84 vs 9.14 ± 2.25 mg/dL) and ETCOc (1.61 ± 0.45 vs 2.02 ± 1.35 ppm, p = 0.0002) were different between the groups. About 36.6% of infants with TB/TcB ≥75th percentile had ETCOc ≥ 2.0 ppm. In the subcohort of infants with serial TB/TcB measurements (n = 76), 44.7% and 55.3% had TB/TcB<75th and ≥75th percentile, respectively. TB/TcB (5.28 ± 1.97 vs 9.53 ± 2.78 mg/dL), ETCOc (1.72 ± 0.48 vs 2.38 ± 1.89 ppm, p = 0.05) and TB ROR (0.011 ± 0.440 vs 0.172 ± 0.471 mg/dL/h) were different between the groups.CONCLUSION: The combined use of TB/TcB percentile risk assessments and ETCOc measurements can identify infants with haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia. The addition of TB ROR can identify those infants with elimination disorders.
View details for DOI 10.1111/apa.14316
View details for PubMedID 29532503
Clinical Monitoring of Well-Appearing Infants Born to Mothers With Chorioamnionitis.
2018; 141 (4)
The risk of early-onset sepsis is low in well-appearing late-preterm and term infants even in the setting of chorioamnionitis. The empirical antibiotic strategies for chorioamnionitis-exposed infants that are recommended by national guidelines result in antibiotic exposure for numerous well-appearing, uninfected infants. We aimed to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in chorioamnionitis-exposed infants through the implementation of a treatment approach that focused on clinical presentation to determine the need for antibiotics.Within a quality-improvement framework, a new treatment approach was implemented in March 2015. Well-appearing late-preterm and term infants who were exposed to chorioamnionitis were clinically monitored for at least 24 hours in a level II nursery; those who remained well appearing received no laboratory testing or antibiotics and were transferred to the level I nursery or discharged from the hospital. Newborns who became symptomatic were further evaluated and/or treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic use, laboratory testing, culture results, and clinical outcomes were collected.Among 277 well-appearing, chorioamnionitis-exposed infants, 32 (11.6%) received antibiotics during the first 15 months of the quality-improvement initiative. No cases of culture result-positive early-onset sepsis occurred. No infant required intubation or inotropic support. Only 48 of 277 (17%) patients had sepsis laboratory testing. The implementation of the new approach was associated with a 55% reduction (95% confidence interval 40%-65%) in antibiotic exposure across all infants ≥34 weeks' gestation born at our hospital.A management approach using clinical presentation to determine the need for antibiotics in chorioamnionitis-exposed infants was successful in reducing antibiotic exposure and was not associated with any clinically relevant delays in care or adverse outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2017-2056
View details for PubMedID 29599112
A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Cutaneous Lumbosacral and Coccygeal Physical Examination Findings in a Healthy Newborn Population.
Global pediatric health
2018; 5: 2333794X18756133
Objective. The purpose of this study is to describe the range and frequency of cutaneous lumbosacral and coccygeal findings encountered during the newborn examination in a population of apparently healthy babies, to determine if the prevalence of these findings is associated with race/ethnicity, and to report the frequency of co-occurrence of low-risk cutaneous findings. Methods. Lumbosacral physical findings of 1121 infants were documented on well newborns at least 35 weeks or greater gestational age under the authors' care. The overall frequency of each physical finding was tabulated in addition to determining whether frequencies varied by race/ethnicity. Co-occurrence of the most common physical findings was also examined. Results. Of 1096 infants included in the study, 24.8% had deviated or duplicated gluteal creases, 15.6% had dimples, and 24.7% had lumbosacral and/or coccygeal hairiness. All racial/ethnic groups had double to quadruple the risk of lumbosacral hair when compared with Caucasians. A total of 44.1% of study infants had lumbosacral/coccygeal slate-grey patches, which were least common in Caucasians. Seven infants had coccygeal skin tags, and 14 infants had lumbosacral vascular macules. Thirty-one percent had more than 1 cutaneous lumbosacral finding present, 24.8% had 2 findings, and 6.2% had 3 or more findings. Conclusion. Coccygeal dimples, increased lumbosacral and/or coccygeal hair, deviations and/or duplications of the gluteal crease, and lumbosacral slate-grey patches are common in healthy newborns and vary by race/ethnicity. Eleven percent of study infants had 2 or more low-risk cutaneous findings excluding slate-grey patches. Distinction between low-risk and common versus high-risk findings is important when deciding which patients need further evaluation.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2333794X18756133
View details for PubMedID 29450217
The Superior Labial Frenulum in Newborns: What Is Normal?
