- Pediatric Hematology-Oncology
Chief, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/Stem Cell Transplantation/Cancer Biology, Bass Cancer Center, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2011 - 2014)
Fellowship Program Director, Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine (2011 - 2013)
Honors & Awards
Standing Member, NIDDK-D Study Section for Training Grants and K awards (2011-present)
Chair, Myeloid Biology Subcommittee, American Society of Hematology (2011)
Brett Ely Visiting Professor in Pediatric Oncology, University of Colorado and Children's Hospital Denver (2011)
Outstanding advances in cancer research award, Mendiburu Magic Foundation (2010)
Fernbach Distinguished Visiting Professor Lectureship, Texas Children's Cancer Center (2009)
Gift of Hope Award, Pediatric Cancer Research Foundation (2008)
Junior Faculty Ross Research Award, Western Society for Pediatric Research (1996)
Young Investigator Award, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (1994)
STOP Cancer Career Development award, UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (1992)
Victor E. Stork Award, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles (1988)
Fellowship:Children's Hospital Los Angeles (1991) CA
Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1989)
Residency:Children's Hospital Los Angeles (1988) CA
Board Certification: Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, American Board of Pediatrics (1992)
Medical Education:University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (1985) OH
B.A., Williams College, Biology (1979)
M.D., University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Medicine (1985)
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, Biology (2004)
Internship and Residency, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Pediatrics (1988)
Fellowship, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (1991)
Postdoctoral Fellowship, UCLA School of Medicine, Hematopoietic growth factors and signal transduction (1992)
Kathleen Sakamoto. "United States Patent CIT3284 Proteolysis Targeting Chimeric Pharmaceutical", California Institute of Technology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
Transcriptional regulation in leukemogenesis
CREB is a leucine zipper transcription factor that controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. CREB is overexpressed in bone marrow cells from the majority of patients with acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia. CREB transgenic mice develop myeloproliferative disease, i.e. preleukemia, but not acute leukemia. Therefore, CREB is an oncogene that requires additional mutations. We are studying other cooperating oncogenes that contribute to leukemogenesis. In addition, downstream target genes are being explored. We are also studying a small molecule inhibitor of CREB for the treatment of acute leukemia.
Targeted therapy for leukemia and other cancers
In collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, we are testing novel compounds to target specific signaling molecules in AML. Among the small molecules being studied in vitro and in vivo are inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases, aurora kinases, and anti-apoptotic proteins. Mechanistic pathways are being investigated.
Protacs are chimeric molecules to target cancer causing proteins for ubiquitination and degradation. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using this approach in prostate and breast cancer cell lines to target the androgen and estrogen receptors for ubiquitination and degradation, resulting in apoptosis. Approaches are being developed to design Protacs for clinical trials in humans.
Signaling Pathways in bone marrow failure syndromes
Defects in ribosome biogenesis have been associated with specific bone marrow failure syndromes, such as Diamond Blackfan Anemia. We are studying the signaling pathways that are altered by deficiency in specific ribosomal protein subunits. Zebrafish, mouse, and human cells are being used to characterize p53-dependent and independent pathways mediating aberrant erythropoiesis and increased risk of cancer in these patients. Novel drugs are being tested.
Study of Efficacy and Safety of CTL019 in Pediatric ALL Patients
This is a single arm, open-label, multi-center, phase II study to determine the efficacy and safety of an experimental therapy called CTL019 T-cells in pediatric patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who are chemo-refractory, relapsed after allogeneic SCT, or are otherwise ineligible for allogeneic stem cell transplant.
Genome, Proteome and Tissue Microarray in Childhood Acute Leukemia
We will study gene and protein expression in leukemia cells of children diagnosed with acute leukemia. We hope to identify genes or proteins which can help us grade leukemia at diagnosis in order to: (a) develop better means of diagnosis and (b) more accurately choose the best therapy for each patient.
- Pediatric Nonmalignant Hematology and Stem Cell Biology
PATH 290 (Win)
Independent Studies (8)
- Directed Reading in Cancer Biology
CBIO 299 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Directed Reading in Pediatrics
PEDS 299 (Aut, Win, Sum)
- Early Clinical Experience
PEDS 280 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Graduate Research
CBIO 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Graduate Research
PEDS 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Medical Scholars Research
PEDS 370 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Out-of-Department Advanced Research Laboratory in Experimental Biology
BIO 199X (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Undergraduate Directed Reading/Research
PEDS 199 (Aut, Win, Sum)
- Directed Reading in Cancer Biology
Graduate and Fellowship Programs
Replication factor C3 is a CREB target gene that regulates cell cycle progression through the modulation of chromatin loading of PCNA
2015; 29 (6): 1379-1389
CREB (cyclic AMP response element-binding protein) is a transcription factor overexpressed in normal and neoplastic myelopoiesis and regulates cell cycle progression, although its oncogenic mechanism has not been well characterized. Replication factor C3 (RFC3) is required for chromatin loading of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) which is a sliding clamp platform for recruiting numerous proteins in the DNA metabolism. CREB1 expression, which was activated by E2F, was coupled with RFC3 expression during the G1/S progression in the KG-1 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line. There was also a direct correlation between the expression of RFC3 and CREB1 in human AML cell lines as well as in the AML cells from the patients. CREB interacted directly with the CRE site in RFC3 promoter region. CREB-knockdown inhibited primarily G1/S cell cycle transition by decreasing the expression of RFC3 as well as PCNA loading onto the chromatin. Exogenous expression of RFC3 was sufficient to rescue the impaired G1/S progression and PCNA chromatin loading caused by CREB knockdown. These studies suggest that RFC3 may have a role in neoplastic myelopoiesis by promoting the G1/S progression and its expression is regulated by CREB.
View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2014.350
View details for Web of Science ID 000355615000017
View details for PubMedID 25541153
The Multitargeted Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Linifanib (ABT-869) Induces Apoptosis through an Akt and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta-Dependent Pathway
MOLECULAR CANCER THERAPEUTICS
2011; 10 (6): 949-959
The FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) plays an important role in controlling differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. Activating mutations in FLT3 occur in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 15%-35%), resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. Furthermore, both adult and pediatric patients with AML harboring the FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation have a poor prognosis. Several inhibitors have been developed to target mutant FLT3 for the treatment of AML, yet the molecular pathways affected by drug inhibition of the mutated FLT3 receptor alone have not been characterized as yet. Linifanib (ABT-869) is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor that suppresses FLT3 signaling. In this article, we show that treatment with linifanib inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in ITD mutant cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that treatment with linifanib reduces phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). In addition, we show that inhibition of GSK3? decreases linifanib-induced apoptosis. This study shows the importance of GSK3 as a potential target for AML therapy, particularly in patients with FLT3 ITD mutations.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0904
View details for Web of Science ID 000291428000004
View details for PubMedID 21471285
CREB and leukemogenesis.
Critical reviews in oncogenesis
2011; 16 (1-2): 37-46
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most common leukemias with a 20% 5-year event-free survival in adults and 50% overall survival in children, despite aggressive chemotherapy treatment and bone marrow transplantation. The incidence and mortality rates for acute leukemia have only slightly decreased over the last 20 years, and therefore greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with leukemic progression is needed. To this end, a number of transcription factors that appear to play a central role in leukemogenesis are being investigated; among them is the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). CREB is a transcription factor that can regulate downstream targets involving in various cellular functions including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. In several studies, the majority of bone marrow samples from patients with acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemia demonstrate CREB overexpression. Moreover, CREB overexpression is associated with a poor outcome in AML patients. This review summarizes the role of CREB in leukemogenesis.
