All Publications

  • Factors Influencing Shared Decision-Making Between Healthcare Providers and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer People of Color About Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of interpersonal violence Morris, S. M., Gunter, K. E., Jia, J. L., Baig, A. A. 2024: 8862605241248434


    Within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community, people of color (POC) disproportionately experience intimate partner violence (IPV). While shared decision-making (SDM)-a model of patient-provider communication-about IPV could benefit LGBTQ POC, its unique challenges merit consideration. This study identifies key factors affecting SDM between LGBTQ POC and healthcare providers surrounding IPV. LGBTQ POC participants (n=217) in Chicago and San Francisco completed surveys about demographic information, healthcare utilization, and IPV history. Individual interviews and focus groups were then conducted with a Chicago-based subset of participants (n=46) who identified as LGBTQ IPV survivors of color. Descriptive analyses were conducted of survey responses while focus group and interview transcripts were analyzed and thematically coded. Although 71% of survey participants experienced IPV, only 35% were asked about IPV in healthcare interactions within the previous year. Focus group and interview participants endorsed encounter-, patient-, and provider-centered factors affecting SDM around IPV. When IPV was discussed, patient-provider trust was essential while concordance of identities could either encourage or discourage IPV disclosure. Patients were hesitant to disclose IPV if they had never discussed their LGBTQ identity with their provider or thought providers would ignore their preferences for addressing IPV. Deterrents to SDM included providers denying the prevalence of IPV among LGBTQ individuals or lacking resources to support LGBTQ IPV survivors of color. This study highlights the identity-driven barriers that LGBTQ POC face in discussing IPV with providers. Utilizing SDM to discuss IPV with LGBTQ POC can better address the diverse health needs of this community. However, its success requires that providers acknowledge the diversity of experiences among this population, promote LGBTQ-inclusive practices, and identify resources welcome to LGBTQ POC.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/08862605241248434

    View details for PubMedID 38666658

  • Teaching transgender cultural competency with standardised patients MEDICAL EDUCATION Mukund, A. X., Jia, J. L., Nedelman, M., Rydel, T. A., Bajra, R., Srinivasan, M., Schillinger, E., Laniakea, B. H. 2024

    View details for DOI 10.1111/medu.15325

    View details for Web of Science ID 001161460300001

    View details for PubMedID 38348701

  • Skin Tone Analysis for Representation in Educational Materials (STAR-ED) using machine learning. NPJ digital medicine Tadesse, G. A., Cintas, C., Varshney, K. R., Staar, P., Agunwa, C., Speakman, S., Jia, J., Bailey, E. E., Adelekun, A., Lipoff, J. B., Onyekaba, G., Lester, J. C., Rotemberg, V., Zou, J., Daneshjou, R. 2023; 6 (1): 151


    Images depicting dark skin tones are significantly underrepresented in the educational materials used to teach primary care physicians and dermatologists to recognize skin diseases. This could contribute to disparities in skin disease diagnosis across different racial groups. Previously, domain experts have manually assessed textbooks to estimate the diversity in skin images. Manual assessment does not scale to many educational materials and introduces human errors. To automate this process, we present the Skin Tone Analysis for Representation in EDucational materials (STAR-ED) framework, which assesses skin tone representation in medical education materials using machine learning. Given a document (e.g., a textbook in .pdf), STAR-ED applies content parsing to extract text, images, and table entities in a structured format. Next, it identifies images containing skin, segments the skin-containing portions of those images, and estimates the skin tone using machine learning. STAR-ED was developed using the Fitzpatrick17k dataset. We then externally tested STAR-ED on four commonly used medical textbooks. Results show strong performance in detecting skin images (0.96±0.02 AUROC and 0.90±0.06 F1 score) and classifying skin tones (0.87±0.01 AUROC and 0.91±0.00 F1 score). STAR-ED quantifies the imbalanced representation of skin tones in four medical textbooks: brown and black skin tones (Fitzpatrick V-VI) images constitute only 10.5% of all skin images. We envision this technology as a tool for medical educators, publishers, and practitioners to assess skin tone diversity in their educational materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-023-00881-0

