Clinical Focus

  • Infectious Diseases, Pediatric
  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Professional Education

  • Residency: Stanford Health Care at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (1999) CA
  • Internship: Stanford Health Care at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (1998) CA
  • Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (1997) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases (2005)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellowship (2004) CA

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

My laboratory studies how bacteria colonize our bodies for long periods of time, and how interactions between bacteria and the epithelial surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract and skin may lead to disease. Epithelial surfaces are the first barrier against infection, but they also where our bodies meet and co-evolve with the microbial world.. Several of our studies have focused on the epithelial junctions as a target for bacterial pathogens. The host epithelium uses its epithelial junctions to form a tight but dynamic barrier with an external surface that is inhospitable to microbial attachment, secretes anti-microbial compounds, and has a rapid rate of self-renewal. The balance in the microbe-epithelial relationship results in silent commensalism or symbiosis; an imbalance results in diseases ranging from acute bacterial invasive disease to chronic ulcers or carcinoma.

Our laboratory has developed novel microscopy applications such as quantitative 3D confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, time-lapse imaging, microinjection and micromanipulation to visualize the interaction of pathogens with epithelial cells in culture and in animal and human tissues. Many of out studies focus on the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, but we have also expanded our investigations to include the intestinal pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica, and the skin pathogen and colonizer Staphylococcus aureus. I believe that elucidating how microbes communicate with and alter our epithelial cells at a molecular level will be important for finding novel therapeutic targets to control mucosal colonization and prevent invasive disease.

Using this perspective, we have uncovered several novel concepts of how bacteria colonize and breach our epithelial surfaces. For example, we discovered that Helicobacter pylori target the intercellular junctions, and in particular that the virulence factor CagA affects junction assembly and cell polarity. This confers H. pylori the ability to extract nutrients and grow directly on the epithelial surface. We also found that these properties of CagA have consequences for cellular transformation of the epithelium. For instance, we showed that H. pylori affect the activity and state of epithelial stem cells in the stomach by colonizing the epithelial surface deep in the gastric glands. This gland-associated population is essential for pathological inflammation and hyperplasia in animal models, and confers significant colonization advantages to the bacteria. Our Listeria research uncovered a new mechanism and site where bacteria can breach the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier to invade. We found that Listeria find their receptor for invasion at sites of epithelial senescence, where the epithelial junctions undergo dynamic turnover. To study Salmonella and H. pylori we have developed a human organoid model to study their interactions with human gut epithelium in vitro. To study Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis, we have developed methods to visualize infection at the scale of a single bacterial microcolony using an organoid culture system of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts that grow into a 3D skin-equivalent. We recently identified several proteins at the eptithelial junctions as host factors involved in the pathogenesis of one of Staphylococcus aureus major toxins.

2023-24 Courses

Stanford Advisees

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

All Publications

  • Mechanosensitive extrusion of Enterovirus A71-infected cells from colonic organoids. Nature microbiology Moshiri, J., Craven, A. R., Mixon, S. B., Amieva, M. R., Kirkegaard, K. 2023


    Enterovirus A71 causes severe disease upon systemic infection, sometimes leading to life-threatening neurological dysfunction. However, in most cases infection is asymptomatic and limited to the gastrointestinal tract, where virus is amplified for transmission. Picornaviruses have previously been shown to exit infected cells via either cell lysis or secretion of vesicles. Here we report that entire Enterovirus A71-infected cells are specifically extruded from the apical surface of differentiated human colon organoids, as observed by confocal microscopy. Differential sensitivity to chemical and peptide inhibitors demonstrated that extrusion of virus-infected cells is dependent on force sensing via mechanosensitive ion channels rather than apoptotic cell death. When isolated and used as inoculum, intact virus-containing extruded cells can initiate new infections. In contrast, when mechanical force sensing is inhibited, large amounts of free virus are released. Thus, extrusion of live, virus-infected cells from intact epithelial tissue is likely to benefit both the integrity of host tissues and the protected spread of this faecal-oral pathogen within and between hosts.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41564-023-01339-5

    View details for PubMedID 36914754

  • Controlling the polarity of human gastrointestinal organoids to investigate epithelial biology and infectious diseases. Nature protocols Co, J. Y., Margalef-Catala, M., Monack, D. M., Amieva, M. R. 2021


    Human epithelial organoids-3D spheroids derived from adult tissue stem cells-enable investigation of epithelial physiology and disease and host interactions with microorganisms, viruses and bioactive molecules. One challenge in using organoids is the difficulty in accessing the apical, or luminal, surface of the epithelium, which is enclosed within the organoid interior. This protocol describes a method we previously developed to control human and mouse organoid polarity in suspension culture such that the apical surface faces outward to the medium (apical-out organoids). Our protocol establishes apical-out polarity rapidly (24-48 h), preserves epithelial integrity, maintains secretory and absorptive functions and allows regulation of differentiation. Here, we provide a detailed description of the organoid polarity reversal method, compatible characterization assays and an example of an application of the technology-specifically the impact of host-microbe interactions on epithelial function. Control of organoid polarity expands the possibilities of organoid use in gastrointestinal and respiratory health and disease research.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41596-021-00607-0

    View details for PubMedID 34663962

  • High-resolution mapping reveals that microniches in the gastric glands control Helicobacter pylori colonization of the stomach PLOS BIOLOGY Fung, C., Tan, S., Nakajima, M., Skoog, E. C., Camarillo-Guerrero, L., Klein, J. A., Lawley, T. D., Solnick, J. V., Fukami, T., Amieva, M. R. 2019; 17 (5)
  • Controlling Epithelial Polarity: A Human Enteroid Model for Host-Pathogen Interactions. Cell reports Co, J. Y., Margalef-Catala, M., Li, X., Mah, A. T., Kuo, C. J., Monack, D. M., Amieva, M. R. 2019; 26 (9): 2509


    Human enteroids-epithelial spheroids derived from primary gastrointestinal tissue-are a promising model to study pathogen-epithelial interactions. However, accessing the apical enteroid surface ischallenging because it is enclosed within the spheroid. We developed a technique to reverse enteroid polarity such that the apical surface everts to face the media. Apical-out enteroids maintain proper polarity and barrier function, differentiate into the major intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) types, and exhibit polarized absorption of nutrients. We used this model to study host-pathogen interactions and identified distinct polarity-specific patterns of infection by invasive enteropathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium targets IEC apical surfaces for invasion via cytoskeletal rearrangements, and Listeria monocytogenes, which binds to basolateral receptors, invade apical surfaces at sites of cellextrusion. Despite different modes of entry, both pathogens exit the epithelium within apically extruding enteroid cells. This model will enable further examination of IECs in health and disease.

    View details for PubMedID 30811997

  • Helicobacter pylori senses bleach (HOCl) as a chemoattractant using a cytosolic chemoreceptor. PLoS biology Perkins, A. n., Tudorica, D. A., Amieva, M. R., Remington, S. J., Guillemin, K. n. 2019; 17 (8): e3000395


    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori requires a noncanonical cytosolic chemoreceptor transducer-like protein D (TlpD) for efficient colonization of the mammalian stomach. Here, we reconstituted a complete chemotransduction signaling complex in vitro with TlpD and the chemotaxis (Che) proteins CheW and CheA, enabling quantitative assays for potential chemotaxis ligands. We found that TlpD is selectively sensitive at micromolar concentrations to bleach (hypochlorous acid, HOCl), a potent antimicrobial produced by neutrophil myeloperoxidase during inflammation. HOCl acts as a chemoattractant by reversibly oxidizing a conserved cysteine within a 3His/1Cys Zn-binding motif in TlpD that inactivates the chemotransduction signaling complex. We found that H. pylori is resistant to killing by millimolar concentrations of HOCl and responds to HOCl in the micromolar range by increasing its smooth-swimming behavior, leading to chemoattraction to HOCl sources. We show related protein domains from Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli possess similar reactivity toward HOCl. We propose that this family of proteins enables host-associated bacteria to sense sites of tissue inflammation, a strategy that H. pylori uses to aid in colonizing and persisting in inflamed gastric tissue.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000395

    View details for PubMedID 31465435

  • Stanley Falkow (1934-2018) NATURE Amieva, M. R. 2018; 558 (7709): 190

    View details for Web of Science ID 000435071400032

    View details for PubMedID 29880820

  • Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach. PLoS pathogens Huang, J. Y., Goers Sweeney, E., Guillemin, K., Amieva, M. R. 2017; 13 (1)


    Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD's colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006118

    View details for PubMedID 28103315

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5245789

  • Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer GASTROENTEROLOGY Amieva, M., Peek, R. M. 2016; 150 (1): 64-78


    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data indicate that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness demonstrates the sophisticated relationship among H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori's activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.09.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000366832800023

    View details for PubMedID 26385073

  • The adherens junctions control susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus a-toxin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Popov, L. M., Marceau, C. D., Starkl, P. M., Lumb, J. H., Shah, J., Guerrera, D., Cooper, R. L., Merakou, C., Bouley, D. M., Meng, W., Kiyonari, H., Takeichi, M., Galli, S. J., Bagnoli, F., Citi, S., Carette, J. E., Amieva, M. R. 2015; 112 (46): 14337-14342


    Staphylococcus aureus is both a transient skin colonizer and a formidable human pathogen, ranking among the leading causes of skin and soft tissue infections as well as severe pneumonia. The secreted bacterial α-toxin is essential for S. aureus virulence in these epithelial diseases. To discover host cellular factors required for α-toxin cytotoxicity, we conducted a genetic screen using mutagenized haploid human cells. Our screen identified a cytoplasmic member of the adherens junctions, plekstrin-homology domain containing protein 7 (PLEKHA7), as the second most significantly enriched gene after the known α-toxin receptor, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). Here we report a new, unexpected role for PLEKHA7 and several components of cellular adherens junctions in controlling susceptibility to S. aureus α-toxin. We find that despite being injured by α-toxin pore formation, PLEKHA7 knockout cells recover after intoxication. By infecting PLEKHA7(-/-) mice with methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 LAC strain, we demonstrate that this junctional protein controls disease severity in both skin infection and lethal S. aureus pneumonia. Our results suggest that adherens junctions actively control cellular responses to a potent pore-forming bacterial toxin and identify PLEKHA7 as a potential nonessential host target to reduce S. aureus virulence during epithelial infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1510265112

    View details for PubMedID 26489655

  • Chemodetection and Destruction of Host Urea Allows Helicobacter pylori to Locate the Epithelium CELL HOST & MICROBE Huang, J. Y., Sweeney, E. G., Sigal, M., Zhang, H. C., Remington, S. J., Cantrell, M. A., Kuo, C. J., Guillemin, K., Amieva, M. R. 2015; 18 (2): 147-156