Global pediatric health
2017; 4: 2333794X17718896
Introduction and Objectives: There has been an emergence of procedures to release the superior labial frenula in infants, yet little is known about the normal appearance or incidence of severe attachment, or "lip-tie." The objective of this article was to develop a classification system for superior labial frenula and to estimate the incidence of different degrees of attachment. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study. Newborns were examined and had photographs taken of their upper frenula. Relevant medical professionals rated the appearance of the labial frenula using a previously described Kotlow classification system. The raters assessed each photograph twice and were blinded to their previous rating and to other raters' scores. Results: All newborns have a labial frenula, with most attached at the gingival margins (83%). Raters had poor intra- and interrater reliability (64% to 74% and 8%, respectively), using the Kotlow classification system, which improved when the classification system was simplified. Conclusions: The Kotlow classification of lip-tie fails to be reproducible by relevant experts. The majority of infants had a significant level of attachment of the labial frenulum. As more procedures are done to release the upper lip frenulum, it is important to understand what degree of attachment is normal, or more common.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2333794X17718896
View details for PubMedID 28812052
Identification of neonatal haemolysis: an approach to predischarge management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
2016; 105 (5): E189-E194
Relative contributions of increased production [by end-tidal carbon monoxide concentrations (ETCOc)] and decreased elimination of bilirubin to predischarge hour-specific total bilirubin (TB) levels were assessed in healthy late-preterm and term newborns. Secondly, we report predischarge ETCOc ranges to guide clinical management of hyperbilirubinemia.TB and ETCOc (≤3 timepoints) determinations of newborns aged between six hours and <6 days (n = 79) were stratified by postnatal age epochs. Hyperbilirubinemia risk was assessed by plotting TB values as a function of ETCOc.Stratifications of ETCOc (in ppm, mean, median and interquartile ranges) by postnatal age epochs (0-24, 24-48 and 48-72) were as follows: 2.0, 1.9, 1.8-2.2 (n = 11); 1.6, 1.5, 1.1-2.0 (n = 58); and 2.0, 1.8, 1.6-2.3 (n = 9), respectively. Infants with ETCOc ≥ 2.5 were at high risk, between 1.5 and 2.5 at moderate risk and ≤1.5 were at low risk. Risk due to haemolysis alone was not independent (p < 0.01). For infants with TB >75th percentile (n = 31), 23% had ETCO ≤1.5, and 77% had ETCOc > 1.5 (p < 0.00003).Near-simultaneous ETCOc and TB measurements in infants with TB >75th percentile accurately identify haemolytic hyperbilirubinemia.
View details for DOI 10.1111/apa.13341
View details for Web of Science ID 000373921200001
- Evaluation of a new end-tidal carbon monoxide monitor from the bench tothe bedside ACTA PAEDIATRICA 2015; 104 (6): E279-E282
Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) on the anterior chest wall of a newborn.
2014; 31 (1): e36-7
Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pde.12159
View details for PubMedID 23679208
- The Newborn Book: Significance of Physical Findings in the Neonate Book Villages. 2014
Development of the breast milk expression experience measure.