    View details for PubMedID 37596324

  • Anchoring bias and heuristics can perpetuate disparities in dermatology. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Jia, J. L., Lester, J. C. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.05.059

    View details for PubMedID 35671884

  • Review of the Molecular Genetics of Basal Cell Carcinoma; Inherited Susceptibility, Somatic Mutations, and Targeted Therapeutics. Cancers Kilgour, J. M., Jia, J. L., Sarin, K. Y. 2021; 13 (15)


    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a significant public health concern, with more than 3 million cases occurring each year in the United States, and with an increasing incidence. The molecular basis of BCC is complex, involving an interplay of inherited genetic susceptibility, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and genetic syndromes, and sporadic somatic mutations, often induced by carcinogenic exposure to UV radiation. This review outlines the currently known germline and somatic mutations implicated in the pathogenesis of BCC, including the key molecular pathways affected by these mutations, which drive oncogenesis. With advances in next generation sequencing and our understanding of the molecular genetics of BCC, established and emerging targeted therapeutics are offering new avenues for the non-surgical treatment of BCC. These agents, including Hedgehog pathway inhibitors, immune modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors, will also be discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/cancers13153870

    View details for PubMedID 34359772

  • Integrating Skin of Color and Sexual and Gender Minority Content in Dermatology Residency Curricula: A Prospective Program Initiative. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Jia, J. L., Gordon, J. S., Lester, J. C., Linos, E., Nord, K. M., Bailey, E. E. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.04.018

    View details for PubMedID 33872717

  • Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Risk Scoring for Melanoma Improves Adherence to Sun-Protective Behaviors Among Increased-Risk Groups: Results from a Prospective U.S. Cohort Study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Hu, X. n., Kilgour, J. M., Fogel, A. L., Jia, J. L., Jaju, P. D., Tang, J. Y., Sarin, K. Y. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.01.042

    View details for PubMedID 33476728

  • Supporting Underrepresented in Medicine (UIM) and non-UIM Trainees Applying into Dermatology: A Qualitative Analysis. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD Yu, Z., Jia, J. L., Veerabagu, S. A., Burkemper, N. M., Friedman, A. J., Rosmarin, D., Huang, J. T., Murina, A. T., Nord, K. M. 2021; 20 (7): 795-797


    Recently, there have been calls to improve diversity among the dermatology workforce, with emphasis placed on the resident selection process and trainee pipeline. However, there is limited data on the perspectives of dermatology applicants, especially among UIM trainees, and the support that they need and want to successfully apply in dermatology.To assess trainee perspectives, we disseminated a survey to medical students, interns (matched into dermatology), and dermatology residents asking how dermatology residency programs can best support trainees through the dermatology application process. We developed a codebook drawing upon grounded theory methodology, and consensus coded all qualitative responses.We received 224 qualitative responses from underrepresented in medicine (UIM) (65, 29.0%) and non-UIM trainees (159, 70.9%). UIM trainees were more likely to mention diversity and inclusion initiatives (46.2% vs 3.8%, P<0.001), transparency in program information (40.0% vs 24.5%, P=0.021), holistic review (30.8% vs 6.3%, P<0.001), UIM student outreach/pipeline programs (23.1% vs 0.6%, P<0.001), and mentorship (21.5% vs 8.2%, P=0.009).Improving programmatic efforts to address unique challenges UIM trainees face when applying into dermatology is instrumental to mitigating barriers. We highlight opportunities for dermatology residency programs to create a more fair and equitable dermatology application process and support a more diverse pipeline of future dermatologists. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(7):795-797. doi:10.36849/JDD.6043.