    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori interacts intimately with the gastric mucosa to avoid the microbicidal acid in the stomach lumen. The cues H. pylori senses to locate and colonize the gastric epithelium have not been well defined. We show that metabolites emanating from human gastric organoids rapidly attract H. pylori. This response is largely controlled by the bacterial chemoreceptor TlpB, and the main attractant emanating from epithelia is urea. Our previous structural analyses show that TlpB binds urea with high affinity. Here we demonstrate that this tight binding controls highly sensitive responses, allowing detection of urea concentrations as low as 50 nM. Attraction to urea requires that H. pylori urease simultaneously destroys the signal. We propose that H. pylori has evolved a sensitive urea chemodetection and destruction system that allows the bacterium to dynamically and locally modify the host environment to locate the epithelium.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chom.2015.07.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359601800007

    View details for PubMedID 26269952

  • Helicobacter pylori Activates and Expands Lgr5(+) Stem Cells Through Direct Colonization of the Gastric Glands. Gastroenterology Sigal, M., Rothenberg, M. E., Logan, C. Y., Lee, J. Y., Honaker, R. W., Cooper, R. L., Passarelli, B., Camorlinga, M., Bouley, D. M., Alvarez, G., Nusse, R., Torres, J., Amieva, M. R. 2015; 148 (7): 1392-404 e21


    Helicobacter pylori infection is the main risk factor for gastric cancer. We characterized the interactions of H pylori with gastric epithelial progenitor and stem cells in humans and mice and investigated how these interactions contribute to H pylori-induced pathology.We used quantitative confocal microscopy and 3-dimensional reconstruction of entire gastric glands to determine the localizations of H pylori in stomach tissues from humans and infected mice. Using lineage tracing to mark cells derived from leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5(+)) stem cells (Lgr5-eGFP-IRES-CreERT2/Rosa26-TdTomato mice) and in situ hybridization, we analyzed gastric stem cell responses to infection. Isogenic H pylori mutants were used to determine the role of specific virulence factors in stem cell activation and pathology.H pylori grow as distinct bacterial microcolonies deep in the stomach glands and interact directly with gastric progenitor and stem cells in tissues from mice and humans. These gland-associated bacteria activate stem cells, increasing the number of stem cells, accelerating Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation, and up-regulating expression of stem cell-related genes. Mutant bacteria with defects in chemotaxis that are able to colonize the stomach surface but not the antral glands in mice do not activate stem cells. In addition, bacteria that are unable to inject the contact-dependent virulence factor CagA into the epithelium colonized stomach glands in mice, but did not activate stem cells or produce hyperplasia to the same extent as wild-type H pylori.H pylori colonize and manipulate the progenitor and stem cell compartments, which alters turnover kinetics and glandular hyperplasia. Bacterial ability to alter the stem cells has important implications for gastrointestinal stem cell biology and H pylori-induced gastric pathology.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.049

    View details for PubMedID 25725293

  • ChePep Controls Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Gastric Glands and Chemotaxis in the Epsilonproteobacteria MBIO Howitt, M. R., Lee, J. Y., Lertsethtakarn, P., Vogelmann, R., Joubert, L., Ottemann, K. M., Amieva, M. R. 2011; 2 (4)


    Microbes use directed motility to colonize harsh and dynamic environments. We discovered that Helicobacter pylori strains establish bacterial colonies deep in the gastric glands and identified a novel protein, ChePep, necessary to colonize this niche. ChePep is preferentially localized to the flagellar pole. Although mutants lacking ChePep have normal flagellar ultrastructure and are motile, they have a slight defect in swarming ability. By tracking the movement of single bacteria, we found that ΔChePep mutants cannot control the rotation of their flagella and swim with abnormally frequent reversals. These mutants even sustain bursts of movement backwards with the flagella pulling the bacteria. Genetic analysis of the chemotaxis signaling pathway shows that ChePep regulates flagellar rotation through the chemotaxis system. By examining H. pylori within a microscopic pH gradient, we determined that ChePep is critical for regulating chemotactic behavior. The chePep gene is unique to the Epsilonproteobacteria but is found throughout this diverse group. We expressed ChePep from other members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, including the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and the deep sea hydrothermal vent inhabitant Caminibacter mediatlanticus, in H. pylori and found that ChePep is functionally conserved across this class. ChePep represents a new family of chemotaxis regulators unique to the Epsilonproteobacteria and illustrates the different strategies that microbes have evolved to control motility.Helicobacter pylori strains infect half of all humans worldwide and contribute to the development of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori cannot survive within the acidic lumen of the stomach and uses flagella to actively swim to and colonize the protective mucus and epithelium. The chemotaxis system allows H. pylori to navigate by regulating the rotation of its flagella. We identified a new protein, ChePep, which controls chemotaxis in H. pylori. ChePep mutants fail to colonize the gastric glands of mice and are completely outcompeted by normal H. pylori. Genes encoding ChePep are found only in the class Epsilonproteobacteria, which includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and environmental microbes like the deep-sea hydrothermal vent colonizer Caminibacter mediatlanticus, and we show that ChePep function is conserved in this class. Our study identifies a new colonization factor in H. pylori and also provides insight into the control and evolution of bacterial chemotaxis.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/mBio.00098-11

    View details for PubMedID 21791582

  • Helicobacter pylori Perturbs Iron Trafficking in the Epithelium to Grow on the Cell Surface PLOS PATHOGENS Tan, S., Noto, J. M., Romero-Gallo, J., Peek, R. M., Amieva, M. R. 2011; 7 (5)


    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) injects the CagA effector protein into host epithelial cells and induces growth factor-like signaling, perturbs cell-cell junctions, and alters host cell polarity. This enables Hp to grow as microcolonies adhered to the host cell surface even in conditions that do not support growth of free-swimming bacteria. We hypothesized that CagA alters host cell physiology to allow Hp to obtain specific nutrients from or across the epithelial barrier. Using a polarized epithelium model system, we find that isogenic ΔcagA mutants are defective in cell surface microcolony formation, but exogenous addition of iron to the apical medium partially rescues this defect, suggesting that one of CagA's effects on host cells is to facilitate iron acquisition from the host. Hp adhered to the apical epithelial surface increase basolateral uptake of transferrin and induce its transcytosis in a CagA-dependent manner. Both CagA and VacA contribute to the perturbation of transferrin recycling, since VacA is involved in apical mislocalization of the transferrin receptor to sites of bacterial attachment. To determine if the transferrin recycling pathway is involved in Hp colonization of the cell surface, we silenced transferrin receptor expression during infection. This resulted in a reduced ability of Hp to colonize the polarized epithelium. To test whether CagA is important in promoting iron acquisition in vivo, we compared colonization of Hp in iron-replete vs. iron-deficient Mongolian gerbils. While wild type Hp and ΔcagA mutants colonized iron-replete gerbils at similar levels, ΔcagA mutants are markedly impaired in colonizing iron-deficient gerbils. Our study indicates that CagA and VacA act in concert to usurp the polarized process of host cell iron uptake, allowing Hp to use the cell surface as a replicative niche.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002050

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291014000034

    View details for PubMedID 21589900

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3093365

  • Listeria monocytogenes Internalin B Activates Junctional Endocytosis to Accelerate Intestinal Invasion PLOS PATHOGENS Pentecost, M., Kumaran, J., Ghosh, P., Amieva, M. R. 2010; 6 (5)


    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) uses InlA to invade the tips of the intestinal villi, a location at which cell extrusion generates a transient defect in epithelial polarity that exposes the receptor for InlA, E-cadherin, on the cell surface. As the dying cell is removed from the epithelium, the surrounding cells reorganize to form a multicellular junction (MCJ) that Lm exploits to find its basolateral receptor and invade. By examining individual infected villi using 3D-confocal imaging, we uncovered a novel role for the second major invasin, InlB, during invasion of the intestine. We infected mice intragastrically with isogenic strains of Lm that express or lack InlB and that have a modified InlA capable of binding murine E-cadherin and found that Lm lacking InlB invade the same number of villi but have decreased numbers of bacteria within each infected villus tip. We studied the mechanism of InlB action at the MCJs of polarized MDCK monolayers and find that InlB does not act as an adhesin, but instead accelerates bacterial internalization after attachment. InlB locally activates its receptor, c-Met, and increases endocytosis of junctional components, including E-cadherin. We show that MCJs are naturally more endocytic than other sites of the apical membrane, that endocytosis and Lm invasion of MCJs depends on functional dynamin, and that c-Met activation by soluble InlB or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) increases MCJ endocytosis. Also, in vivo, InlB applied through the intestinal lumen increases endocytosis at the villus tips. Our findings demonstrate a two-step mechanism of synergy between Lm's invasins: InlA provides the specificity of Lm adhesion to MCJs at the villus tips and InlB locally activates c-Met to accelerate junctional endocytosis and bacterial invasion of the intestine.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000900

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278759900019

    View details for PubMedID 20485518

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2869327

  • Helicobacter pylori Usurps Cell Polarity to Turn the Cell Surface into a Replicative Niche PLOS PATHOGENS Tan, S., Tompkins, L. S., Amieva, M. R. 2009; 5 (5)


    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) intimately interacts with the gastric epithelial surface and translocates the virulence factor CagA into host cells in a contact-dependent manner. To study how Hp benefits from interacting with the cell surface, we developed live-cell microscopy methods to follow the fate of individual bacteria on the cell surface and find that Hp is able to replicate and form microcolonies directly over the intercellular junctions. On polarized epithelia, Hp is able to grow directly on the apical cell surface in conditions that do not support the growth of free-swimming bacteria. In contrast, mutants in CagA delivery are defective in colonization of the apical cell surface. Hp perturbs the polarized epithelium in a highly localized manner, since wild-type Hp does not rescue the growth defect of the CagA-deficient mutants upon co-infection. CagA's ability to disrupt host cell polarity is a key factor in enabling colonization of the apical cell surface by Hp, as disruption of the atypical protein kinase C/Par1b polarity pathway leads to rescue of the mutant growth defect during apical infection, and CagA-deficient mutants are able to colonize the polarized epithelium when given access to the basolateral cell surface. Our study establishes the cell surface as a replicative niche and the importance of CagA and its effects on host cell polarity for this purpose.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000407

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267085800051

    View details for PubMedID 19412339

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2669173

  • Host-bacterial interactions in Helicobacter pylori infection GASTROENTEROLOGY Amieva, M. R., El-Omar, E. M. 2008; 134 (1): 306-323