View details for PubMedID 22150306
Ribosomal protein S19 deficiency in zebrafish leads to developmental abnormalities and defective erythropoiesis through activation of p53 protein family
2008; 112 (13): 5228-5237
Mutations in several ribosomal proteins (RPs) lead to Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a syndrome characterized by defective erythropoiesis, congenital anomalies, and increased frequency of cancer. RPS19 is the most frequently mutated RP in DBA. RPS19 deficiency impairs ribosomal biogenesis, but how this leads to DBA or cancer remains unknown. We have found that rps19 deficiency in ze-brafish results in hematopoietic and developmental abnormalities resembling DBA. Our data suggest that the rps19-deficient phenotype is mediated by dysregulation of deltaNp63 and p53. During gastrulation, deltaNp63 is required for specification of nonneural ectoderm and its up-regulation suppresses neural differentiation, thus contributing to brain/craniofacial defects. In rps19-deficient embryos, deltaNp63 is induced in erythroid progenitors and may contribute to blood defects. We have shown that suppression of p53 and deltaNp63 alleviates the rps19-deficient phenotypes. Mutations in other ribosomal proteins, such as S8, S11, and S18, also lead to up-regulation of p53 pathway, suggesting it is a common response to ribosomal protein deficiency. Our finding provides new insights into pathogenesis of DBA. Ribosomal stress syndromes represent a broader spectrum of human congenital diseases caused by genotoxic stress; therefore, imbalance of p53 family members may become a new target for therapeutics.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-01-132290
View details for Web of Science ID 000261513400057
View details for PubMedID 18515656
The role of CREB as a proto-oncogene in hematopoiesis and in acute myeloid leukemia
2005; 7 (4): 351-362
CREB is a transcription factor that functions in glucose homeostasis, growth factor-dependent cell survival, and memory. In this study, we describe a role of CREB in human cancer. CREB overexpression is associated with increased risk of relapse and decreased event-free survival. CREB levels are elevated in blast cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia. To understand the role of CREB in leukemogenesis, we studied the biological consequences of CREB overexpression in primary human leukemia cells, leukemia cell lines, and transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate that CREB promotes abnormal proliferation and survival of myeloid cells in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of specific target genes. Thus, we report that CREB is implicated in myeloid cell transformation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000228741700010
View details for PubMedID 15837624
Ubistatins inhibit proteasome-dependent degradation by binding the ubiquitin chain
2004; 306 (5693): 117-120
To identify previously unknown small molecules that inhibit cell cycle machinery, we performed a chemical genetic screen in Xenopus extracts. One class of inhibitors, termed ubistatins, blocked cell cycle progression by inhibiting cyclin B proteolysis and inhibited degradation of ubiquitinated Sic1 by purified proteasomes. Ubistatins blocked the binding of ubiquitinated substrates to the proteasome by targeting the ubiquitin-ubiquitin interface of Lys(48)-linked chains. The same interface is recognized by ubiquitin-chain receptors of the proteasome, indicating that ubistatins act by disrupting a critical protein-protein interaction in the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
View details for Web of Science ID 000224304000050
View details for PubMedID 15459393
Development of protacs to target cancer-promoting proteins for ubiquitination and degradation
MOLECULAR & CELLULAR PROTEOMICS
2003; 2 (12): 1350-1358
The proteome contains hundreds of proteins that in theory could be excellent therapeutic targets for the treatment of human diseases. However, many of these proteins are from functional classes that have never been validated as viable candidates for the development of small molecule inhibitors. Thus, to exploit fully the potential of the Human Genome Project to advance human medicine, there is a need to develop generic methods of inhibiting protein activity that do not rely on the target protein's function. We previously demonstrated that a normally stable protein, methionine aminopeptidase-2 or MetAP-2, could be artificially targeted to an Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex for ubiquitination and degradation through a chimeric bridging molecule or Protac (proteolysis targeting chimeric molecule). This Protac consisted of an SCF(beta-TRCP)-binding phosphopeptide derived from IkappaBalpha linked to ovalicin, which covalently binds MetAP-2. In this study, we employed this approach to target two different proteins, the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptors, which have been implicated in the progression of breast and prostate cancer, respectively. We show here that an estradiol-based Protac can enforce the ubiquitination and degradation of the alpha isoform of ER in vitro, and a dihydroxytestosterone-based Protac introduced into cells promotes the rapid disappearance of AR in a proteasome-dependent manner. Future improvements to this technology may yield a general approach to treat a number of human diseases, including cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1074/mcp.T300009-MCP200
View details for Web of Science ID 000187250900010
View details for PubMedID 14525958
Protacs: Chimeric molecules that target proteins to the Skp1-Cullin-F box complex for ubiquitination and degradation
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2001; 98 (15): 8554-8559
The intracellular levels of many proteins are regulated by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. One of the best-characterized enzymes that catalyzes the attachment of ubiquitin to proteins is a ubiquitin ligase complex, Skp1-Cullin-F box complex containing Hrt1 (SCF). We sought to artificially target a protein to the SCF complex for ubiquitination and degradation. To this end, we tested methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP-2), which covalently binds the angiogenesis inhibitor ovalicin. A chimeric compound, protein-targeting chimeric molecule 1 (Protac-1), was synthesized to recruit MetAP-2 to SCF. One domain of Protac-1 contains the I kappa B alpha phosphopeptide that is recognized by the F-box protein beta-TRCP, whereas the other domain is composed of ovalicin. We show that MetAP-2 can be tethered to SCF(beta-TRCP), ubiquitinated, and degraded in a Protac-1-dependent manner. In the future, this approach may be useful for conditional inactivation of proteins, and for targeting disease-causing proteins for destruction.
View details for Web of Science ID 000169967000064
View details for PubMedID 11438690
Net1 stimulates RNA polymerase I transcription and regulates nucleolar structure independently of controlling mitotic exit
2001; 8 (1): 45-55
The budding yeast RENT complex, consisting of at least three proteins (Net1, Cdc14, Sir2), is anchored to the nucleolus by Net1. RENT controls mitotic exit, nucleolar silencing, and nucleolar localization of Nop1. Here, we report two new functions of Net1. First, Net1 directly binds Pol I and stimulates rRNA synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. Second, Net1 modulates nucleolar structure by regulating rDNA morphology and proper localization of multiple nucleolar antigens, including Pol I. Importantly, we show that the nucleolar and previously described cell cycle functions of the RENT complex can be uncoupled by a dominant mutant allele of CDC14. The independent functions of Net1 link a key event in the cell cycle to nucleolar processes that are fundamental to cell growth.
View details for Web of Science ID 000170081900008
View details for PubMedID 11511359
TNF-mediated inflammation represses GATA1 and activates p38 MAP kinase in RPS19-deficient hematopoietic progenitors.
2014; 124 (25): 3791-3798
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited disorder characterized by defects in erythropoiesis, congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to cancer. Approximately 25% of DBA patients have a mutation in RPS19, which encodes a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit. Upregulation of p53 contributes to the pathogenesis of DBA, but the link between ribosomal protein mutations and erythropoietic defects is not well understood. We found that RPS19 deficiency in hematopoietic progenitor cells leads to decreased GATA1 expression in the erythroid progenitor population and p53-dependent upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in nonerythroid cells. The decrease in GATA1 expression was mediated, at least in part, by activation of p38 MAPK in erythroid cells and rescued by inhibition of TNF-α or p53. The anemia phenotype in rps19-deficient zebrafish was reversed by treatment with the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept. Our data reveal that RPS19 deficiency leads to inflammation, p53-dependent increase in TNF-α, activation of p38 MAPK, and decreased GATA1 expression, suggesting a novel mechanism for the erythroid defects observed in DBA.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2014-06-584656
View details for PubMedID 25270909
Efficacy and Safety of Eculizumab in Children and Adolescents With Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER
2014; 61 (9): 1544-1550
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is rare in children, but represents a similarly serious and chronic condition as in adults. Children with PNH frequently experience complications of chronic hemolysis, recurrent thrombosis, marrow failure, serious infections, abdominal pain, chronic fatigue, and decreased quality of life with reduced survival. The terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab is proven to be effective and safe in adults and approved by the FDA for treatment of PNH.This 12-week, open-label, multi-center phase I/II study evaluated pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety in seven children with PNH 11-17 years of age. Eculizumab was intravenously administered at 600 mg weekly for 4 weeks, 900 mg in week 5, and 900 mg every 2 weeks thereafter (http://clinicaltrials.gov NCT00867932).Eculizumab therapy resulted in complete and sustained inhibition of hemolysis in all participants with a reduction of lactate dehydrogenase to normal levels. All hematological parameters stabilized. No definitive, study drug-related adverse events were observed. Only one severe SAE of hospitalization due to aplastic anemia occurred, which was not study drug-related.Eculizumab appears to be a safe and effective therapy for children with PNH.
View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.25068
View details for Web of Science ID 000340540600005
View details for PubMedID 24777716
The role of the DNA damage response in zebrafish and cellular models of Diamond Blackfan anemia.
Disease models & mechanisms
2014; 7 (7): 895-905
Ribosomal biogenesis involves the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA. A deficiency of some ribosomal proteins (RPs) impairs processing and causes Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), which is associated with anemia, congenital malformations and cancer. p53 mediates many features of DBA, but the mechanism of p53 activation remains unclear. Another hallmark of DBA is the upregulation of adenosine deaminase (ADA), indicating changes in nucleotide metabolism. In RP-deficient zebrafish, we found activation of both nucleotide catabolism and biosynthesis, which is consistent with the need to break and replace the faulty ribosomal RNA. We also found upregulation of deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) synthesis - a typical response to replication stress and DNA damage. Both RP-deficient zebrafish and human hematopoietic cells showed activation of the ATR/ATM-CHK1/CHK2/p53 pathway. Other features of RP deficiency included an imbalanced dNTP pool, ATP depletion and AMPK activation. Replication stress and DNA damage in cultured cells in non-DBA models can be decreased by exogenous nucleosides. Therefore, we treated RP-deficient zebrafish embryos with exogenous nucleosides and observed decreased activation of p53 and AMPK, reduced apoptosis, and rescue of hematopoiesis. Our data suggest that the DNA damage response contributes to p53 activation in cellular and zebrafish models of DBA. Furthermore, the rescue of RP-deficient zebrafish with exogenous nucleosides suggests that nucleoside supplements could be beneficial in the treatment of DBA.