    View details for DOI 10.36849/JDD.6043

    View details for PubMedID 34231995

  • Supporting Students of Color: Balancing the Challenges of Activism and the Minority Tax. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Amuzie, A. U., Jia, J. L. 2021; 96 (6): 773

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000004052

    View details for PubMedID 34031294

  • Journal attitudes and outcomes of preprints in dermatology. The British journal of dermatology Jia, J. L., Hua, V. J., Mills, D. E., Sarin, K. Y. 2021


    The use of preprints, manuscripts that can be uploaded to a public server and made almost immediately available for public dissemination without peer review, is becoming increasingly common.1 Preprint servers are not typically associated with established peer-reviewed journals and often operate independently. Proponents of preprints point toward improved rapid dissemination of results and opportunities for crowdsourced feedback before submission to peer-reviewed journals.1 Conversely, inconsistent upload criteria among preprint servers (such as lack of guidance for reporting conflict of interest or image manipulation),1 and the risk for widespread discourse of non-peer reviewed results by news media may impinge on research integrity.2 As members of the public may not understand the difference between preprints and traditionally peer-reviewed articles, preprints have the potential to cause widespread confusion and mistrust.2 Use of preprints may also make publication of results in traditional journals more difficult, as the results may be perceived to be less novel. Despite controversy, the number of preprints continue to rise.3 There is limited understanding of how dermatology journals view and consider preprints. In this study, we explore dermatology journal policies toward the submission of preprint articles for publication, and corresponding publication outcomes of dermatology articles previously uploaded to a large clinically oriented preprint server.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bjd.20065

    View details for PubMedID 33742455

  • Skin of Color Article Representation in Dermatology Literature 2009-2019: Higher Citation Counts and Opportunities for Inclusion. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Amuzie, A. U., Jia, J. L., Taylor, S. C., Lester, J. C. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.03.063

    View details for PubMedID 33771597

  • Characteristics of dermatology clinical trials 2007-2018: Insights from a systematic analysis of Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Jia, J. L., Turner, B. E., Azad, A. D., Chelliah, M. P., Weeks, B. T., Rasmussen, H. K., Zhu, G. A., Lewis, M. A. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.02.078

    View details for PubMedID 33684492

  • Encouraging the Next Generation of Skin of Color Researchers: Funding Skin of Color Research in Medical School and Residency. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Jia, J. L., Amuzie, A. U., Lester, J. C. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.11.048

    View details for PubMedID 33253843

  • Paucity of COVID-19 Dermatology Literature from Low- and Middle-Income Countries. The British journal of dermatology Pendse, R. S., Schwartz, B. L., Jia, J. L., Bailey, E. E. 2020


    Since emerging in December 2019, COVID-19 has become a global pandemic with community transmission now reported in most World Health Organization (WHO) regions. As the pandemic progresses, there have been a growing number of reports of cutaneous manifestations and discussions of how COVID-19 has impacted clinical practice. We hypothesised that many such dermatology publications may be authored from high-income countries, raising questions about case representation and the generalisability and comprehensiveness of COVID-19 related insights, discourse, and guidance in our field.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bjd.19505

    View details for PubMedID 32866992

  • Absence of Skin of Colour Images in Publications of COVID-19 Skin Manifestations. The British journal of dermatology Lester, J. C., Jia, J. L., Zhang, L., Okoye, G. A., Linos, E. 2020


    There are now over 1 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally with more than 270,000 recorded deaths to date. COVID-19 has been shown to disproportionately impact people of colour both in the United Kingdom and in the United States where blacks make up 13.4% of the population but 30% of COVID-19 cases. Mounting evidence shows that COVID-19 impacts several organ systems, including the skin.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bjd.19258

    View details for PubMedID 32471009

  • Ways to Improve Care for LGBT Patients in Dermatology Clinics. Dermatologic clinics Jia, J. L., Polin, D. J., Sarin, K. Y. 2020; 38 (2): 269–76


    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) patients face significant dermatologic health disparities. LGBT patients are often discriminated against, refused healthcare, or otherwise have negative healthcare experiences that may deter future utilization of professional care. While a number of factors may mitigate these negative experiences, the present article focuses on improving organizational and institutional drivers specific to individual dermatology clinics. Clinic workflow and operations, emerging technologies and EHRs, clinic culture, clinic environment and resource availability, and provider and staff education are all characteristics of healthcare clinics that can be improved to better facilitate high-quality dermatologic care for LGBT patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.det.2019.10.012

    View details for PubMedID 32115137

  • Sexual and Gender Minority Curricula Within US Dermatology Residency Programs. JAMA dermatology Jia, J. L., Nord, K. M., Sarin, K. Y., Linos, E., Bailey, E. E. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamadermatol.2020.0113