Maternal and child nutrition
2013; 9 (3): 425-430
Exclusive breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition through 6 months. Recent research has shown that milk expression may affect breastfeeding duration. A woman's experience with milk expression might mediate the effect of milk expression on breastfeeding duration. The objective of this study was to develop a measure to evaluate women's experiences of expressing milk. Based on the available literature, we developed a brief measure of the Breast Milk Expression Experience (BMEE) assessing three dimensions: (1) social support for milk expression; (2) ease of learning how to express milk; and (3) personal experiences of milk expression. All items used 1-5 Likert scales, with higher scores indicating better experiences. We administered the items immediately after expression to 68 mothers who expressed milk post-partum. We evaluated this measure for reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Mothers completing the BMEE were 57% primiparous with 75% vaginal births. The BMEE demonstrated appropriate reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.703 for the summary index and 0.719-0.763 for social support, learning experience and personal experience subscales. The BMEE also indicated good predictive validity; of the six mothers who had a mean score <3 on the 11-item scale post-partum, two (33.3%) were expressing breast milk at 1 month, compared with 37 (80.4%) of the 46 mothers who had a mean score ≥3 on the 11-item scale post-partum (P = 0.012). The BMEE is a promising measure of milk expression experience in this population. Use of this measure may allow improved understanding of women's experiences expressing milk.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00390.x
View details for PubMedID 22236401
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3350756
Effect of Early Limited Formula on Duration and Exclusivity of Breastfeeding in At-Risk Infants: An RCT
2013; 131 (6): 1059-1065
Recent public health efforts focus on reducing formula use for breastfed infants during the birth hospitalization. No previous randomized trials report the effects of brief early formula use. The objective of the study was to determine if small formula volumes before the onset of mature milk production might reduce formula use at 1 week and improve breastfeeding at 3 months for newborns at risk for breastfeeding problems.We randomly assigned 40 exclusively breastfeeding term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, who had lost ≥5% birth weight to early limited formula (ELF) intervention (10 mL formula by syringe after each breastfeeding and discontinued when mature milk production began) or control (continued exclusive breastfeeding). Our outcomes were breastfeeding and formula use at 1 week and 1, 2, and 3 months.Among infants randomly assigned to ELF during the birth hospitalization, 2 (10%) of 20 used formula at 1 week of age, compared with 9 (47%) of 19 control infants assigned during the birth hospitalization to continue exclusive breastfeeding (P = .01). At 3 months, 15 (79%) of 19 infants assigned to ELF during the birth hospitalization were breastfeeding exclusively, compared with 8 (42%) of 19 controls (P = .02).Early limited formula may reduce longer-term formula use at 1 week and increase breastfeeding at 3 months for some infants. ELF may be a successful temporary coping strategy for mothers to support breastfeeding newborns with early weight loss. ELF has the potential for increasing rates of longer-term breastfeeding without supplementation based on findings from this RCT.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2012-2809
View details for Web of Science ID 000322840200048
View details for PubMedID 23669513
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3666109
Ankyloglossia - Incidence and associated feeding difficulties
14th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Pediatric-Otolaryngology
AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 2000: 36–39
To determine the incidence of ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in the well-baby population, and to determine whether patients with ankyloglossia experience breastfeeding difficulties.Prospective controlled study.Tertiary care children's hospital.A total of 1041 neonates in the well-baby nursery were screened for ankyloglossia. Those positively identified were invited to participate in the study. Mothers of newborns with ankyloglossia and mothers of a matched control group of unaffected newborns were contacted by telephone on a monthly basis for 6 months after their children were discharged from the hospital to determine the presence of breastfeeding difficulties.Incidence of ankyloglossia, percentage of infants successfully breastfed, and incidence of breastfeeding difficulties.Fifty newborns were identified with ankyloglossia, for an incidence of 4.8% The male-female ratio was 2.6:1.0. Of the 36 mothers of affected infants who were followed up and who intended to breastfeed, 30 (83%) successfully breastfed their infants for at least 2 months, compared with 33 (92%) of the 36 mothers of infants in the matched control group (P = .29). Breastfeeding difficulties were experienced by 9 (25%) of the mothers of infants with ankyloglossia compared with 1 (3%) of the control mothers (P<.01).Ankyloglossia, which is a relatively common finding in the newborn population, adversely affects breastfeeding in selected infants.
View details for Web of Science ID 000084630700006
View details for PubMedID 10628708