View details for DOI 10.1242/dmm.015495
View details for PubMedID 24812435
MicroRNA-34b promoter hypermethylation induces CREB overexpression and contributes to myeloid transformation.
2013; 98 (4): 602-610
MicroRNA-34b down-regulation in acute myeloid leukemia was previously shown to induce CREB overexpression, thereby causing leukemia proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The role of microRNA-34b and CREB in patients with myeloid malignancies has never been evaluated. We examined microRNA-34b expression and the methylation status of its promoter in cells from patients diagnosed with myeloid malignancies. We used gene expression profiling to identify signatures of myeloid transformation. We established that microRNA-34b has suppressor ability and that CREB has oncogenic potential in primary bone marrow cell cultures and in vivo. MicroRNA-34b was found to be up-regulated in pediatric patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n=17) and myelodysplastic syndromes (n=28), but was down-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia patients at diagnosis (n=112). Our results showed that hypermethylation of the microRNA-34b promoter occurred in 66% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia explaining the low microRNA-34b levels and CREB overexpression, whereas preleukemic myelodysplastic syndromes and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia were not associated with hypermethylation or CREB overexpression. In paired samples taken from the same patients when they had myelodysplastic syndrome and again during the subsequent acute myeloid leukemia, we confirmed microRNA-34b promoter hypermethylation at leukemia onset, with 103 CREB target genes differentially expressed between the two disease stages. This subset of CREB targets was confirmed to associate with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes in a separate cohort of patients (n=20). Seventy-eight of these 103 CREB targets were also differentially expressed between healthy samples (n=11) and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (n=72). Further, low microRNA-34b and high CREB expression levels induced aberrant myelopoiesis through CREB-dependent pathways in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we suggest that microRNA-34b controls CREB expression and contributes to myeloid transformation from both healthy bone marrow and myelodysplastic syndromes. We identified a subset of CREB target genes that represents a novel transcriptional network that may control myeloid transformation.
View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2012.070664
View details for PubMedID 23100280
Increased Abscess Formation and Defective Chemokine Regulation in CREB Transgenic Mice
2013; 8 (2)
Cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor implicated in growth factor-dependent cell proliferation and survival, glucose homeostasis, spermatogenesis, circadian rhythms, and synaptic plasticity associated with memory. To study the phenotype of CREB overexpression in vivo, we generated CREB transgenic (TG) mice in which a myeloid specific hMRP8 promoter drives CREB expression. CREB TG mice developed spontaneous skin abscesses more frequently than wild type (WT) mice. To understand the role of CREB in myeloid function and innate immunity, chemokine expression in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) from CREB TG mice were compared with BMDMs from WT mice. Our results demonstrated decreased Keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) in CREB TG BMDMs but not TNF? protein production in response to lipid A (LPA). In addition, mRNA expression of KC and IL-1? (Interleukin)-1? was decreased in CREB TG BMDMs; however, there was no difference in the mRNA expression of TNF?, MCP-1, IL-6 and IL-12p40. The mRNA expression of IL-1RA and IL-10 was decreased in response to LPA. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) expression and a subset of its target genes were upregulated in CREB TG mouse BMDMs. Although neutrophil migration was the same in both CREB TG and WT mice, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity was significantly increased in neutrophils from CREB TG mice. Taken together, CREB overexpression in myeloid cells results in increased abscess formation in vivo and aberrant cytokine and chemokine response, and neutrophil function in vitro.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0055866
View details for Web of Science ID 000315153400169
View details for PubMedID 23405224
Identification of somatic and germline mutations using whole exome sequencing of congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) diagnosed within the first month of life is classified as congenital ALL and has a significantly worse outcome than ALL diagnosed in older children. This suggests that congenital ALL is a biologically different disease, and thus may be caused by a distinct set of mutations. To understand the somatic and germline mutations contributing to congenital ALL, the protein-coding regions in the genome were captured and whole-exome sequencing was employed for the identification of single-nucleotide variants and small insertion and deletions in the germlines as well as the primary tumors of four patients with congenital ALL.Exome sequencing was performed on Illumina GAIIx or HiSeq 2000 (Illumina, San Diego, California). Reads were aligned to the human reference genome and the Genome Analysis Toolkit was used for variant calling. An in-house developed Ensembl-based variant annotator was used to richly annotate each variant.There were 1-3 somatic, protein-damaging mutations per ALL, including a novel mutation in Sonic Hedgehog. Additionally, there were many germline mutations in genes known to be associated with cancer predisposition, as well as genes involved in DNA repair.This study is the first to comprehensively characterize the germline and somatic mutational profile of all protein-coding genes patients with congenital ALL. These findings identify potentially important therapeutic targets, as well as insight into possible cancer predisposition genes.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2407-13-55
View details for Web of Science ID 000315027900001
View details for PubMedID 23379653
Activity of Egr-1 promoter induced by UV light in human primary dermal fibroblasts transduced with Ad-Egr-1/Luc is repressed by betamethasone.
GENE THERAPY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
2013; 15: 92-106
View details for Web of Science ID 000330042000006
Sox4 cooperates with CREB in myeloid transformation
2012; 120 (1): 155-165
The cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear transcription factor that is critical for normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that CREB is a proto-oncogene whose overexpression promotes cellular proliferation in hematopoietic cells. Transgenic mice that overexpress CREB in myeloid cells develop a myeloproliferative disease with splenomegaly and aberrant myelopoiesis. However, CREB overexpressing mice do not spontaneously develop acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we used retroviral insertional mutagenesis to identify genes that accelerate leukemia in CREB transgenic mice. Our mutagenesis screen identified several integration sites, including oncogenes Gfi1, Myb, and Ras. The Sox4 transcription factor was identified by our screen as a gene that cooperates with CREB in myeloid leukemogenesis. We show that the transduction of CREB transgenic mouse bone marrow cells with a Sox4 retrovirus increases survival and self-renewal of cells in vitro. Furthermore, leukemic blasts from the majority of acute myeloid leukemia patients have higher CREB, phosphorylated CREB, and Sox 4 protein expression. Sox4 transduction of mouse bone marrow cells results in increased expression of CREB target genes. We also demonstrate that CREB is a direct target of Sox4 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. These results indicate that Sox4 and CREB cooperate and contribute to increased proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-05-357418
View details for Web of Science ID 000307411100023
View details for PubMedID 22627767
The neutropenic diet... still ageless?
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
2012; 26 (6): 586-?
View details for PubMedID 22870544
- Editorial: Granulopoiesis versus monopoiesis: a consequence of transcription factors dancing with the right partners JOURNAL OF LEUKOCYTE BIOLOGY 2011; 90 (4): 637-638
Tubacin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells
LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA
2011; 52 (8): 1544-1555
Over the past decade, histone deacetylase inhibitors have increasingly been used to treat various malignancies. Tubacin (tubulin acetylation inducer) is a small molecule that inhibits histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and induces acetylation of ?-tubulin. We observed a higher antiproliferative effect of tubacin in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells than in normal hematopoietic cells. Treatment with tubacin led to the induction of apoptotic pathways in both pre-B and T cell ALL cells at a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of low micromolar concentrations. Acetylation of ?-tubulin increases within the first 30?min following treatment of ALL cells with tubacin. We also observed an accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Furthermore, the signaling pathways activated by tubacin appear to be distinct from those observed in multiple myeloma. In this article, we demonstrate that tubacin enhances the effects of chemotherapy to treat primary ALL cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that targeting HDAC6 alone or in combination with chemotherapy could provide a novel approach to treat ALL.