    View details for PubMedID 32186684

  • Fitzpatrick Phototype Disparities in Identification of Cutaneous Malignancies by Google Reverse Image. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Jia, J. L., Wang, J. Y., Mills, D. E., Shen, A. n., Sarin, K. Y. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.05.005

    View details for PubMedID 32389713

  • Gamification improves melanoma visual identification among high school students: Results from a randomized study. Pediatric dermatology Jia, J. L., Shen, A. n., Tabata, M. M., Sarin, K. Y. 2020


    Identification of melanoma or worrisome moles is often taught as an important part of routine skin checks. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of gamified education vs. traditional ABCDEs education on melanoma identification and self-confidence in identifying worrisome moles. We report that in our cohort (n = 271), participants randomized to the gamified intervention were more likely to correctly identify melanoma and non-melanoma skin lesions than those randomized to the ABCDE control cohort (74.2% vs 63.5% correct, P < .0001) and perceived confidence in self-identifying worrisome lesions was slightly higher in the gamified group than the traditional group, though the trend was not significant. These novel findings have significant implications on improved ways to educate young patients on the visual identification of melanoma and worrisome moles.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pde.14158

    View details for PubMedID 32266730

  • Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: A Preliminary Review. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Jia, J. L., Kamceva, M. n., Rao, S. A., Linos, E. n. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.05.059

    View details for PubMedID 32422225

  • Patient Crowdfunding for the Treatment of Cutaneous Malignancies. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.] Jia, J. L., Mills, D. E., Urman, N. M., Sarin, K. Y. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1097/DSS.0000000000002866

    View details for PubMedID 33165076

  • Improving Information Transparency Between Dermatology Residency Programs and Trainees: Report from the Association of Professors of Dermatology Work Group on Transparency. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Jia, J. L., Yu, Z. n., Veerabagu, S. A., Burkemper, N. M., Friedman, A. J., Rosmarin, D. n., Huang, J. T., Murina, A. T., Nord, K. M. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.08.112

    View details for PubMedID 32891779

  • Waiting it out: Consultation delays prolong in-patient length of stay Postgraduate Medical Journal Rahman, A. S., Shi, S., Meza, P. K., Jia, J. L., Svec, D., Shieh, L. 2019
  • Improving Shared Decision Making For Asian American Pacific Islander Sexual and Gender Minorities. Medical care Bi, S. n., Gunter, K. E., López, F. Y., Anam, S. n., Tan, J. Y., Polin, D. J., Jia, J. L., Xu, L. J., Laiteerapong, N. n., Pho, M. T., Kim, K. E., Chin, M. H. 2019


    Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual and gender minorities (SGM) face unique challenges in mental health and accessing high-quality health care.The objective of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators for shared decision making (SDM) between AAPI SGM and providers, especially surrounding mental health.Interviews, focus groups, and surveys.AAPI SGM interviewees in Chicago (n=20) and San Francisco (n=20). Two focus groups (n=10) in San Francisco.Participants were asked open-ended questions about their health care experiences and how their identities impacted these encounters. Follow-up probes explored SDM and mental health. Participants were also surveyed about attitudes towards SGM disclosure and preferences about providers. Transcripts were analyzed for themes and a conceptual model was developed.Our conceptual model elucidates the patient, provider, and encounter-centered factors that feed into SDM for AAPI SGM. Some participants shared the stigma of SGM identities and mental health in their AAPI families. Their AAPI and SGM identities were intertwined in affecting mental health. Some providers inappropriately controlled the visibility of the patient's identities, ignoring or overemphasizing them. Participants varied on whether they preferred a provider of the same race, and how prominently their AAPI and/or SGM identities affected SDM.Providers should understand identity-specific challenges for AAPI SGM to engage in SDM. Providers should self-educate about AAPI and SGM history and intracommunity heterogeneity before the encounter, create a safe environment conducive to patient disclosure of SGM identity, and ask questions about patient priorities for the visit, pronouns, and mental health.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001212