    Helicobacter pylori are spiral-shaped gram-negative bacteria with polar flagella that live near the surface of the human gastric mucosa. They have evolved intricate mechanisms to avoid the bactericidal acid in the gastric lumen and to survive near, to attach to, and to communicate with the human gastric epithelium and host immune system. This interaction sometimes results in severe gastric pathology. H pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for the development of gastroduodenal ulcers, with infection being present in 60%-80% of gastric and 95% of duodenal ulcers.(1)H pylori is also the first bacterium to be classified as a definite carcinogen by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer because of its epidemiologic relationship to gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.(2) In the last 25 years, since H pylori was first described and cultured, a complete paradigm shift has occurred in our clinical approach to these gastric diseases, and more than 20,000 scientific publications have appeared on the subject. From the medical point of view, H pylori is a formidable pathogen responsible for much morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, H pylori infection occurs in approximately half of the world population, with disease being an exception rather than the rule. Understanding how this organism interacts with its host is essential for formulating an intelligent strategy for dealing with its most important clinical consequences. This review offers an insight into H pylori host-bacterial interactions.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.11.009

    View details for PubMedID 18166359

  • Listeria monocytogenes invades the epithelial junctions at sites of cell extrusion PLOS PATHOGENS Pentecost, M., Otto, G., Theriot, J. A., Amieva, M. R. 2006; 2 (1): 29-40


    Listeria monocytogenes causes invasive disease by crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier. This process depends on the interaction between the bacterial surface protein Internalin A and the host protein E-cadherin, located below the epithelial tight junctions at the lateral cell-to-cell contacts. We used polarized MDCK cells as a model epithelium to determine how L. monocytogenes breaches the tight junctions to gain access to this basolateral receptor protein. We determined that L. monocytogenes does not actively disrupt the tight junctions, but finds E-cadherin at a morphologically distinct subset of intercellular junctions. We identified these sites as naturally occurring regions where single senescent cells are expelled and detached from the epithelium by extrusion. The surrounding cells reorganize to form a multicellular junction that maintains epithelial continuity. We found that E-cadherin is transiently exposed to the lumenal surface at multicellular junctions during and after cell extrusion, and that L. monocytogenes takes advantage of junctional remodeling to adhere to and subsequently invade the epithelium. In intact epithelial monolayers, an anti-E-cadherin antibody specifically decorates multicellular junctions and blocks L. monocytogenes adhesion. Furthermore, an L. monocytogenes mutant in the Internalin A gene is completely deficient in attachment to the epithelial apical surface and is unable to invade. We hypothesized that L. monocytogenes utilizes analogous extrusion sites for epithelial invasion in vivo. By infecting rabbit ileal loops, we found that the junctions at the cell extrusion zone of villus tips are the specific target for L. monocytogenes adhesion and invasion. Thus, L. monocytogenes exploits the dynamic nature of epithelial renewal and junctional remodeling to breach the intestinal barrier.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000202894100004

    View details for PubMedID 16446782

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1354196

  • Helicobacter pylori CagA induces a transition from polarized to invasive phenotypes in MDCK cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Bagnoli, F., Buti, L., Tompkins, L., Covacci, A., Amieva, M. R. 2005; 102 (45): 16339-16344


    CagA is a bacterial effector protein of Helicobacter pylori that is translocated via a type IV secretion system into gastric epithelial cells. We previously described that H. pylori require CagA to disrupt the organization and assembly of apical junctions in polarized epithelial cells. In this study, we provide evidence that CagA expression is not only sufficient to disrupt the apical junctions but also perturbs epithelial differentiation. CagA-expressing cells lose apicobasal polarity and cell-cell adhesion, extend migratory pseudopodia, and degrade basement membranes, acquiring an invasive phenotype. Expression of the CagA C-terminal domain, which contains the tyrosine phosphorylated EPIYA motifs, induces pseudopodial activity but is not sufficient to induce cell migration. Conversely, the N terminus targets CagA to the cell-cell junctions. Neither domain is sufficient to disrupt cell adhesion or cell polarity, but coexpressed in trans, the N terminus determines the localization of both polypeptides. We show that CagA induces a morphogenetic program in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells resembling an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We propose that altered cell-cell and cell matrix interactions may serve as an early event in H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233283700039

    View details for PubMedID 16258069

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1274241

  • Disruption of the epithelial apical-junctional complex by Helicobacter pylori CagA SCIENCE Amieva, M. R., Vogelmann, R., Covacci, A., Tompkins, L. S., NELSON, W. J., FALKOW, S. 2003; 300 (5624): 1430-1434


    Helicobacter pylori translocates the protein CagA into gastric epithelial cells and has been linked to peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. We show that injected CagA associates with the epithelial tight-junction scaffolding protein ZO-1 and the transmembrane protein junctional adhesion molecule, causing an ectopic assembly of tight-junction components at sites of bacterial attachment, and altering the composition and function of the apical-junctional complex. Long-term CagA delivery to polarized epithelia caused a disruption of the epithelial barrier function and dysplastic alterations in epithelial cell morphology. CagA appears to target H. pylori to host cell intercellular junctions and to disrupt junction-mediated functions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183181800045

    View details for PubMedID 12775840

  • A spatially mapped gene expression signature for intestinal stem-like cells identifies high-risk precursors of gastric cancer. bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology Huang, R. J., Wichmann, I. A., Su, A., Sathe, A., Shum, M. V., Grimes, S. M., Meka, R., Almeda, A., Bai, X., Shen, J., Nguyen, Q., Amieva, M. R., Hwang, J. H., Ji, H. P. 2023


    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a precancerous lesion that increases gastric cancer (GC) risk. The Operative Link on GIM (OLGIM) is a combined clinical-histopathologic system to risk-stratify patients with GIM. The identification of molecular biomarkers that are indicators for advanced OLGIM lesions may improve cancer prevention efforts.This study was based on clinical and genomic data from four cohorts: 1) GAPS, a GIM cohort with detailed OLGIM severity scoring (N=303 samples); 2) the Cancer Genome Atlas (N=198); 3) a collation of in-house and publicly available scRNA-seq data (N=40), and 4) a spatial validation cohort (N=5) consisting of annotated histology slides of patients with either GC or advanced GIM. We used a multi-omics pipeline to identify, validate and sequentially parse a highly-refined signature of 26 genes which characterize high-risk GIM.Using standard RNA-seq, we analyzed two separate, non-overlapping discovery (N=88) and validation (N=215) sets of GIM. In the discovery phase, we identified 105 upregulated genes specific for high-risk GIM (defined as OLGIM III-IV), of which 100 genes were independently confirmed in the validation set. Spatial transcriptomic profiling revealed 36 of these 100 genes to be expressed in metaplastic foci in GIM. Comparison with bulk GC sequencing data revealed 26 of these genes to be expressed in intestinal-type GC. Single-cell profiling resolved the 26-gene signature to both mature intestinal lineages (goblet cells, enterocytes) and immature intestinal lineages (stem-like cells). A subset of these genes was further validated using single-molecule multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found certain genes (TFF3 and ANPEP) to mark differentiated intestinal lineages, whereas others (OLFM4 and CPS1) localized to immature cells in the isthmic/crypt region of metaplastic glands, consistent with the findings from scRNAseq analysis.using an integrated multi-omics approach, we identified a novel 26-gene expression signature for high-OLGIM precursors at increased risk for GC. We found this signature localizes to aberrant intestinal stem-like cells within the metaplastic microenvironment. These findings hold important translational significance for future prevention and early detection efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/2023.09.20.558462

    View details for PubMedID 37786704

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10541579

  • Gut regulatory T cells mediate immunological tolerance in <i>Salmonella</i>-infected superspreader hosts. Di Luccia, B., Massis, L., Ruddle, S., Narasimhan, R., Pham, T., Vilches-Moure, J., Amieva, M. R., Monack, D. M. AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 2023
  • Approaches to integrating online videos into health professions curricula: educators' perspectives from multiple institutions. MedEdPublish (2016) Aluri, K., Sow, M., Amieva, M., Chen, S. 2022; 12: 52


    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated a transition from lecture-based classes to blended and online learning, increasing the need to integrate publicly available online educational videos. Although online videos are widely available, it is challenging for educators to effectively integrate them into a curriculum. Years before the pandemic, educators from different institutions integrated videos from a library of microbiology and immunology resources into different curricula. Their experiences may inform current educators on the approach to incorporating external resources into their unique curricula. Methods: We interviewed US health professions instructors or course directors who had previously requested access to online microbiology and immunology videos. Using thematic analysis, we organized prominent themes into an existing framework for curriculum development. We then reflected on the meaning of the themes using the same conceptual framework. Results: We found that educators from different schools were able to integrate the same publicly available videos into varying contexts. Most used them as preparation for interactive sessions. For integrating videos, educators felt success when the following actions occurred. 1) Educators integrated videos as a tool to enhance active-learning activities. 2) Educators created activities that focused on clinical applications of knowledge, taught critical thinking, and developed enthusiasm for the subject. 3) They tested students on knowledge application and major concepts rather than solely on content for high-stakes exams. 4) Educators worked with administrators who understood the goals of integrating external videos and supported educators with time and resources to develop effective blended learning. Conclusion: Our study suggests that educators integrating external resources into their curricula may benefit from first establishing their goals and aspirations for their students. These goals then become the anchor for other curricular elements, including external videos, in-class activities, and assessments. Our study highlights the need for dedicated time to develop experienced and enthusiastic educators.

    View details for DOI 10.12688/mep.19179.2

    View details for PubMedID 37588412

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10425914

  • The Gastric Cancer Registry: A Genomic Translational Resource for Multidisciplinary Research in Gastric Cancer. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology Almeda, A. F., Grimes, S. M., Lee, H., Greer, S., Shin, G., McNamara, M., Hooker, A. C., Arce, M. M., Kubit, M., Schauer, M. C., Van Hummelen, P., Ma, C., Mills, M. A., Huang, R. J., Hwang, J. H., Amieva, M. R., Han, S. S., Ford, J. M., Ji, H. P. 2022


    Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Developing information systems which integrate clinical and genomic data may accelerate discoveries to improve cancer prevention, detection, and treatment. To support translational research in GC, we developed the GC Registry (GCR), a North American repository of clinical and cancer genomics data.Participants self-enrolled online. Entry criteria into the GCR included the following: (1) diagnosis of GC, (2) history of GC in a first- or second-degree relative, or (3) known germline mutation in the gene CDH1. Participants provided demographic and clinical information through a detailed survey. Some participants provided specimens of saliva and tumor samples. Tumor samples underwent exome sequencing, whole genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing.From 2011-2021, 567 individuals registered and returned the clinical questionnaire. For this cohort 65% had a personal history of GC, 36% reported a family history of GC and 14% had a germline CDH1 mutation. 89 GC patients provided tumor samples. For the initial study, 41 tumors were sequenced using next generation sequencing. The data was analyzed for cancer mutations, copy number variations, gene expression, microbiome, neoantigens, immune infiltrates, and other features. We developed a searchable, web-based interface (the GCR Genome Explorer) to enable researchers access to these datasets.The GCR is a unique, North American GC registry which integrates clinical and genomic annotation.Available for researchers through an open access, web-based explorer, the GCR Genome Explorer will accelerate collaborative GC research across the United States and world.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-22-0308