View details for DOI 10.3109/10428194.2011.570821
View details for Web of Science ID 000292747300021
View details for PubMedID 21699378
Increasing Diversity in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER
2011; 57 (1): 147-152
Diversity is necessary for the survival and success of both biological and social systems including societies. There is a lack of diversity, particularly the proportion of women and minorities in leadership positions, within medicine [Leadley. AAMC 2009. Steinecke and Terrell. Acad Med 2010;85:236-245]. In 2009 a group of ASPHO members recognized the need to support the career advancement of women and minority members. This article reports the results of a survey designed to characterize the comparative career pathway experience of women and minority ASPHO members.A group of ASPHO members modified a published Faculty Worklife survey [Pribbenow et al. High Educ Policy 2010;23:17-38] for use by Pediatric Hematologist-Oncologists (PHOs). A link to an online version of the survey was sent to all ASPHO members.Of 1,228 ASPHO members polled, 213 responded (17%). Women and minority PHOs reported less satisfaction than their counterparts on 70 of the 90 issues addressed in the survey including the hiring process, access to resources as well as integration and satisfaction with their organizations. Women also expressed greater dissatisfaction with issues of work-life balance, support for family obligations and personal health.The current literature suggests that there are significant disparities in career opportunities, compensation and satisfaction for women compared to men and minority compared to majority faculty in academic medicine [Nivet. J Vasc Surg 2010;51:53S-58S; Peterson et al. J Gen Intern Med 2004;19:259-265; DesRoches et al. Acad Med 2010;85:631-639; Castillo-Page. AAMC 2008]. Our data, derived from a survey of ASPHO members, suggests that this holds true for PHOs as well.
View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.22977
View details for Web of Science ID 000290452400024
View details for PubMedID 21284078
The Role of HDAC6 in Cancer
JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a member of the HDAC family whose major substrate is ?-tubulin, has become a target for drug development to treat cancer due to its major contribution in oncogenic cell transformation. Overexpression of HDAC6 correlates with tumorigenesis and improved survival; therefore, HDAC6 may be used as a marker for prognosis. Previous work demonstrated that in multiple myeloma cells, inhibition of HDAC6 results in apoptosis. Furthermore, HDAC6 is required for the activation of heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), an activator of heat-shock protein encoding genes (HSPs) and CYLD, a cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene. HDAC6 contributes to cancer metastasis since its upregulation increases cell motility in breast cancer MCF-7 cells and its interaction with cortactin regulates motility. HDAC6 also affects transcription and translation by regulating the heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and stress granules (SGs), respectively. This review will discuss the role of HDAC6 in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2011/875824
View details for Web of Science ID 000285611100001
View details for PubMedID 21076528
Self-Renewal of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells Is Limited by the Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitors Cyclopamine and IPI-926
2010; 5 (12)
Conserved embryonic signaling pathways such as Hedgehog (Hh), Wingless and Notch have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies. Recent data suggests that Hh signaling plays a role in normal B-cell development, and we hypothesized that Hh signaling may be important in precursor B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL). We found that the expression of Hh pathway components was common in human B-ALL cell lines and clinical samples. Moreover, pathway activity could be modulated by Hh ligand or several pathway inhibitors including cyclopamine and the novel SMOOTHENED (SMO) inhibitor IPI-926. The inhibition of pathway activity primarily impacted highly clonogenic B-ALL cells expressing aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) by limiting their self-renewal potential both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that Hh pathway activation is common in B-ALL and represents a novel therapeutic target regulating self-renewal and persistence of the malignant clone.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0015262
View details for Web of Science ID 000285792500027
View details for PubMedID 21203400
The Role of the Transcription Factor CREB in Immune Function
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
2010; 185 (11): 6413-6419
CREB is a transcription factor that regulates diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, survival, and differentiation. CREB is induced by a variety of growth factors and inflammatory signals and subsequently mediates the transcription of genes containing a cAMP-responsive element. Several immune-related genes possess this cAMP-responsive element, including IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-?. In addition, phosphorylated CREB has been proposed to directly inhibit NF-?B activation by blocking the binding of CREB binding protein to the NF-?B complex, thereby limiting proinflammatory responses. CREB also induces an antiapoptotic survival signal in monocytes and macrophages. In T and B cells, CREB activation promotes proliferation and survival and differentially regulates Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses. Finally, CREB activation is required for the generation and maintenance of regulatory T cells. This review summarizes current advances involving CREB in immune function--a role that is continually being defined.
View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1001829
View details for Web of Science ID 000284311500004
View details for PubMedID 21084670
Germline CBL mutations cause developmental abnormalities and predispose to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia
2010; 42 (9): 794-U93
CBL encodes a member of the Cbl family of proteins, which functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. We describe a dominant developmental disorder resulting from germline missense CBL mutations, which is characterized by impaired growth, developmental delay, cryptorchidism and a predisposition to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Some individuals experienced spontaneous regression of their JMML but developed vasculitis later in life. Importantly, JMML specimens from affected children show loss of the normal CBL allele through acquired isodisomy. Consistent with these genetic data, the common p.371Y>H altered Cbl protein induces cytokine-independent growth and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, AKT and S6 only in hematopoietic cells in which normal Cbl expression is reduced by RNA interference. We conclude that germline CBL mutations have developmental, tumorigenic and functional consequences that resemble disorders that are caused by hyperactive Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling and include neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome and Legius syndrome.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ng.641
View details for Web of Science ID 000281388400018
View details for PubMedID 20694012
Targeting CREB for Cancer Therapy: Friend or Foe
CURRENT CANCER DRUG TARGETS
2010; 10 (4): 384-391
The cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear transcription factor activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by multiple serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinases. Upon phosphorylation, CREB binds the transcriptional co-activator, CBP (CREB-binding protein), to initiate CREB-dependent gene transcription. CREB is a critical regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival in the nervous system. Recent studies have shown that CREB is involved tumor initiation, progression and metastasis, supporting its role as a proto-oncogene. Overexpression and over-activation of CREB were observed in cancer tissues from patients with prostate cancer, breast cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer and acute leukemia while down-regulation of CREB in several distinct cancer cell lines resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, suggesting that CREB may be a promising target for cancer therapy. Although CREB, as a transcription factor, is a challenging target for small molecules, various small molecules have been discovered to inhibit CREB phosphorylation, CREB-DNA, or CREB-CBP interaction. These results suggest that CREB is a suitable transcription factor for drug targeting and therefore targeting CREB could represent a novel strategy for cancer therapy.
View details for Web of Science ID 000279868900003
View details for PubMedID 20370681
Macroautophagy modulates cellular response to proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy
DRUG RESISTANCE UPDATES
2010; 13 (3): 87-92
Macroautophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are two complementary pathways for protein degradation. The former degrades long-lived proteins and damaged organelles while the later degrades short-lived proteins. Recent findings indicate that suppression of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by proteasome inhibitors induces macroautophagy through multiple pathways, including (1) accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and activation of HDAC6; (2) activation of the IRE1-JNK pathway; (3) proteasomal stabilization of ATF4; (4) inhibition of mTOR complex 1 signaling; (5) reduced proteasomal degradation of LC3. Induction of macroautophagy attenuates the antitumor effect of proteasome inhibitors in various types of cancer. These findings suggest that inhibition of macroautophagy may represent a novel strategy to enhance cellular sensitivity to proteasome inhibition.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.drup.2010.04.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000279649500004
View details for PubMedID 20462785
ABT-869 Inhibits the Proliferation of Ewing Sarcoma Cells and Suppresses Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor beta and c-KIT Signaling Pathways
MOLECULAR CANCER THERAPEUTICS
2010; 9 (3): 653-660
The Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) family of tumors is one of the most common tumors diagnosed in children and adolescents and is characterized by a translocation involving the EWS gene. Despite advances in chemotherapy, the prognosis of metastatic EWS is poor with an overall survival of <30% after 5 years. EWS tumor cells express the receptor tyrosine kinases, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and c-KIT. ABT-869 is a multitargeted small-molecule inhibitor that targets Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3, c-KIT, vascular endothelial growth receptors, and PDGFRs. To determine the potential therapeutic benefit of ABT-869 in EWS cells, we examined the effects of ABT-869 on EWS cell lines and xenograft mouse models. ABT-869 inhibited the proliferation of two EWS cell lines, A4573 and TC71, at an IC(50) of 1.25 and 2 mumol/L after 72 h of treatment, respectively. The phosphorylation of PDGFRbeta, c-KIT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases was also inhibited. To examine the effects of ABT-869 in vivo, the drug was given to mice injected with EWS cells. We observed inhibition of growth of EWS tumor cells in a xenograft mouse model and prolonged survival in a metastatic mouse model of EWS. Therefore, our in vitro and in vivo studies show that ABT-869 inhibits proliferation of EWS cells through inhibition of PDGFRbeta and c-KIT pathways.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0812
View details for Web of Science ID 000278487300012
View details for PubMedID 20197394
Targeting steroid hormone receptors for ubiquitination and degradation in breast and prostate cancer
2008; 27 (57): 7201-7211
Proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules (Protacs) target proteins for destruction by exploiting the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system of eukaryotic cells. We designed two Protacs that contain the peptide 'degron' from hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, which binds to the Von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, linked to either dihydroxytestosterone that targets the androgen receptor (AR; Protac-A), or linked to estradiol (E2) that targets the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha; Protac-B). We hypothesized that these Protacs would recruit hormone receptors to the VHL E3 ligase complex, resulting in the degradation of receptors, and decreased proliferation of hormone-dependent cell lines. Treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells with Protac-B induced the degradation of ERalpha in a proteasome-dependent manner. Protac-B inhibited the proliferation of ERalpha-dependent breast cancer cells by inducing G(1) arrest, inhibition of retinoblastoma phosphorylation and decreasing expression of cyclin D1, progesterone receptors A and B. Protac-B treatment did not affect the proliferation of estrogen-independent breast cancer cells that lacked ERalpha expression. Similarly, Protac-A treatment of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells induced G(1) arrest but did not affect cells that do not express AR. Our results suggest that Protacs specifically inhibit the proliferation of hormone-dependent breast and prostate cancer cells through degradation of the ERalpha and AR, respectively.