    View details for PubMedID 31567862

  • Comparing Online Engagement and Academic Impact of Dermatology Research: An Altmetric Attention Score and PlumX Metrics Analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Jia, J. L., Nguyen, B. n., Mills, D. E., Polin, D. J., Sarin, K. Y. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2019.12.003

    View details for PubMedID 31836559

  • Assessment of readability and content of patient-initiated google search results for epidermolysis bullosa. Pediatric dermatology Jia, J. L., Nguyen, B. n., Sarin, K. Y. 2019


    Epidermolysis bullosa describes a group of conditions commonly characterized by fragile skin and blistering of the mucosal membranes. Due to the complex and rare nature of the disease, we sought to evaluate the quality and readability of epidermolysis bullosa information available online. Analysis of the top 50 search results on Google demonstrated that information by non-dermatologists was of a lower reading level and more accessible when compared to information by dermatologists, even though dermatologist written information was more likely to be useful and medically comprehensive. There is an increasing need for dermatologists to provide useful and medically comprehensive EB information that is accessible to patients and patient families.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pde.13975

    View details for PubMedID 31468562

  • Emerging technologies for health information in dermatology: opportunities and drawbacks of web-based searches, social media, mobile applications, and direct-to-consumer genetic testing in patient care. Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery Jia, J. L., Polin, D. J., Sarin, K. Y. 2019; 38 (1): E57–E53


    Emerging technology is fundamentally changing how individuals interact with the health care system. Web-based searches, mobile applications, social media, and directto- consumer genetic testing companies are facilitating information exchange at a higher rate than ever before, creating a macroscopic shift in the mechanisms by which individuals seek health information. The visual nature of skin disease enables individuals to browse, share, and search based on images, adding another dimension to how dermatological information is transferred. These trends carry important implications on user health care behavior, and so it is vital for health care professionals to stay attuned to the morphing characteristics of their patients' health management in order to continue to provide high-quality, patient-centered care.

    View details for PubMedID 31051025

  • Navigating Controversy: A Critical Element of Medical Education ACADEMIC MEDICINE Jia, J. L., Kamceva, M., Keyes, T. J. 2018; 93 (12): 1750
  • Navigating Controversy: A Critical Element of Medical Education. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Jia, J. L., Kamceva, M. n., Keyes, T. J. 2018; 93 (12): 1750

    View details for PubMedID 30489297

  • Shared Decision Making Among Clinicians and Asian American and Pacific Islander Sexual and Gender Minorities: An Intersectional Approach to Address a Critical Care Gap LGBT HEALTH Tan, J. Y., Xu, L. J., Lopez, F. Y., Jia, J. L., Pho, M. T., Kim, K. E., Chin, M. H. 2016; 3 (5): 327-334


    Shared decision making (SDM) is a model of patient-provider communication. Little is known about the role of SDM in health disparities among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual and gender minorities (SGM). We illustrate how issues at the intersection of AAPI and SGM identities affect SDM processes and health outcomes. We discuss experiences of AAPI SGM that are affected by AAPI heterogeneity, SGM stigma, multiple minority group identities, and sources of discrimination. Recommendations for clinical practice, research, policy, community development, and education are offered.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/lgbt.2015.0143

    View details for Web of Science ID 000384689500002

    View details for PubMedID 27158858

  • Addressing Barriers to Shared Decision Making Among Latino LGBTQ Patients and Healthcare Providers in Clinical Settings LGBT HEALTH Baig, A. A., Lopez, F. Y., DeMeester, R. H., Jia, J. L., Peek, M. E., Vela, M. B. 2016; 3 (5): 335-341


    Effective shared decision making (SDM) between patients and healthcare providers has been positively associated with health outcomes. However, little is known about the SDM process between Latino patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ), and their healthcare providers. Our review of the literature identified unique aspects of Latino LGBTQ persons' culture, health beliefs, and experiences that may affect their ability to engage in SDM with their healthcare providers. Further research needs to examine Latino LGBTQ patient-provider experiences with SDM and develop tools that can better facilitate SDM in this patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/lgbt.2016.0014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000384689500003

    View details for PubMedID 27617356