    View details for PubMedID 35771165

  • An infection-induced oxidation site regulates legumain processing and tumor growth. Nature chemical biology Kovalyova, Y., Bak, D. W., Gordon, E. M., Fung, C., Shuman, J. H., Cover, T. L., Amieva, M. R., Weerapana, E., Hatzios, S. K. 2022


    Oxidative stress is a defining feature of most cancers, including those that stem from carcinogenic infections. Reactive oxygen species can drive tumor formation, yet the molecular oxidation events that contribute to tumorigenesis are largely unknown. Here we show that inactivation of a single, redox-sensitive cysteine in the host protease legumain, which is oxidized during infection with the gastric cancer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori, accelerates tumor growth. By using chemical proteomics to map cysteine reactivity in human gastric cells, we determined that H. pylori infection induces oxidation of legumain at Cys219. Legumain oxidation dysregulates intracellular legumain processing and decreases the activity of the enzyme in H. pylori-infected cells. We further show that the site-specific loss of Cys219 reactivity increases tumor growth and mortality in a xenograft model. Our findings establish a link between an infection-induced oxidation site and tumorigenesis while underscoring the importance of cysteine reactivity in tumor growth.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41589-022-00992-x

    View details for PubMedID 35332331

  • Engineered Matrices Enable the Culture of Human Patient-Derived Intestinal Organoids. Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) Hunt, D. R., Klett, K. C., Mascharak, S., Wang, H., Gong, D., Lou, J., Li, X., Cai, P. C., Suhar, R. A., Co, J. Y., LeSavage, B. L., Foster, A. A., Guan, Y., Amieva, M. R., Peltz, G., Xia, Y., Kuo, C. J., Heilshorn, S. C. 2021; 8 (10): 2004705


    Human intestinal organoids from primary human tissues have the potential to revolutionize personalized medicine and preclinical gastrointestinal disease models. A tunable, fully defined, designer matrix, termed hyaluronan elastin-like protein (HELP) is reported, which enables the formation, differentiation, and passaging of adult primary tissue-derived, epithelial-only intestinal organoids. HELP enables the encapsulation of dissociated patient-derived cells, which then undergo proliferation and formation of enteroids, spherical structures with polarized internal lumens. After 12 rounds of passaging, enteroid growth in HELP materials is found to be statistically similar to that in animal-derived matrices. HELP materials also support the differentiation of human enteroids into mature intestinal cell subtypes. HELP matrices allow stiffness, stress relaxation rate, and integrin-ligand concentration to be independently and quantitatively specified, enabling fundamental studies of organoid-matrix interactions and potential patient-specific optimization. Organoid formation in HELP materials is most robust in gels with stiffer moduli (G' ≈ 1 kPa), slower stress relaxation rate (t1/2 ≈ 18 h), and higher integrin ligand concentration (0.5 × 10-3-1 × 10-3 m RGD peptide). This material provides a promising in vitro model for further understanding intestinal development and disease in humans and a reproducible, biodegradable, minimal matrix with no animal-derived products or synthetic polyethylene glycol for potential clinical translation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/advs.202004705

    View details for PubMedID 34026461

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8132048

  • Engineered Matrices Enable the Culture of Human Patient-Derived Intestinal Organoids ADVANCED SCIENCE Hunt, D. R., Klett, K. C., Mascharak, S., Wang, H. Y., Gong, D., Lou, J., Li, X., Cai, P. C., Suhar, R. A., Co, J. Y., LeSavage, B. L., Foster, A. A., Guan, Y., Amieva, M. R., Peltz, G., Xia, Y., Kuo, C. J., Heilshorn, S. C. 2021
  • Progenitor identification and SARS-CoV-2 infection in human distal lung organoids. Nature Salahudeen, A. A., Choi, S. S., Rustagi, A., Zhu, J., van Unen, V., de la O, S. M., Flynn, R. A., Margalef-Catala, M., Santos, A. J., Ju, J., Batish, A., Usui, T., Zheng, G. X., Edwards, C. E., Wagar, L. E., Luca, V., Anchang, B., Nagendran, M., Nguyen, K., Hart, D. J., Terry, J. M., Belgrader, P., Ziraldo, S. B., Mikkelsen, T. S., Harbury, P. B., Glenn, J. S., Garcia, K. C., Davis, M. M., Baric, R. S., Sabatti, C., Amieva, M. R., Blish, C. A., Desai, T. J., Kuo, C. J. 2020


    The distal lung contains terminal bronchioles and alveoli that facilitate gas exchange. Three-dimensional in vitro human distal lung culture systems would strongly facilitate investigation of pathologies including interstitial lung disease, cancer, and SARS-CoV-2-associated COVID-19 pneumonia. We generated long-term feeder-free, chemically defined culture of distal lung progenitors as organoids derived from single adult human alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) or KRT5+ basal cells. AT2 organoids exhibited AT1 transdifferentiation potential while basal cell organoids developed lumens lined by differentiated club and ciliated cells. Single cell analysis of basal organoid KRT5+ cells revealed a distinct ITGA6+ITGB4+ mitotic population whose proliferation further segregated to a TNFRSF12Ahi subfraction comprising ~10% of KRT5+ basal cells, residing in clusters within terminal bronchioles and exhibiting enriched clonogenic organoid growth activity. Distal lung organoids were created with apical-out polarity to display ACE2 on the exposed external surface, facilitating SARS-CoV-2 infection of AT2 and basal cultures and identifying club cells as a novel target population. This long-term, feeder-free organoid culture of human distal lung, coupled with single cell analysis, identifies unsuspected basal cell functional heterogeneity and establishes a facile in vitro organoid model for human distal lung infections including COVID-19-associated pneumonia.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-3014-1

    View details for PubMedID 33238290

  • A Summary of the 2020 Gastric Cancer Summit at Stanford University. Gastroenterology Huang, R. J., Koh, H., Hwang, J. H., Summit Leaders, Abnet, C. C., Alarid-Escudero, F., Amieva, M. R., Bruce, M. G., Camargo, M. C., Chan, A. T., Choi, I. J., Corvalan, A., Davis, J. L., Deapen, D., Epplein, M., Greenwald, D. A., Hamashima, C., Hur, C., Inadomi, J. M., Ji, H. P., Jung, H., Lee, E., Lin, B., Palaniappan, L. P., Parsonnet, J., Peek, R. M., Piazuelo, M. B., Rabkin, C. S., Shah, S. C., Smith, A., So, S., Stoffel, E. M., Umar, A., Wilson, K. T., Woo, Y., Yeoh, K. G. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.100

    View details for PubMedID 32707045

  • Enteroaggregative E. coli Adherence to Human Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Drives Segment and Host Specific Responses to Infection. PLoS pathogens Rajan, A. n., Robertson, M. J., Carter, H. E., Poole, N. M., Clark, J. R., Green, S. I., Criss, Z. K., Zhao, B. n., Karandikar, U. n., Xing, Y. n., Margalef-Català, M. n., Jain, N. n., Wilson, R. L., Bai, F. n., Hyser, J. M., Petrosino, J. n., Shroyer, N. F., Blutt, S. E., Coarfa, C. n., Song, X. n., Prasad, B. V., Amieva, M. R., Grande-Allen, J. n., Estes, M. K., Okhuysen, P. C., Maresso, A. W. 2020; 16 (9): e1008851


    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a significant cause of acute and chronic diarrhea, foodborne outbreaks, infections of the immunocompromised, and growth stunting in children in developing nations. There is no vaccine and resistance to antibiotics is rising. Unlike related E. coli pathotypes that are often associated with acute bouts of infection, EAEC is associated with persistent diarrhea and subclinical long-term colonization. Several secreted virulence factors have been associated with EAEC pathogenesis and linked to disease in humans, less certain are the molecular drivers of adherence to the intestinal mucosa. We previously established human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) as a model system to study host-EAEC interactions and aggregative adherence fimbriae A (AafA) as a major driver of EAEC adherence to HIEs. Here, we report a large-scale assessment of the host response to EAEC adherence from all four segments of the intestine across at least three donor lines for five E. coli pathotypes. The data demonstrate that the host response in the duodenum is driven largely by the infecting pathotype, whereas the response in the colon diverges in a patient-specific manner. Major pathways altered in gene expression in each of the four enteroid segments differed dramatically, with responses observed for inflammation, apoptosis and an overwhelming response to different mucin genes. In particular, EAEC both associated with large mucus droplets and specific mucins at the epithelial surface, binding that was ameliorated when mucins were removed, a process dependent on AafA. Pan-screening for glycans for binding to purified AafA identified the human ligand as heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Removal of HSPG abrogated EAEC association with HIEs. These results may mean that the human intestine responds remarkably different to distinct pathobionts that is dependent on the both the individual and intestinal segment in question, and uncover a major role for surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans as tropism-driving factor in adherence and/or colonization.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008851

    View details for PubMedID 32986782

  • Retinoic Acid and Lymphotoxin Signaling Promote Differentiation of Human Intestinal M Cells. Gastroenterology Ding, S. n., Song, Y. n., Brulois, K. F., Pan, J. n., Co, J. Y., Ren, L. n., Feng, N. n., Yasukawa, L. L., Sánchez-Tacuba, L. n., Wosen, J. E., Mellins, E. D., Monack, D. M., Amieva, M. R., Kuo, C. J., Butcher, E. C., Greenberg, H. B. 2020


    Intestinal microfold (M) cells are a unique subset of intestinal epithelial cells in the Peyer's patches that regulate mucosal immunity, serving as portals for sampling and uptake of luminal antigens. The inability to efficiently develop human M cells in cell culture has impeded studies of the intestinal immune system. We aimed to identify signaling pathways required for differentiation of human M cells and establish a robust culture system using human ileum enteroids.We analyzed transcriptome data from mouse Peyer's Patches to identify cell populations in close proximity to M cells. We used the human enteroid system to determine which cytokines were required to induce M cell differentiation. We performed transcriptome, immunofluorescence, scanning electron microscope, and transcytosis experiments to validate the development of phenotypic and functional human M cells.A combination of retinoic acid and lymphotoxin induced differentiation of glycoprotein 2-positive human M cells, which lack apical microvilli structure. Upregulated expression of innate immune-related genes within M cells correlated with a lack of viral antigens after rotavirus infection. Human M cells, developed in the enteroid system, internalized and transported enteric viruses, such as rotavirus and reovirus, across the intestinal epithelium barrier in the enteroids.We identified signaling pathways required for differentiation of intestinal M cells, and used this information to create a robust culture method to develop human M cells with capacity for internalization and transport of viruses. Studies of this model might increase our understanding of antigen presentation and the systemic entry of enteric pathogens in the human intestine.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.03.053