View details for DOI 10.1038/onc.2008.320
View details for Web of Science ID 000261384100007
View details for PubMedID 18794799
Role of the aggresorne pathway in cancer: Targeting histone deacetylase 6-dependent protein degradation
2008; 68 (8): 2557-2560
Misfolded or aggregated proteins have two fates: they are either refolded with the help of chaperones or degraded by the proteasome. Cells also have an alternative pathway that involves intracellular "storage bins" for misfolded intracellular proteins known as aggresomes. Aggresomes recruit motor proteins that transport misfolded or aggregated proteins to chaperones and proteasomes for subsequent destruction. There is emerging evidence that inhibiting the aggresome pathway leads to accumulation of misfolded proteins and apoptosis in tumor cells through autophagy. We discuss the role of aggresomes in cancer and the potential to target this pathway for therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5989
View details for Web of Science ID 000255100500002
View details for PubMedID 18413721
CREB is a critical regulator of normal hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis
2008; 111 (3): 1182-1192
The cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a 43-kDa nuclear transcription factor that regulates cell growth, memory, and glucose homeostasis. We showed previously that CREB is amplified in myeloid leukemia blasts and expressed at higher levels in leukemia stem cells from patients with myeloid leukemia. CREB transgenic mice develop myeloproliferative disease after 1 year, but not leukemia, suggesting that CREB contributes to but is not sufficient for leukemogenesis. Here, we show that CREB is most highly expressed in lineage negative hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). To understand the role of CREB in hematopoietic progenitors and leukemia cells, we examined the effects of RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down CREB expression in vitro and in vivo. Transduction of primary HSCs or myeloid leukemia cells with lentiviral CREB shRNAs resulted in decreased proliferation of stem cells, cell- cycle abnormalities, and inhibition of CREB transcription. Mice that received transplants of bone marrow transduced with CREB shRNA had decreased committed progenitors compared with control mice. Mice injected with Ba/F3 cells expressing either Bcr-Abl wild-type or T315I mutation with CREB shRNA had delayed leukemic infiltration by bioluminescence imaging and prolonged median survival. Our results suggest that CREB is critical for normal myelopoiesis and leukemia cell proliferation.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-blood-2007-04-083600
View details for Web of Science ID 000252792900040
View details for PubMedID 17975014
Expression profile of CREB knockdown in myeloid leukemia cells.
2008; 8: 264-?
The cAMP Response Element Binding Protein, CREB, is a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival in several model systems, including neuronal and hematopoietic cells. We demonstrated that CREB is overexpressed in acute myeloid and leukemia cells compared to normal hematopoietic stem cells. CREB knockdown inhibits leukemic cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, but does not affect long-term hematopoietic reconstitution.To understand downstream pathways regulating CREB, we performed expression profiling with RNA from the K562 myeloid leukemia cell line transduced with CREB shRNA.By combining our expression data from CREB knockdown cells with prior ChIP data on CREB binding we were able to identify a list of putative CREB regulated genes. We performed extensive analyses on the top genes in this list as high confidence CREB targets. We found that this list is enriched for genes involved in cancer, and unexpectedly, highly enriched for histone genes. Furthermore, histone genes regulated by CREB were more likely to be specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages. Decreased expression of specific histone genes was validated in K562, TF-1, and primary AML cells transduced with CREB shRNA.We have identified a high confidence list of CREB targets in K562 cells. These genes allow us to begin to understand the mechanisms by which CREB contributes to acute leukemia. We speculate that regulation of histone genes may play an important role by possibly altering the regulation of DNA replication during the cell cycle.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2407-8-264
View details for PubMedID 18801183
- Cancer stem cells: The root of the problem PEDIATRIC RESEARCH 2007; 62 (3): 239-239
Potential role of CREB as a prognostic marker in acute myeloid leukemia.
2007; 3 (4): 475-480
The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates genes responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. CREB is overexpressed in the bone marrow from most patients with acute leukemia. Overexpression of CREB occurs both at the protein and at the transcript levels and is associated with gene amplification in leukemic blast cells. Higher levels of CREB correlate with a less favorable prognosis in a small cohort of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In one study, patients whose bone marrow over-expresses CREB had an increased risk of relapse and decreased event-free survival. Mice that overexpress CREB in myeloid cells develop a myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome. These findings suggest that CREB plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute leukemia and is a potential biomarker of disease.
View details for PubMedID 17661722
EXPERT OPINION ON PHARMACOTHERAPY
2007; 8 (12): 1977-1984
L-asparaginases have been established components in the treatment of acute leukemias for nearly 40 years. Their antitumor effect results from the depletion of asparagine, an amino acid essential to leukemic cells, and subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis leading to considerable cytotoxicity. The efficacy of L-asparaginases has been limited by a high rate of hypersensitivity reactions and development of anti-asparaginase antibodies, which neutralize their activity. PEG-asparaginase, a form of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase covalently linked to polyethylene glycol, was rationally synthesized to decrease immunogenicity of the enzyme and prolong its half-life. In recent years, clinical trials have established the importance of intramuscular PEG-asparaginase in frontline pediatric and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. Present studies are evaluating the feasibility of intravenous PEG-asparaginase administration.
View details for DOI 10.1517/14656522.214.171.1247
View details for Web of Science ID 000248937600015
View details for PubMedID 17696798
ABT-869, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation and signaling in acute myeloid leukemia
2007; 109 (8): 3400-3408
In 15% to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), aberrant proliferation is a consequence of a juxtamembrane mutation in the FLT3 gene (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication [FLT3-ITD]), causing constitutive kinase activity. ABT-869 (a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, and ERK, as well as Pim-1 expression in MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 cells (IC(50) approximately 1-10 nM) harboring the FLT3-ITD. ABT-869 inhibited the proliferation of these cells (IC(50) = 4 and 6 nM, respectively) through the induction of apoptosis (increased sub-G(0)/G(1) phase, caspase activation, and PARP cleavage), whereas cells harboring wild-type (wt)-FLT3 were less sensitive. In normal human blood spiked with AML cells, ABT-869 inhibited phosphorylation of FLT3 (IC(50) approximately 100 nM), STAT5, and ERK, and decreased Pim-1 expression. In methylcellulose-based colony-forming assays, ABT-869 had no significant effect up to 1000 nM on normal hematopoietic progenitor cells, whereas in AML patient samples harboring both FLT3-ITD and wt-FLT3, ABT-869 inhibited colony formation (IC(50) = 100 and 1000 nM, respectively). ABT-869 dose-dependently inhibited MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 flank tumor growth, prevented tumor formation, regressed established MV-4-11 xenografts, and increased survival by 20 weeks in an MV-4-11 engraftment model. In tumors, ABT-869 inhibited FLT3 phosphorylation, induced apoptosis (transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL]) and decreased proliferation (Ki67). ABT-869 is under clinical development for AML.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-06-029579
View details for Web of Science ID 000245658500048
View details for PubMedID 17209055
Report on the workshop "New Technologies in Stem Cell Research," Society for Pediatric Research, San Francisco, California, April 29, 2006.
