Melody Smith, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
CXCR4high megakaryocytes regulate host-defense immunity against bacterial pathogens.
Megakaryocytes (MKs) continuously produce platelets to support hemostasis and form a niche for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance in the bone marrow. MKs are also involved in inflammatory responses; however, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Using single-cell sequencing, we identified a CXCR4 highly expressed MK subpopulation, which exhibited both MK-specific and immune characteristics. CXCR4high MKs interacted with myeloid cells to promote their migration and stimulate the bacterial phagocytosis of macrophages and neutrophils by producing TNFalpha and IL-6. CXCR4high MKs were also capable of phagocytosis, processing, and presenting antigens to activate T cells. Furthermore, CXCR4high MKs also egressed circulation and infiltrated into the spleen, liver, and lung upon bacterial infection. Ablation of MKs suppressed the innate immune response and T cell activation to impair the anti-bacterial effects in mice under the Listeria monocytogenes challenge. Using hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell lineage-tracing mouse lines, we show that CXCR4high MKs were generated from infection-induced emergency megakaryopoiesis in response to bacterial infection. Overall, we identify the CXCR4high MKs, which regulate host-defense immune response against bacterial infection.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.78662
View details for PubMedID 35904250
Loss of sphingosine kinase 2 promotes the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells by improving their metabolic fitness.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have reduced capacities to properly maintain and replenish the hematopoietic system during myelosuppressive injury or aging. Expanding and rejuvenating HSCs for therapeutic purposes has been a long-sought goal, with limited progress. Here, we show that enzyme sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2), which generates the lipid metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate, is highly expressed in HSCs. The deletion of Sphk2 markedly promotes self-renewal and increases the regenerative potential of HSCs. More importantly, Sphk2 deletion globally preserves the young HSC gene expression pattern, improves the function, and sustains the multilineage potential of HSCs during aging. Mechanistically, Sphk2 interacts with prolyl hydroxylase 2 and the Von Hippel-Lindau protein to facilitate HIF1alpha ubiquitination in the nucleus independent of the Sphk2 catalytic activity. Deletion of Sphk2 increases hypoxic responses by stabilizing the HIF1alpha protein to upregulate PDK3, a glycolysis checkpoint protein for HSC quiescence, which subsequently enhances the function of HSCs by improving their metabolic fitness; specifically, it enhances anaerobic glycolysis but suppresses mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and generation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, targeting Sphk2 to enhance the metabolic fitness of HSCs is a promising strategy to expand and rejuvenate functional HSCs.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood.2022016112
View details for PubMedID 35881840