    View details for PubMedID 32247021

  • IgE Effector Mechanisms, in Concert with Mast Cells, Contribute to Acquired Host Defense against Staphylococcusaureus. Immunity Starkl, P. n., Watzenboeck, M. L., Popov, L. M., Zahalka, S. n., Hladik, A. n., Lakovits, K. n., Radhouani, M. n., Haschemi, A. n., Marichal, T. n., Reber, L. L., Gaudenzio, N. n., Sibilano, R. n., Stulik, L. n., Fontaine, F. n., Mueller, A. C., Amieva, M. R., Galli, S. J., Knapp, S. n. 2020


    Allergies are considered to represent mal-directed type 2 immune responses against mostly innocuous exogenous compounds. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are a characteristic feature of allergies and mediate hypersensitivity against allergens through activation of effector cells, particularly mast cells (MCs). Although the physiological functions of this dangerous branch of immunity have remained enigmatic, recent evidence shows that allergic immune reactions can help to protect against the toxicity of venoms. Because bacteria are a potent alternative source of toxins, we assessed the possible role of allergy-like type 2 immunity in antibacterial host defense. We discovered that the adaptive immune response against Staphylococcus aureus (SA) skin infection substantially improved systemic host defense against secondary SA infections in mice. Moreover, this acquired protection depended on IgE effector mechanisms and MCs. Importantly, our results reveal a previously unknown physiological function of allergic immune responses, IgE antibodies, and MCs in host defense against a pathogenic bacterium.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.08.002

    View details for PubMedID 32910906

  • Human Intestinal Enteroids Model MHC-II in the Gut Epithelium FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY Wosen, J. E., Ilstad-Minnihan, A., Co, J. Y., Jiang, W., Mukhopadhyay, D., Fernandez-Becker, N. Q., Kuo, C. J., Amieva, M. R., Mellins, E. D. 2019; 10
  • Human Intestinal Enteroids Model MHC-II in the Gut Epithelium. Frontiers in immunology Wosen, J. E., Ilstad-Minnihan, A., Co, J. Y., Jiang, W., Mukhopadhyay, D., Fernandez-Becker, N. Q., Kuo, C. J., Amieva, M. R., Mellins, E. D. 2019; 10: 1970


    The role of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in mucosal tolerance and immunity remains poorly understood. We present a method for inducing MHC class II (MHC-II) in human enteroids, "mini-guts" derived from small intestinal crypt stem cells, and show that the intracellular MHC-II peptide-pathway is intact and functional in IECs. Our approach enables human enteroids to be used for novel in vitro studies into IEC MHC-II regulation and function during health and disease.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01970

    View details for PubMedID 31481960

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6710476

  • A Multi-Institution Collaboration to Define Core Content and Design Flexible Curricular Components for a Foundational Medical School Course: Implications for National Curriculum Reform ACADEMIC MEDICINE Chen, S. F., Deitz, J., Batten, J. N., DeCoste-Lopez, J., Adam, M., Alspaugh, J., Amieva, M. R., Becker, P., Boslett, B., Carline, J., Chin-Hong, P., Engle, D. L., Hayward, K. N., Nevins, A., Porwal, A., Pottinger, P. S., Schwartz, B. S., Smith, S., Sow, M., Teherani, A., Prober, C. G. 2019; 94 (6): 819–25
  • Profiling of rotavirus 3UTR-binding proteins reveals the ATP synthase subunit ATP5B as a host factor that supports late-stage virus replication JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Ren, L., Ding, S., Song, Y., Li, B., Ramanathan, M., Co, J., Amieva, M. R., Khavari, P. A., Greenberg, H. B. 2019; 294 (15): 5993–6006
  • A Multi-Institution Collaboration to Define Core Content and Design Flexible Curricular Components for a Foundational Medical School Course: Implications for National Curriculum Reform. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Chen, S. F., Deitz, J., Batten, J. N., DeCoste-Lopez, J., Adam, M., Alspaugh, J. A., Amieva, M. R., Becker, P., Boslett, B., Carline, J., Chin-Hong, P., Engle, D. L., Hayward, K. N., Nevins, A., Porwal, A., Pottinger, P. S., Schwartz, B. S., Smith, S., Sow, M., Teherani, A., Prober, C. G. 2019


    Medical educators have not reached widespread agreement on core content for a U.S. medical school curriculum. As a first step toward addressing this, five U.S. medical schools formed the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Reimagining Medical Education collaborative to define, create, implement, and freely share core content for a foundational medical school course on microbiology and immunology. This proof-of-concept project involved delivery of core content to preclinical medical students through online videos and class time interactions between students and facilitators. A flexible, modular design allowed four of the medical schools to successfully implement the content modules in diverse curricular settings. Compared to the prior year, student satisfaction ratings after implementation were comparable or showed a statistically significant improvement. Students who took this course at a time point in their training similar to when the USMLE Step 1 reference group took Step 1 earned equivalent scores on National Board of Medical Examiners-Customized Assessment Services microbiology exam items. Exam scores for three schools ranged from 0.82 to 0.84, compared to 0.81 for the national reference group; exam scores were 0.70 at the fourth school, where students took the exam in their first quarter, two years earlier than the reference group. This project demonstrates that core content for a foundational medical school course can be defined, created, and used by multiple medical schools without compromising student satisfaction or knowledge. This project offers one approach to collaboratively defining core content and designing curricular resources for preclinical medical school education that can be shared.

    View details for PubMedID 30801270

  • Profiling of rotavirus 3'UTR-binding proteins reveals the ATP synthase subunit ATP5B as a host factor that supports late-stage virus replication. The Journal of biological chemistry Ren, L., Ding, S., Song, Y., Li, B., Ramanathan, M., Co, J., Amieva, M. R., Khavari, P. A., Greenberg, H. B. 2019


    Genome replication and virion assembly of segmented RNA viruses are highly coordinated events, tightly regulated by sequence and structural elements in the UTRs of viral RNA. This process is poorly defined and likely requires the participation of host proteins in concert with viral proteins. In this study, we employed a proteomics-based approach, named RNA-protein interaction detection (RaPID), to comprehensively screen for host proteins that bind to a conserved motif within the rotavirus (RV) 3' terminus. Using this assay, we identified ATP5B, a core subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, as having high affinity to the RV 3'UTR consensus sequences. During RV infection, ATP5B bound to the RV 3'UTR and co-localized with viral RNA and viroplasm. Functionally, siRNA-mediated genetic depletion of ATP5B or other ATP synthase subunits such as ATP5A1 and ATP5O reduced the production of infectious viral progeny without significant alteration of intracellular viral RNA levels or RNA translation. Chemical inhibition of ATP synthase diminished RV yield in both conventional cell culture and in human intestinal enteroids, indicating that ATP5B positively regulates late-stage RV maturation in primary intestinal epithelial cells. Collectively, our results shed light on the role of host proteins in RV genome assembly and particle formation and identify ATP5B as a novel pro-RV RNA-binding protein, contributing to our understanding of how host ATP synthases may galvanize virus growth and pathogenesis.

    View details for PubMedID 30770472

  • A Dock-and-Lock Mechanism Clusters ADAM10 at Cell-Cell Junctions to Promote alpha-Toxin Cytotoxicity. Cell reports Shah, J., Rouaud, F., Guerrera, D., Vasileva, E., Popov, L. M., Kelley, W. L., Rubinstein, E., Carette, J. E., Amieva, M. R., Citi, S. 2018; 25 (8): 2132


    We previously identified PLEKHA7 and other junctional proteins as host factors mediating death by S.aureus alpha-toxin, but the mechanism through which junctions promote toxicity was unclear. Using cell biological and biochemical methods, we now show that ADAM10 is docked to junctions by its transmembrane partner Tspan33, whose cytoplasmic Cterminus binds to the WW domain of PLEKHA7 in the presence of PDZD11. ADAM10 is locked at junctions through binding of its cytoplasmic C terminus to afadin. Junctionally clustered ADAM10 supports the efficient formation of stable toxin pores. Instead, disruption of the PLEKHA7-PDZD11 complex inhibits ADAM10 and toxin junctional clustering. This promotes toxin pore removal from the cell surface through an actin- and macropinocytosis-dependent process, resulting in cell recovery from initial injury and survival. These results uncover a dock-and-lock molecular mechanism to target ADAM10 to junctions and provide a paradigm for how junctions regulate transmembrane receptors through their clustering.

    View details for PubMedID 30463011

  • Identification of a S. aureus virulence factor by activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). Nature chemical biology Lentz, C. S., Sheldon, J. R., Crawford, L. A., Cooper, R., Garland, M., Amieva, M. R., Weerapana, E., Skaar, E. P., Bogyo, M. 2018


    Serine hydrolases play diverse roles in regulating host-pathogen interactions in a number of organisms, yet few have been characterized in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here we describe a chemical proteomic screen that identified ten previously uncharacterized S. aureus serine hydrolases that mostly lack human homologs. We termed these enzymes fluorophosphonate-binding hydrolases (FphA-J). One hydrolase, FphB, can process short fatty acid esters, exhibits increased activity in response to host cell factors, is located predominantly on the bacterial cell surface in a subset of cells, and is concentrated in the division septum. Genetic disruption of fphB confirmed that the enzyme is dispensable for bacterial growth in culture but crucial for establishing infection in distinct sites in vivo. A selective small molecule inhibitor of FphB effectively reduced infectivity in vivo, suggesting that it may be a viable therapeutic target for the treatment or management of Staphylococcus infections.

    View details for PubMedID 29769740

  • The soluble extracellular domain of E-cadherin interferes with EPEC adherence via interaction with the Tir:intimin complex. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Login, F. H., Jensen, H. H., Pedersen, G. A., Amieva, M. R., Nejsum, L. N. 2018: fj201800651


    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causes watery diarrhea when colonizing the surface of enterocytes. The translocated intimin receptor (Tir):intimin receptor complex facilitates tight adherence to epithelial cells and formation of actin pedestals beneath EPEC. We found that the host cell adherens junction protein E-cadherin (Ecad) was recruited to EPEC microcolonies. Live-cell and confocal imaging revealed that Ecad recruitment depends on, and occurs after, formation of the Tir:intimin complex. Combinatorial binding experiments using wild-type EPEC, isogenic mutants lacking Tir or intimin, and E. coli expressing intimin showed that the extracellular domain of Ecad binds the bacterial surface in a Tir:intimin-dependent manner. Finally, addition of the soluble extracellular domain of Ecad to the infection medium or depletion of Ecad extracellular domain from the cell surface reduced EPEC adhesion to host cells. Thus, the soluble extracellular domain of Ecad may be used in the design of intervention strategies targeting EPEC adherence to host cells.-Login, F. H., Jensen, H. H., Pedersen, G. A., Amieva, M. R., Nejsum, L. N. The soluble extracellular domain of E-cadherin interferes with EPEC adherence via interaction with the Tir:intimin complex.