View details for PubMedID 17255523
Molecular targets and the treatment of myeloid leukemia
MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM
2006; 88 (3): 216-224
Leukemia is a multistep process involving accumulation of genetic alterations over time. These genetic mutations destroy the delicate balance between cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Traditional approaches to treatment of leukemia involve chemotherapy, radiation, and bone marrow transplantation. In recent years, specific targeted therapies have been developed for the treatment of leukemia. The success of treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and CML with imatinib have lead to increased efforts to identify targets that can be inhibited by small molecules for treatment of hematological malignancies. In this review, we describe the current advances in the development of targeted therapy in acute myeloid leukemia.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ymgme.2006.03.011
View details for Web of Science ID 000239615900003
View details for PubMedID 16678459
Calcium-dependent upregulation of E4BP4 expression correlates with glucocorticoid-evoked apoptosis of human leukemic CEM cells
BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
2006; 344 (2): 491-499
Glucocorticoid (GC)-evoked apoptosis of T-lymphoid cells is preceded by increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which may contribute to apoptosis. This report demonstrates that GC-mediated upregulation of the bZIP transcriptional repressor gene, E4BP4, is dependent on [Ca2+]i levels, and correlates with GC-evoked apoptosis of GC-sensitive CEM-C7-14 cells. Calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA reduced [Ca2+]i levels and protected CEM-C7-14 cells from Dex-evoked E4BP4 upregulation as well as apoptosis. In the GC-resistant sister clone, CEM-C1-15, Dex treatment did not induce [Ca2+]i levels, E4BP4 expression or apoptosis, however, the calcium ionophore A23187 restored Dex-evoked E4BP4 upregulation and apoptosis. CEM-C7-14 cells were more sensitive to GC-independent increases in [Ca2+]i levels by thapsigargin, and a corresponding increase in E4BP4 expression and cell death, compared to CEM-C1-15 cells, suggesting a direct correlation between [Ca2+]i levels, E4BP4 expression, and apoptosis.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.169
View details for Web of Science ID 000237410000006
View details for PubMedID 16630563
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 in normal hematopoiesis and acute myeloid leukemia
2006; 24 (5): 1174-1184
Ligand-mediated activation of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) receptor is important for normal proliferation of primitive hematopoietic cells. However, activating mutations in FLT3 induce ligand-independent downstream signaling that promotes oncogenesis through pathways involved in proliferation, differentiation, and survival. FLT3 mutations are identified as the most frequent genetic abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia and are also observed in other leukemias. Multiple small-molecule inhibitors are under development to target aberrant FLT3 activity that confers a poor prognosis in patients.
View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2005-0519
View details for Web of Science ID 000240639200005
View details for PubMedID 16410383
Role of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in human leukemias
2005; 104 (9): 1819-1824
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults has a 20% 5-year disease-free survival despite treatment with aggressive cytotoxic chemotherapy. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that the majority of patients with acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemia overexpress CREB in the bone marrow. CREB overexpression is associated with poor initial outcome of clinical disease in AML patients. CREB is a transcription factor that functions in glucose homeostasis, growth-factor-dependent cell survival, and memory. Signaling by hematopoietic growth factors, such as GM-CSF, results in activation of CREB and up-regulation of CREB target genes. To study its role in hematopoiesis, we overexpressed CREB in leukemia cell lines and in mice. CREB overexpression resulted in increased survival and proliferation of myeloid cells and blast-transformation of bone marrow progenitor cells from transgenic mice expressing CREB in the myeloid lineage. CREB transgenic mice also develop myeloproliferative disease after 1 year. Thus, CREB acts as a protooncogene to regulate hematopoiesis and contributes to the leukemia phenotype. Our results suggest that CREB-dependent pathways may serve as targets for directed therapies in leukemia in the future.
View details for DOI 10.1002/cncr.21401
View details for Web of Science ID 000232755500005
View details for PubMedID 16196046
The role of CREB as a proto-oncogene in hematopoiesis
2005; 4 (9): 1134-1135
Cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that functions in glucose homeostasis, growth-factor- dependent cell survival, proliferation and memory. Signaling by hematopoietic growth factors, such as GM-CSF, results in activation of CREB and upregulation of CREB target genes. Data from our laboratory shows that a majority of patients with acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemia overexpress CREB in the bone marrow. CREB overexpression is associated with poor initial outcome of clinical disease in AML patients. To study its role in hematopoiesis, we overexpressed CREB in leukemia cell lines and in mice. CREB overexpression resulted in increased survival and proliferation of myeloid cells and blast-transformation of bone marrow progenitor cells from transgenic mice expressing CREB in the myeloid lineage. CREB transgenic mice also develop myeloproliferative disease after one year. Thus, CREB acts as a proto-oncogene to regulate hematopoiesis and contributes to the leukemia phenotype. Our results suggest that CREB-dependent pathways may serve as targets for directed therapies in leukemia in the future.
View details for Web of Science ID 000231512900002
View details for PubMedID 16096372
Topics in pediatric leukemia--acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
2005; 7 (1): 23-?
View details for PubMedID 16369328
Topics in pediatric leukemia--Fanconi's anemia: new insights.
MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
2005; 7 (2): 23-?
View details for PubMedID 16369402
Topics in pediatric leukemia--acute lymphoblastic leukemia and late effects in long-term survivors.
MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
2005; 7 (1): 22-?
View details for PubMedID 16369327
Chimeric molecules to target proteins for ubiquitination and degradation
UBIQUITIN AND PROTEIN DEGRADATION, PT B
2005; 399: 833-?
Protein degradation is one of the tactics used by the cell for irreversibly inactivating proteins. In eukaryotes, ATP-dependent protein degradation in the cytoplasm and nucleus is carried out by the 26S proteasome. Most proteins are targeted to the 26S proteasome by covalent attachment of a multiubiquitin chain. A key component of the enzyme cascade that results in attachment of the multiubiquitin chain to the target or labile protein is the ubiquitin ligase that controls the specificity of the ubiquitination reaction. Defects in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis have been shown to result in a variety of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders. The SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box-Hrt1) complex is a heteromeric ubiquitin ligase that multiubiquitinates proteins important for signal transduction and cell cycle progression. A technology was developed known as Protac (Proteolysis Targeting Chimeric Molecule) that acts as a bridge, bringing together the SCF ubiquitin ligase with a protein target, resulting in its ubiquitination and degradation. The Protac contains an SCF-binding peptide moiety at one end that is recognized by SCF that is chemically linked to the binding partner or ligand of the target protein. The first demonstration of the efficacy of Protac technology was the successful recruitment, ubiquitination, and degradation of the protein methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP-2) through a covalent interaction between MetAP-2 and Protac. Subsequently, we demonstrated that Protacs could effectively ubiquitinate and degrade cancer-promoting proteins (estrogen and androgen receptors) through noncovalent interactions in vitro and in cells. Finally, cell-permeable Protacs can also promote the degradation of proteins in cells. This chapter includes experiments to test the ability of Protacs to target proteins in vitro and in cells.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S0076-6879(05)99054-X
View details for Web of Science ID 000233597300054
View details for PubMedID 16338398
Topics in pediatric leukemia--myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders of childhood.
MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
2005; 7 (1): 21-?
View details for PubMedID 16369326
- Knocking down human disease: Potential uses of RNA interference in research and gene therapy PEDIATRIC RESEARCH 2004; 55 (6): 912-913
Comparison of bone marrow aspirates and biopsies in pediatric patients with ALL at days 7 and 14 of induction therapy
LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA
2004; 45 (4): 745-747
The percentage of blasts in the bone marrow aspirates at day 7 or 14 of induction therapy in pediatric ALL patients is an indicator of rapid early response and an independent prognostic factor for long term outcome. Discrepancies between the percentages of blasts in bone marrow aspirates compared to biopsies have been reported. In a retrospective study on 44 consecutive patients diagnosed with ALL between 1998 and 2001, important differences were observed in the percentage of blasts between bone marrow aspirates and biopsies at days 7 and 14 of induction therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1080/10428190310001625863
View details for Web of Science ID 000187327900017
View details for PubMedID 15160950
BUBR1 deficiency results in abnormal megakaryopoiesis
2004; 103 (4): 1278-1285
The physiologic function of BUBR1, a key component of the spindle checkpoint, was examined by generating BUBR1-mutant mice. BUBR1(-/-) embryos failed to survive beyond day 8.5 in utero as a result of extensive apoptosis. Whereas BUBR1(+/-) blastocysts grew relatively normally in vitro, BUBR1(-/-) blastocysts exhibited impaired proliferation and atrophied. Adult BUBR1(+/-) mice manifested splenomegaly and abnormal megakaryopoiesis. BUBR1 haploinsufficiency resulted in an increase in the number of splenic megakaryocytes, which was correlated with an increase in megakaryocytic, but a decrease in erythroid, progenitors in bone marrow cells. RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of BUBR1 also caused an increase in polyploidy formation in murine embryonic fibroblast cells and enhanced megakaryopoiesis in bone marrow progenitor cells. However, enhanced megakaryopoiesis in BUBR1(+/-) mice was not correlated with a significant increase in platelets in peripheral blood, which was at least partly due to a defect in the formation of proplatelet-producing megakaryocytes. Together, these results indicate that BUBR1 is essential for early embryonic development and normal hematopoiesis.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2003-06-2158
View details for Web of Science ID 000188828200023
View details for PubMedID 14576056
The role of cyclic-AMP binding protein (CREB) in leukemia cell proliferation and acute leukemias
LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA
2004; 45 (2): 265-270
Leukemia is a result of accumulating genetic alterations. The collaboration of mutations that offer survival and proliferative signals, together with mutations that result in lack of differentiation, is thought to cause a leukemic phenotype. The cyclic-AMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that is known to be a downstream component of the GM-CSF and IL-3 signaling pathways. We previously showed that CREB is overexpressed in blast cells from patients with acute leukemias. In this paper, we review the role of CREB in hematopoiesis, cell proliferation and acute leukemias.