    View details for PubMedID 29920220

  • A dual function antibiotic-transporter conjugate exhibits superior activity in sterilizing MRSA biofilms and killing persister cells. Journal of the American Chemical Society Antonoplis, A. n., Zang, X. n., Huttner, M. A., Chong, K. n., Lee, Y. B., Co, J. Y., Amieva, M. n., Kline, K. n., Wender, P. A., Cegelski, L. n. 2018


    New strategies are urgently needed to target MRSA, a major global health problem and the leading cause of mortality from antibiotic-resistant infections in many countries. Here we report a general approach to this problem exemplified by the design and synthesis of a vancomycin-D-octaarginine conjugate (V-r8) and investigation of its efficacy in addressing antibiotic-insensitive bacterial populations. V-r8 eradicated MRSA biofilm and persister cells in vitro, outperforming vancomycin by orders of magnitude. It also eliminated 97% of biofilm-associated MRSA in a murine wound infection model and displayed no acute dermal toxicity. This new dual function conjugate displays enhanced cellular accumulation and membrane perturba-tion as compared to vancomycin. Based on its rapid and potent activity against biofilm and persister cells, V-r8 is a promis-ing agent against clinical MRSA infections.

    View details for PubMedID 30388366

  • The basolateral vesicle sorting machinery and basolateral proteins are recruited to the site of enteropathogenic E. coli microcolony growth at the apical membrane. PloS one Pedersen, G. A., Jensen, H. H., Schelde, A. B., Toft, C., Pedersen, H. N., Ulrichsen, M., Login, F. H., Amieva, M. R., Nejsum, L. N. 2017; 12 (6): e0179122


    Foodborne Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections of the small intestine cause diarrhea especially in children and are a major cause of childhood death in developing countries. EPEC infects the apical membrane of the epithelium of the small intestine by attaching, effacing the microvilli under the bacteria and then forming microcolonies on the cell surface. We first asked the question where on epithelial cells EPEC attaches and grows. Using models of polarized epithelial monolayers, we evaluated the sites of initial EPEC attachment to the apical membrane and found that EPEC preferentially attached over the cell-cell junctions and formed microcolonies preferentially where three cells come together at tricellular tight junctions. The ability of EPEC to adhere increased when host cell polarity was compromised yielding EPEC access to basolateral proteins. EPEC pedestals contain basolateral cytoskeletal proteins. Thus, we asked if attached EPEC causes reorganization the protein composition of the host cell plasma membrane at sites of microcolony formation. We found that EPEC microcolony growth at the apical membrane resulted in a local accumulation of basolateral plasma membrane proteins surrounding the microcolony. Basolateral marker protein aquaporin-3 localized to forming EPEC microcolonies. Components of the basolateral vesicle targeting machinery were re-routed. The Exocyst (Exo70) was recruited to individual EPEC as was the basolateral vesicle SNARE VAMP-3. Moreover, several Rab variants were also recruited to the infection site, and their dominant-negative equivalents were not. To quantitatively study the recruitment of basolateral proteins, we created a pulse of the temperature sensitive basolateral VSVG, VSVG3-SP-GFP, from the trans-Golgi Network. We found that after release from the TGN, significantly more VSVG3-SP-GFP accumulated at the site of microcolony growth than on equivalent membrane regions of uninfected cells. This suggests that trafficking of vesicles destined for the basolateral membrane are redirected to the apical site of microcolony growth. Thus, in addition to disrupting host cell fence function, local host cell plasma membrane protein composition is changed by altered protein trafficking and recruitment of basolateral proteins to the apical microcolony. This may aid EPEC attachment and subsequent microcolony growth.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0179122

    View details for PubMedID 28636623

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5479554

  • The Use of Short, Animated, Patient-Centered Springboard Videos to Underscore the Clinical Relevance of Preclinical Medical Student Education. Academic medicine Adam, M., Chen, S. F., Amieva, M., Deitz, J., Jang, H., Porwal, A., Prober, C. 2017


    Medical students often struggle to appreciate the clinical relevance of material taught in the preclinical years. The authors believe videos could be effectively used to interweave a patient's illness script with foundational basic science concepts.In collaboration with four other U.S. medical schools, educators at the Stanford University School of Medicine created 36 short, animated, patient-centered springboard videos (third-person, narrated accounts of authentic patient cases conveying foundational pathophysiology) in 2014. The videos were used to introduce students to 36 content modules, created as part of a microbiology, immunology, and infectious diseases curriculum. The videos were created with input from faculty content experts and in some cases medical students, and were piloted using a flipped classroom pedagogical approach in January 2015-June 2016.Student feedback from course evaluations and focus groups was analyzed using a mixed-methods approach. On the course evaluations, the majority of students rated the patient-centered videos positively, and the majority of comments on the videos were positive, highlighting both enhanced engagement and enhanced learning and retention. Comments from focus groups mirrored the course evaluation comments and highlighted different usage patterns for the videos.The authors will continue to gather and analyze data from schools using the videos as part of their core preclinical curriculum, and will produce similar videos for use in other areas of undergraduate medical education. These videos could support students' review of content taught previously and be repurposed for use in continuing and graduate medical education, as well as patient education.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001574

    View details for PubMedID 28121656

  • Stromal R-spondin orchestrates gastric epithelial stem cells and gland homeostasis. Nature Sigal, M. n., Logan, C. Y., Kapalczynska, M. n., Mollenkopf, H. J., Berger, H. n., Wiedenmann, B. n., Nusse, R. n., Amieva, M. R., Meyer, T. F. 2017; 548 (7668): 451–55


    The constant regeneration of stomach epithelium is driven by long-lived stem cells, but the mechanism that regulates their turnover is not well understood. We have recently found that the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori can activate gastric stem cells and increase epithelial turnover, while Wnt signalling is known to be important for stem cell identity and epithelial regeneration in several tissues. Here we find that antral Wnt signalling, marked by the classic Wnt target gene Axin2, is limited to the base and lower isthmus of gastric glands, where the stem cells reside. Axin2 is expressed by Lgr5+ cells, as well as adjacent, highly proliferative Lgr5- cells that are able to repopulate entire glands, including the base, upon depletion of the Lgr5+ population. Expression of both Axin2 and Lgr5 requires stroma-derived R-spondin 3 produced by gastric myofibroblasts proximal to the stem cell compartment. Exogenous R-spondin administration expands and accelerates proliferation of Axin2+/Lgr5- but not Lgr5+ cells. Consistent with these observations, H. pylori infection increases stromal R-spondin 3 expression and expands the Axin2+ cell pool to cause hyperproliferation and gland hyperplasia. The ability of stromal niche cells to control and adapt epithelial stem cell dynamics constitutes a sophisticated mechanism that orchestrates epithelial regeneration and maintenance of tissue integrity.

    View details for PubMedID 28813421

  • Quantitative Imaging of Gut Microbiota Spatial Organization CELL HOST & MICROBE Earle, K. A., Billings, G., Sigal, M., Lichtman, J. S., Hansson, G. C., Elias, J. E., Amieva, M. R., Huang, K. C., Sonnenburg, J. L. 2015; 18 (4): 478-488


    Genomic technologies have significantly advanced our understanding of the composition and diversity of host-associated microbial populations. However, their spatial organization and functional interactions relative to the host have been more challenging to study. Here we present a pipeline for the assessment of intestinal microbiota localization within immunofluorescence images of fixed gut cross-sections that includes a flexible software package, BacSpace, for high-throughput quantification of microbial organization. Applying this pipeline to gnotobiotic and human microbiota-colonized mice, we demonstrate that elimination of microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) from the diet results in thinner mucus in the distal colon, increased proximity of microbes to the epithelium, and heightened expression of the inflammatory marker REG3β. Measurements of microbe-microbe proximity reveal that a MAC-deficient diet alters monophyletic spatial clustering. Furthermore, we quantify the invasion of Helicobacter pylori into the glands of the mouse stomach relative to host mitotic progenitor cells, illustrating the generalizability of this approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chom.2015.09.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365111600016

    View details for PubMedID 26439864

  • Helicobacter pylori CheZHP and ChePep form a novel chemotaxis-regulatory complex distinct from the core chemotaxis signaling proteins and the flagellar motor. Molecular microbiology Lertsethtakarn, P., Howitt, M. R., Castellon, J., Amieva, M. R., Ottemann, K. M. 2015; 97 (6): 1063-1078


    Chemotaxis is important for Helicobacter pylori to colonize the stomach. Like other bacteria, H. pylori uses chemoreceptors and conserved chemotaxis proteins to phosphorylate the flagellar rotational response regulator, CheY, and modulate the flagellar rotational direction. Phosphorylated CheY is returned to its non-phosphorylated state by phosphatases such as CheZ. In previously studied cases, chemotaxis phosphatases localize to the cellular poles by interactions with either the CheA chemotaxis kinase or flagellar motor proteins. We report here that the H. pylori CheZ, CheZHP , localizes to the poles independently of the flagellar motor, CheA, and all typical chemotaxis proteins. Instead, CheZHP localization depends on the chemotaxis regulatory protein ChePep, and reciprocally, ChePep requires CheZHP for its polar localization. We furthermore show that these proteins interact directly. Functional domain mapping of CheZHP determined the polar localization motif lies within the central domain of the protein and that the protein has regions outside of the active site that participate in chemotaxis. Our results suggest that CheZHP and ChePep form a distinct complex. These results therefore suggest the intriguing idea that some phosphatases localize independently of the other chemotaxis and motility proteins, possibly to confer unique regulation on these proteins' activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/mmi.13086

    View details for PubMedID 26061894

  • Regulation of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Within the Context of Iron Deficiency JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Noto, J. M., Lee, J. Y., Gaddy, J. A., Cover, T. L., Amieva, M. R., Peek, R. M. 2015; 211 (11): 1790-1794


    Helicobacter pylori strains that harbor the oncoprotein CagA increase gastric cancer risk, and this risk is augmented under iron-deficient conditions. We demonstrate here that iron depletion induces coccoid morphology in strains lacking cagA. To evaluate the stability of augmented H. pylori virulence phenotypes stimulated by low-iron conditions, H. pylori isolated from iron-depleted conditions in vivo were serially passaged in vitro. Long-term passage decreased the ability of hypervirulent strains to translocate CagA or induce interleukin 8, indicating that hypervirulent phenotypes stimulated by low-level iron conditions are reversible. Therefore, rectifying iron deficiency may attenuate disease among H. pylori-infected persons with no response to antibiotics.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/infdis/jiu805

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355675100013

    View details for PubMedID 25505301

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4447831

  • Helicobacter pylori Activates and Expands Lgr5(+) Stem Cells Through Direct Colonization of the Gastric Glands GASTROENTEROLOGY Sigal, M., Rothenberg, M. E., Logan, C. Y., Lee, J. Y., Honaker, R. W., Cooper, R. L., Passarelli, B., Camorlinga, M., Bouley, D. M., Alvarez, G., Nusse, R., Torres, J., Amieva, M. R. 2015; 148 (7): 1392-?