View details for DOI 10.1080/1042819031000151095
View details for Web of Science ID 000186393200007
View details for PubMedID 15101710
Combined radiation and cytochrome CYP4B1/4-ipomeanol gene therapy using the EGR1 promoter
2003; 23 (3B): 2723-2728
Cytochrome p450 isozyme CYP4B1 converts the inert prodrug 4-ipomeanol (4-IM) into toxic alkylating metabolites. Induction of cytotoxicity by 4-IM combined with ionizing radiation (IR) in cells transfected with a fusion protein of rabbit cytochrome CYP4B1 under control of the radiation inducible EGR1 promoter was investigated. The capability of activated 4-IM to sensitize cells to IR was also assessed.Survival fractions of cells, determined by MTT assays, stably transfected with EGR1-CYP4B1 were compared with that of cells transfected with a control plasmid after IR followed by 4-IM. Radiosensitization was tested by comparing clonogenic survival curves of cells transfected with the CYP4B1 cassette under a CMV promoter instead of EGR-1, irradiated with or without 4-IM.MTT assays for cytotoxicity indicated a decrease in relative survival fractions (survival with 4-IM/survival without 4-IM) of the EGR1-CYP4B1 transfected cells with increasing radiation dosage, but not of control cells. Clonogenic assays revealed decreased survival fractions with increasing radiation doses (CYP4B1 transfected and control cells) and 4-IM concentrations (CYP4B1 transfected cells), but showed no significant differences in slope of survival curves with 4-IM.The results indicate IR potentiates the cytotoxic activity of the EGR1-CYP4B1/4-IM transgene system, but activated 4-IM does not sensitize cells to IR. Thus, the EGR1-CYP4B1/4-IM system is a viable radiation-gene therapy system that may allow for improved spatial and temporal control of cytotoxicity by therapeutic radiation fields.
View details for Web of Science ID 000184359200072
View details for PubMedID 12894565
The role of p55CDC in cell cycle control and mammalian cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis
EXPERIMENTAL AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY
2003; 74 (2): 123-128
The p55CDC (cell division cycle) protein is a key regulator of the cell cycle. p55CDC is related to both the CDC20 and the CDH1 proteins in yeast. p55CDC has been shown to activate the ubiquitin ligase anaphase promoting complex (APC), which is involved in degradation of proteins that control mitosis. To define the role of p55CDC during the mammalian cell cycle, we overexpressed this protein in the murine myeloid cell line 32Dcl3. 32Dcl3 cells are an ideal model system because these cells can be induced to proliferate, differentiate, or activate cellular programs leading to apoptosis. Our work suggests that p55CDC participates in cell growth, maturation, and death. Thus, p55CDC may play a more diverse role in modulating cellular functions in addition to controlling the cell cycle.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S0014-4800(02)00021-7
View details for Web of Science ID 000182695100006
View details for PubMedID 12710943
- Fizzy-related RNA expression patterns in mammalian development and cell lines MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM 2002; 76 (4): 363-366
Expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response-element binding protein in acute leukemia
2002; 99 (7): 2617-2619
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response-element binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear protein that regulates expression of genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. To analyze CREB expression in leukemia cells, we conducted Western blot analysis of bone marrow cells obtained from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, patients with acute myeloid leukemia, and patients without active leukemia. CREB was expressed at a higher frequency in bone marrow cells from patients with acute lymphoid or myeloid leukemia than in patients with leukemia remission or without leukemia. Our results indicate that CREB expression could be a useful marker for leukemia in patients with acute disease and suggest a role for CREB in leukemogenesis.
View details for Web of Science ID 000174559300051
View details for PubMedID 11895805
Bacterial peptidoglycan-induced tnf-alpha transcription is mediated through the transcription factors Egr-1, Elk-1, and NF-kappa B
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
2001; 167 (12): 6975-6982
Bacteria and their ubiquitous cell wall component peptidoglycan (PGN) activate the innate immune system of the host and induce the release of inflammatory molecules. TNF-alpha is one of the highest induced cytokines in macrophages stimulated with PGN; however, the regulation of tnf-alpha expression in PGN-activated cells is poorly understood. This study was done to identify some of the transcription factors that regulate the expression of the tnf-alpha gene in macrophages stimulated with PGN. Our results demonstrated that PGN-induced expression of human tnf-alpha gene is regulated by sequences proximal to -182 bp of the promoter. Mutations within the binding sites for cAMP response element, early growth response (Egr)-1, and kappaB3 significantly reduced this induction. The transcription factor c-Jun bound the cAMP response element site, Egr-1 bound the Egr-1 motif, and NF-kappaB p50 and p65 bound to the kappaB3 site on the tnf-alpha promoter. PGN rapidly induced transcription of egr-1 gene and this induction was significantly reduced by specific mutations within the serum response element-1 domain of the egr-1 promoter. PGN also induced phosphorylation and activation of Elk-1, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. Elk-1 and serum response factor proteins bound the serum response element-1 domain on the egr-1 promoter, and PGN-induced expression of the egr-1 was inhibited by dominant-negative Elk-1. These results indicate that PGN induces activation of the transcription factors Egr-1 and Elk-1, and that PGN-induced expression of tnf-alpha is directly mediated through the transcription factors c-Jun, Egr-1, and NF-kappaB, and indirectly through the transcription factor Elk-1.
View details for Web of Science ID 000172613400036
View details for PubMedID 11739517
p55CDC/hCDC20 is associated with BUBR1 and may be a downstream target of the spindle checkpoint kinase
2000; 19 (40): 4557-4562
Eukaryotic cells have evolved a mechanism that delays the progression of mitosis until condensed chromosomes are properly positioned on the mitotic spindle. We have been studying genes that regulated the spindle checkpoint in human cells. Enforced expression of human BUBR1, but not a BUBR1 mutant allele, enhances accumulation of mitotic cells. Yeast two-hybrid system and GST-pulldown analyses show that p55CDC/hCdc20, a protein known to link spindle checkpoint components such as MAD2 to anaphase promoting complex (APC), interacts with BUBR1. In addition, p55CDC is capable of pulling down BUBR1 in sf-9 cells infected with both p55CDC and His6-BUBR1 recombinant baculoviruses but not in the cells infected with p55CDC baculoviruses or with the baculoviral vector alone. Moreover, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analyses confirmed that native p55CDC is associated with BUBR1 in HeLa cells. Spindle checkpoint activation by nocodazole treatment enhances the association between p55CDC and His6-BUBR1. In nocodazole-arrested mitotic cells, both CDC16 and hyperphosphorylated CDC27, two APC components, preferentially associate with His6-BUBR1 resins, but not the control resins. Furthermore, BUBR1 phosphorylates p55CDC in vitro, and the phosphorylation of p55CDC by BUBR1 appears to be correlated with spindle checkpoint activation. Together, our studies strongly suggest that BUBR1 may target APC via p55CDC.