    Helicobacter pylori infection is the main risk factor for gastric cancer. We characterized the interactions of H pylori with gastric epithelial progenitor and stem cells in humans and mice and investigated how these interactions contribute to H pylori-induced pathology.We used quantitative confocal microscopy and 3-dimensional reconstruction of entire gastric glands to determine the localizations of H pylori in stomach tissues from humans and infected mice. Using lineage tracing to mark cells derived from leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5(+)) stem cells (Lgr5-eGFP-IRES-CreERT2/Rosa26-TdTomato mice) and in situ hybridization, we analyzed gastric stem cell responses to infection. Isogenic H pylori mutants were used to determine the role of specific virulence factors in stem cell activation and pathology.H pylori grow as distinct bacterial microcolonies deep in the stomach glands and interact directly with gastric progenitor and stem cells in tissues from mice and humans. These gland-associated bacteria activate stem cells, increasing the number of stem cells, accelerating Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation, and up-regulating expression of stem cell-related genes. Mutant bacteria with defects in chemotaxis that are able to colonize the stomach surface but not the antral glands in mice do not activate stem cells. In addition, bacteria that are unable to inject the contact-dependent virulence factor CagA into the epithelium colonized stomach glands in mice, but did not activate stem cells or produce hyperplasia to the same extent as wild-type H pylori.H pylori colonize and manipulate the progenitor and stem cell compartments, which alters turnover kinetics and glandular hyperplasia. Bacterial ability to alter the stem cells has important implications for gastrointestinal stem cell biology and H pylori-induced gastric pathology.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355014700031

    View details for PubMedID 25725293

  • Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Understand Staphylococcus aureus Skin Colonization and Infection. Frontiers in immunology Popov, L., Kovalski, J., Grandi, G., Bagnoli, F., Amieva, M. R. 2014; 5: 41-?


    Staphylococcus aureus is both a major bacterial pathogen as well as a common member of the human skin microbiota. Due to its widespread prevalence as an asymptomatic skin colonizer and its importance as a source of skin and soft tissue infections, an improved understanding of how S. aureus attaches to, grows within, and breaches the stratified layers of the epidermis is of critical importance. Three-dimensional organotypic human skin culture models are informative and tractable experimental systems for future investigations of the interactions between S. aureus and the multi-faceted skin tissue. We propose that S. aureus virulence factors, primarily appreciated for their role in pathogenesis of invasive infections, play alternative roles in promoting asymptomatic bacterial growth within the skin. Experimental manipulations of these cultures will provide insight into the many poorly understood molecular interactions occurring at the interface between S. aureus and stratified human skin tissue.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00041

    View details for PubMedID 24567733

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3915142

  • Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Understand Staphylococcus aureus Skin Colonization and Infection. Frontiers in immunology Popov, L., Kovalski, J., Grandi, G., Bagnoli, F., Amieva, M. R. 2014; 5: 41-?

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00041

    View details for PubMedID 24567733

  • A Pediatric Case of New Delhi Metallo-ß-Lactamase-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in The United States. Pediatric infectious disease journal Green, D. A., Srinivas, N., Watz, N., Tenover, F. C., Amieva, M., Banaei, N. 2013; 32 (11): 1291-1294


    We report the second pediatric case of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the United States in a girl from India who presented to a teaching hospital in Northern California with cystitis due to NDM-1-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Laboratory methods included various phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing assays, as well as PCR assays for carbapenemase-encoding genes. Laboratory challenges included a false negative modified Hodge test and reversion of carbapenem resistance in the E. coli strain. The limited number of effective antimicrobial agents and the lack of pediatric-specific safety and efficacy data for these drugs presented significant therapeutic challenges.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0b013e31829eca34

    View details for PubMedID 23743543

  • Iron deficiency accelerates Helicobacter pylori-induced carcinogenesis in rodents and humans JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Noto, J. M., Gaddy, J. A., Lee, J. Y., Piazuelo, M. B., Friedman, D. B., Colvin, D. C., Romero-Gallo, J., Suarez, G., Loh, J., Slaughter, J. C., Tan, S., Morgan, D. R., Wilson, K. T., Bravo, L. E., Correa, P., Cover, T. L., Amieva, M. R., Peek, R. M. 2013; 123 (1): 479-492


    Gastric adenocarcinoma is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection; however, most infected persons never develop this malignancy. H. pylori strains harboring the cag pathogenicity island (cag+), which encodes CagA and a type IV secretion system (T4SS), induce more severe disease outcomes. H. pylori infection is also associated with iron deficiency, which similarly augments gastric cancer risk. To define the influence of iron deficiency on microbial virulence in gastric carcinogenesis, Mongolian gerbils were maintained on iron-depleted diets and infected with an oncogenic H. pylori cag+ strain. Iron depletion accelerated the development of H. pylori-induced premalignant and malignant lesions in a cagA-dependent manner. H. pylori strains harvested from iron-depleted gerbils or grown under iron-limiting conditions exhibited enhanced virulence and induction of inflammatory factors. Further, in a human population at high risk for gastric cancer, H. pylori strains isolated from patients with the lowest ferritin levels induced more robust proinflammatory responses compared with strains isolated from patients with the highest ferritin levels, irrespective of histologic status. These data demonstrate that iron deficiency enhances H. pylori virulence and represents a measurable biomarker to identify populations of infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI64373

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313598500049

    View details for PubMedID 23257361

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3533289

  • Shigella navigates tight corners. Cell host & microbe Amieva, M. 2012; 11 (4): 319-20


    In this issue, Fukumatsu and colleagues (2012) find that Shigella preferentially spread from cell-to-cell at unique intercellular junctions. Shigella protrusions invade adjacent cells at junctions where three cells meet, the tricellular junction. The tight junction protein tricellulin marks these sites and is important for Shigella spread.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chom.2012.04.001

    View details for PubMedID 22520458

  • The intestinal stem cell markers Bmi1 and Lgr5 identify two functionally distinct populations PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Yan, K. S., Chia, L. A., Li, X., Ootani, A., Su, J., Lee, J. Y., Su, N., Luo, Y., Heilshorn, S. C., Amieva, M. R., Sangiorgi, E., Capecchi, M. R., Kuo, C. J. 2012; 109 (2): 466-471


    The small intestine epithelium undergoes rapid and continuous regeneration supported by crypt intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Bmi1 and Lgr5 have been independently identified to mark long-lived multipotent ISCs by lineage tracing in mice; however, the functional distinctions between these two populations remain undefined. Here, we demonstrate that Bmi1 and Lgr5 mark two functionally distinct ISCs in vivo. Lgr5 marks mitotically active ISCs that exhibit exquisite sensitivity to canonical Wnt modulation, contribute robustly to homeostatic regeneration, and are quantitatively ablated by irradiation. In contrast, Bmi1 marks quiescent ISCs that are insensitive to Wnt perturbations, contribute weakly to homeostatic regeneration, and are resistant to high-dose radiation injury. After irradiation, however, the normally quiescent Bmi1(+) ISCs dramatically proliferate to clonally repopulate multiple contiguous crypts and villi. Clonogenic culture of isolated single Bmi1(+) ISCs yields long-lived self-renewing spheroids of intestinal epithelium that produce Lgr5-expressing cells, thereby establishing a lineage relationship between these two populations in vitro. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence that Bmi1 marks quiescent, injury-inducible reserve ISCs that exhibit striking functional distinctions from Lgr5(+) ISCs and support a model whereby distinct ISC populations facilitate homeostatic vs. injury-induced regeneration.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1118857109

    View details for PubMedID 22190486

  • Tolerance Rather Than Immunity Protects From Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Preneoplasia GASTROENTEROLOGY Arnold, I. C., Lee, J. Y., Amieva, M. R., Roers, A., Flavell, R. A., Sparwasser, T., Mueller, A. 2011; 140 (1): 199-?


    Chronic infection with the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori causes gastric disorders, ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric adenocarcinoma. Only a subset of infected persons will develop overt disease; most remains asymptomatic despite lifelong colonization. This study aims to elucidate the differential susceptibility to H pylori that is found both across and within populations.We have established a C57BL/6 mouse model of H pylori infection with a strain that is capable of delivering the virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) into host cells through the activity of a Cag-pathogenicity island-encoded type IV secretion system.Mice infected at 5-6 weeks of age with CagA(+)H pylori rapidly develop gastritis, gastric atrophy, epithelial hyperplasia, and metaplasia in a type IV secretion system-dependent manner. In contrast, mice infected during the neonatal period with the same strain are protected from preneoplastic lesions. Their protection results from the development of H pylori-specific peripheral immunologic tolerance, which requires transforming growth factor-β signaling and is mediated by long-lived, inducible regulatory T cells, and which controls the local CD4(+) T-cell responses that trigger premalignant transformation. Tolerance to H pylori develops in the neonatal period because of a biased ratio of T-regulatory to T-effector cells and is favored by prolonged low-dose exposure to antigen.Using a novel CagA(+)H pylori infection model, we report here that the development of tolerance to H pylori protects from gastric cancer precursor lesions. The age at initial infection may thus account for the differential susceptibility of infected persons to H pylori-associated disease manifestations.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2010.06.047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285503200036

    View details for PubMedID 20600031

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3380634

  • The Complete Genome Sequence of Helicobacter pylori Strain G27 JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY Baltrus, D. A., Amieva, M. R., Covacci, A., Lowe, T. M., Merrell, D. S., Ottemann, K. M., Stein, M., Salama, N. R., Guillemin, K. 2009; 191 (1): 447-448


    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen that colonizes the stomachs of over half the world's population and causes a spectrum of gastric diseases including gastritis, ulcers, and gastric carcinoma. The H. pylori species exhibits unusually high levels of genetic variation between strains. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of H. pylori strain G27, which has been used extensively in H. pylori research.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JB.01416-08

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261628100047

    View details for PubMedID 18952803

  • The role of bacterial pathogens in cancer CURRENT OPINION IN MICROBIOLOGY Vogelmann, R., Amieva, M. R. 2007; 10 (1): 76-81


    The association of Helicobacter pylori with gastric cancer is the best-studied relationship between a bacterial infection and cancer. Other bacterial pathogens in humans and rodents are now being recognized as potentially having a direct role in carcinogenesis. Thus, it might be possible to understand the pathogenesis and prevention of certain cancers by studying the bacterial infections associated with them, and their effects on the host. However, the mechanisms by which bacteria contribute to cancer formation are complex, and recent investigations show that they involve the interplay between chronic inflammation, direct microbial effects on host cell physiology and, ultimately, changes in tissue stem cell homeostasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mib.2006.12.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244809900013

    View details for PubMedID 17208515

  • Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: What can be learned by studying the response of gastric epithelial cells to the infection? AACR Special Conference on Colorectal Cancer - Molecular Pathways and Therapies Mueller, A., FALKOW, S., Amieva, M. R. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2005: 1859–64


    The development of gastric adenocarcinoma is closely linked to chronic infection with the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori. One Helicobacter-specific virulence factor in particular, the CagA protein, has emerged as a main effector molecule in the interaction of H. pylori with gastric epithelial cells and has been implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review highlights the latest insights that have been gained into the pathogenesis of the disease by transcriptional profiling approaches studying gene expression in normal gastric tissue and gastric cancer tissue from human biopsy material as well as animal models of Helicobacter infection. The potential role of CagA as a bacterial oncoprotein is also discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0820

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231195600004

    View details for PubMedID 16103426

  • Important bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens in children: A pathogenesis perspective PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Amieva, M. R. 2005; 52 (3): 749-?