View details for Web of Science ID 000089438200001
View details for PubMedID 11030144
- Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and human disease MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM 2000; 71 (1-2): 261-266
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induces egr-1 up-regulation through interaction of serum response element-binding proteins
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2000; 275 (29): 22418-22426
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulates the proliferation and maturation of myeloid progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. We showed that G-CSF rapidly and transiently induces expression of egr-1 in the NFS60 myeloid cell line. Transient transfections of NFS60 cells with recombinant constructs containing various deletions of the human egr-1 promoter identified the serum response element (SRE) between nucleotides (nt) -418 and -391 as a critical G-CSF-responsive sequence. The SRE (SRE-1) contains a CArG box, the binding site for the serum response factor (SRF), which is flanked at either side by an ETS protein binding site. We demonstrated that a single copy of the wild-type SRE-1 in the minimal promoter plasmid, pTE2, is sufficient to induce transcriptional activation in response to G-CSF and that both the ETS protein binding site and the CArG box are required for maximal transcriptional activation of the pTE2-SRE-1 construct. In electromobility shift assays using NFS60 nuclear extracts, we identified SRF and the ETS protein Fli-1 as proteins that bind the SRE-1. We also demonstrated through electrophoretic mobility shift assays, using an SRE-1 probe containing a CArG mutation, that Fli-1 binds the SRE-1 independently of SRF. Our data suggest that SRE-binding proteins potentially play a role in G-CSF-induced egr-1 expression in myeloid cells.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088363800090
View details for PubMedID 10806199
Stress-induced stimulation of early growth response gene-1 by p38/stress-activated protein kinase 2 is mediated by a cAMP-responsive promoter element in a MAPKAP kinase 2-independent manner
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
1999; 274 (28): 19559-19564
The p38/stress-activated protein kinase2 (p38/SAPK2) is activated by cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Several transcription factors have been reported to be regulated by p38/SAPK2, and this kinase is involved in the control of expression of various genes. In human Jurkat T-cells, induction of the early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) by anisomycin is completely inhibited by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38/SAPK2a and -b. Northern blot and reporter gene experiments indicate that this block is at the level of mRNA biosynthesis. Using mutants of the egr-1 promoter, we demonstrate that a distal cAMP-responsive element (CRE; nucleotides -134 to -126) is necessary to control egr-1 induction by p38/SAPK2. Pull-down assays indicate that phospho-CRE binding protein (CREB) and phospho-activating transcription factor-1 (ATF1) bind to this element in a p38/SAPK2-dependent manner. In response to anisomycin, two known CREB kinases downstream to p38/SAPK2, MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), show increased activity. However, in MK2 -/- fibroblasts derived from mice carrying a disruption of the MK2 gene, the phosphorylation of CREB and ATF1 and the expression of egr-1 reach levels comparable with wild type cells. This finding excludes MK2 as an involved enzyme. We conclude that egr-1 induction by anisomycin is mediated by p38/SAPK2 and probably by MSK1. Phosphorylated CREB and ATF1 then bind to the CRE of the egr-1 promoter and cause a stress-dependent transcriptional activation of this gene.
View details for Web of Science ID 000081377300009
View details for PubMedID 10391889
Analysis of functional elements in the human Egr-1 gene promoter
1999; 18 (5-6): 207-214
The early growth response (Egr)-1 gene encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor is transiently induced in many different cell types upon various differentiation signals. However, in synovial fibroblasts of rheumatoid arthritis patients, Egr-1 is constitutively expressed at high levels, and several genes with Egr-1 binding sites in their promoter regions have been associated with disease progression of RA. We analyzed the control of Egr-1 transcription by characterizing those regulatory elements in the Egr-1 promoter that induce Egr-1 expression in fibroblasts. Using reporter gene assays and deletion mutants of the Egr-1 promoter we could demonstrate that Egr-1 transcription is mainly activated by a single serum response element, whereas other transcription factor binding sites, including binding sites for AP-1 or Egr-1, were found to play a minor role. Furthermore, we identified a novel regulatory element in the human Egr-1 promoter similar to a NF kappa-B binding site. Deletion of this element enhanced Egr-1 promoter activity in 3T3 but not in L929 fibroblasts. Stimulation by phorbolester induced only transient Egr-1 expression in 3T3 fibroblasts but a extended expression of Egr-1 in L929 cells. These data suggest that in fibroblasts the most proximal serum response element in the Egr-1 promoter represents the major activation site, whereas binding of the NFkB-like factor may serve as negative regulatory signal for Egr-1 transcription in fibroblasts.
View details for Web of Science ID 000081087100008
View details for PubMedID 10399797
Analysis of cell death in myeloid cells inducibly expressing the cell cycle protein p55Cdc
1998; 26 (10): 1000-1006
p55Cdc, a cell cycle protein is expressed in cycling mammalian cells and is required for normal cell division. Expression of this protein is regulated during the cell cycle, peaking in late G1 and S. We have previously shown that constitutive expression of p55Cdc results in inhibition of granulocyte differentiation. Degradation of p55Cdc is also required for apoptosis in growth factor and serum starved cells. In the present study we prepared stably transfected cells conditionally expressing p55Cdc in response to zinc stimulation to investigate the role of inducible p55Cdc expression in apoptosis of myeloid cells. We report that inducible expression of p55Cdc in the myeloid leukemic cell line 32Dc13 resulted in increased cell death. p55Cdc overexpression led to a statistically significant decrease in the viability of 32Dc13 cells compared with that of control cells. Furthermore, cell staining and flow cytometry analysis revealed that p55Cdc-overexpressing 32Dc13 cells progressed to apoptosis much earlier than uninduced cells. These results suggest that inducible expression of p55Cdc leads to earlier increases in cell death in the absence of growth factor and serum in myeloid leukemic cells.
View details for Web of Science ID 000075653600011
View details for PubMedID 9728936
Genomic organization, 5 ' flanking enhancer region, and chromosomal assignment of the cell cycle gene, p55Cdc
MOLECULAR GENETICS AND METABOLISM
1998; 64 (1): 52-57
p55Cdc is a mammalian homologue of a family of cell cycle proteins from widely divergent species, which contains WD repeats and has been implicated in cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. p55Cdc is highly expressed in proliferating but not in differentiated or growth-arrested cells. The expression, phosphorylation, and degradation of this protein have been shown to be cell cycle-regulated. We analyzed a 5.3-kb genomic region that contains the entire rat p55Cdc gene. The gene contains 10 exons ranging in size from 97 to 373 bp. The promoter region has a TAT box, four E-box consensus sequences, and potential binding sites for cell cycle-specific transcription factors. In transient transfection assays, a construct containing a 1000-nucleotide p55Cdc promoter region upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene demonstrated a 12-fold increase in transcriptional activity. Finally, using radiation hybrid mapping techniques, we localized this gene to the human chromosome, 9q13-21.
View details for Web of Science ID 000074925700008
View details for PubMedID 9682218
Characterization of cis-acting sequences and trans-acting signals regulating early growth response 1 and c-fos promoters through the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor in BA/F3 cells
1997; 89 (4): 1197-1206
Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) activates a set of genes such as c-fos, jun, myc, and early growth response gene 1 (egr-1). Studies on BA/F3 cells that express hGM-CSF receptor (hGMR) showed that two different signaling pathways controlled by distinct regions within the beta subunit are involved in activation of c-fos/c-jun genes and in c-myc, respectively. However, the region(s) of the beta subunit responsible for activation of the egr-1 gene and other regulatory genes has not been identified. We describe here how egr-1 promoter is activated by hGMR through two regions of the beta subunit, with these regions being required for activation of the c-fos promoter. Coexpression of dominant negative (dn) Ras (N17ras) or dn JAK2 almost completely suppressed the activation of egr-1 and c-fos promoters. Deletion analysis of egr-1 promoter showed two cis-acting regions responsible for activation by hGM-CSF or mouse interleukin-3 (mIL-3), one between nucleotide positions (nt) -56 and -116, and the other between nt -235 and -480, which contains tandem repeats of the serum response element (SRE) sites. Similar experiments with the c-fos promoter showed that cis-acting regions containing the SRE/AP-1 sites is sufficient for activation by hGM-CSF. Based on these observations, we propose that signaling pathways activating egr-1 and c-fos promoters are controlled by SRE elements, either through the same or overlapping pathways that involve JAK2 and Ras.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997WG79700010
View details for PubMedID 9028942
- The molecular mechanism of action of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE MEDICINE 1996; 44 (8): 442-446
Regulation of egr-1 gene expression by retinoic acid in a human growth factor-dependent cell line
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY
1996; 63 (4): 303-309
Retinoic acid (RA) has profound suppressive effects on growth and survival of human growth factor-dependent cell line, M07e. Treatment of M07e cells by RA reduced expression of egr-1 gene, while the levels of c-myc gene expression remained similar. Suppression of egr-1 gene expression by RA was dosage-dependent and reached maximum at 4 h after RA addition. The decay of egr-1 mRNA was similar in M07e cells treated with or without RA. The transcriptional activity of the promoter region up to -600 or -480 bp upstream of the egr-1 gene was greatly reduced by RA treatment. These data suggest that biological effects of RA on hematopoietic cells may, in part, be mediated by transcriptional suppression of egr-1 gene through its promoter region within -480 bp.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UQ71600005
View details for PubMedID 8762813
THE BIOLOGY AND CLINICAL-APPLICATIONS OF GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR
MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 1991: S17-S20
GM-CSF is a hematopoietic growth factor that regulates myeloid cell proliferation and maturation and enhances the function of terminally differentiated effector cells. Results of clinical trials with GM-CSF in a number of disease states suggest a potential role of this growth factor to stimulate hematopoiesis. Future use of GM-CSF will depend on further studies to optimize its therapeutic efficacy.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991FB29200043
View details for PubMedID 1999769