    This article focuses on the five most common bacterial enteropathogens of the developed world--Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Salmonella, and Campylobacter--from the perspective of how they cause disease and how they relate to each other. Basic and recurring themes of bacterial pathogenesis, including mechanisms of entry, methods of adherence, sites of cellular injury, role of toxins, and how pathogens acquire particular virulence traits (and antimicrobial resistance), are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pcl.2005.03.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230166000006

    View details for PubMedID 15925661

  • Breaking into the epithelial apical-junctional complex - news from pathogen hackers CURRENT OPINION IN CELL BIOLOGY Vogelmann, R., Amieva, M. R., FALKOW, S., Nelson, W. J. 2004; 16 (1): 86-93


    The epithelial apical-junctional complex is a key regulator of cellular functions. In addition, it is an important target for microbial pathogens that manipulate the cell to survive, proliferate and sometimes persist within a host. Out of a myriad of potential molecular targets, some bacterial and viral pathogens have selected a subset of protein targets at the apical-junctional complex of epithelial cells. Studying how microbes use these targets also teaches us about the inherent physiological properties of host molecules in the context of normal junctional structure and function. Thus, we have learned that three recently uncovered components of the apical-junctional complex of the Ig superfamily--junctional adhesion molecule, Nectin and the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor--are important regulators of junction structure and function and represent critical targets of microbial virulence gene products.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188769900013

    View details for PubMedID 15037310

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3373727

  • Helicobacter pylori enter and survive within multivesicular vacuoles of epithelial cells CELLULAR MICROBIOLOGY Amieva, M. R., Salama, N. R., Tompkins, L. S., FALKOW, S. 2002; 4 (10): 677-690


    Although intracellular Helicobacter pylori have been described in biopsy specimens and in cultured epithelial cells, the fate of these bacteria is unknown. Using differential interference contrast (DIC) video and immunofluorescence microscopy, we document that a proportion of cell-associated H. pylori enter large cytoplasmic vacuoles, where they remain viable and motile and can survive lethal concentrations of extracellular gentamicin. Entry into vacuoles occurs in multiple epithelial cell lines including AGS gastric adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 colon adenocarcinoma and MDCK kidney cell line, and depends on the actin cytoskeleton. Time-lapse microscopy over several hours was used to follow the movement of live H. pylori within vacuoles of a single cell. Pulsed, extracellular gentamicin treatments show that the half-life of intravacuolar bacteria is on the order of 24 h. Viable H. pylori repopulate the extracellular environment in parallel with the disappearance of intravacuolar bacteria, suggesting release from the intravacuolar niche. Using electron microscopy and live fluorescent staining with endosomal dyes, we observe that H. pylori-containing vacuoles are similar in morphology to late endosomal multivesicular bodies. VacA is not required for these events, as isogenic vacA- mutants still enter and survive within the intravacuolar niche. The exploitation of an intravacuolar niche is a new aspect of the biological life cycle of H. pylori that could explain the difficulties in eradicating this infection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178480600005

    View details for PubMedID 12366404

  • Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction associated with ciprofloxacin administration for tick-borne relapsing fever PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Webster, G., Schiffman, J. D., Dosanjh, A. S., Amieva, M. R., Gans, H. A., Sectish, T. C. 2002; 21 (6): 571-573


    A 14-year-old girl was seen at a community clinic with a chief complaint of abdominal pain and fevers and was treated with oral ciprofloxacin for presumed pyelonephritis. She became tachycardic and hypotensive after her first dose of antibiotic, and she developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. She was admitted to our hospital for presumed sepsis. Her outpatient peripheral blood smear was reviewed, revealing spirochetes consistent with Borrelia sp. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction to ciprofloxacin.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.inf.0000015641.27909.b6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176194400018

    View details for PubMedID 12182387

  • Imaging of dynamic changes of the actin cytoskeleton in microextensions of live NIH3T3 cells with a GFP fusion of the F-actin binding domain of moesin. BMC cell biology Litman, P., Amieva, M. R., FURTHMAYR, H. 2000; 1: 1-?


    The cell surface undergoes continuous change during cell movement. This is characterized by transient protrusion and partial or complete retraction of microspikes, filopodia, and lamellipodia. This requires a dynamic actin cytoskeleton, moesin, components of Rho-mediated signal pathways, rearrangement of membrane constituents and the formation of focal adhesion sites. While the immunofluorescence distribution of endogenous moesin is that of a membrane-bound molecule with marked enhancement in some but not all microextensions, the C-terminal fragment of moesin co-distributes with filamentous actin consistent with its actin-binding activity. By taking advantage of this property we studied the spontaneous protrusive activity of live NIH3T3 cells, expressing a fusion of GFP and the C-terminal domain of moesin.C-moesin-GFP localized to stress fibers and was enriched in actively protruding cellular regions such as filopodia or lamellipodia. This localization was reversibly affected by cytochalasin D. Multiple types of cytoskeletal rearrangements were observed that occurred independent of each other in adjacent regions of the cell surface. Assembly and disassembly of actin filaments occurred repeatedly within the same space and was correlated with either membrane protrusion and retraction, or no change in shape when microextensions were adherent.Shape alone provided an inadequate criterion for distinguishing between retraction fibers and advancing, retracting or stable filopodia. Fluorescence imaging of C-moesin-GFP, however, paralleled the rapid and dynamic changes of the actin cytoskeleton in microextensions. Regional regulatory control is implicated because opposite changes occurred in close proximity and presumably independent of each other. This new and sensitive tool should be useful for investigating mechanisms of localized actin dynamics in the cell cortex.

    View details for PubMedID 11112983

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC29062

  • Disruption of dynamic cell surface architecture of NIH3T3 fibroblasts by the N-terminal domains of moesin and ezrin: in vivo imaging with GFP fusion proteins JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE Amieva, M. R., Litman, P., Huang, L. Q., Ichimaru, E., Furthmayr, H. 1999; 112 (1): 111-125


    Lamellipodia, filopodia, microspikes and retraction fibers are characteristic features of a dynamic and continuously changing cell surface architecture and moesin, ezrin and radixin are thought to function in these microextensions as reversible links between plasma membrane proteins and actin microfilaments. Full-length and truncated domains of the three proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), expressed in NIH3T3 cells, and distribution and behaviour of cells were analysed by using digitally enhanced differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence video microscopy. The amino-terminal (N-)domains of all three proteins localize to the plasma membrane and fluorescence recordings parallel the dynamic changes in cell surface morphology observed by DIC microscopy of cultured cells. Expression of this domain, however, significantly affects cell surface architecture by the formation of abnormally long and fragile filopodia that poorly attach and retract abnormally. Even more striking are abundant irregular, branched and motionless membraneous structures that accumulate during retraction of lamellipodia. These are devoid of actin, endogenous moesin, ezrin and radixin, but contain the GFP-labeled domain. While a large proportion of endogenous proteins can be extracted with non-ionic detergents as in untransfected control cells, >90% of N-moesin and >60% of N-ezrin and N-radixin remain insoluble. The minimal size of the domain of moesin required for membrane localization and change in behavior includes residues 1-320. Deletions of amino acid residues from either end result in diffuse intracellular distribution, but also in normal cell behavior. Expression of GFP-fusions of full-length moesin or its carboxy-terminal domain has no effect on cell behavior during the observation period of 6-8 hours. The data suggest that, in the absence of the carboxy-terminal domain, N-moesin, -ezrin and -radixin interact tightly with the plasma membrane and interfere with normal functions of endogeneous proteins mainly during retraction.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078294600010

    View details for PubMedID 9841908

  • The plasma membrane-actin linking protein, ezrin, is a glomerular epithelial cell marker in glomerulogenesis, in the adult kidney and in glomerular injury KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Hugo, C., Nangaku, M., Shankland, S. J., Pichler, R., Gordon, K., Amieva, M. R., Couser, W. G., FURTHMAYR, H., JOHNSON, R. J. 1998; 54 (6): 1934-1944


    Ezrin belongs to a family of plasma membrane-cytoskeleton linking, actin binding proteins (Ezrin-radixin-Moesin family) involved in signal transduction, growth control, cell-cell adhesion, and microvilli formation.The expression of ezrin was examined in glomerular cells in culture, during kidney development, in the mature kidney, and in five different experimental kidney disease models in the rat.Ezrin was specifically expressed in glomerular epithelial cells in developing glomeruli in mature glomeruli and in glomerular epithelial cells in culture. Distinct from its other family members, moesin and radixin, which are predominantly expressed in glomerular endothelial and mesangial areas, ezrin protein (by immunohistochemistry) was specifically and exclusively modulated during podocyte injury and regeneration. Ezrin immunohistochemistry was able to visualize cell body attenuation, pseudocysts, and in particular vacuolation of injured podocytes, a feature that usually has to be identified at the ultrastructural level, and was strikingly increased in binucleated podocytes or podocytes that were partially or completely detached from the underlying GBM (frequently also binucleated). Infiltrating macrophages also express ezrin, but can easily be differentiated from podocytes by their round shape and higher level of expression.Ezrin likely has a role in the cytoskeletal organization, such as reassembling of acting filaments accompanying podocyte injury and regeneration. Since suitable light microscopic markers for the identification of glomerular epithelial cells are rare, ezrin may also be a useful marker for podocytes in normal and injured glomeruli.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077129000013

    View details for PubMedID 9853258

  • Hypoxia increases human keratinocyte motility on connective tissue 56th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Investigative-Dermatology O'Toole, E. A., Marinkovich, M. P., Peavey, C. L., Amieva, M. R., FURTHMAYR, H., Mustoe, T. A., Woodley, D. T. AMER SOC CLINICAL INVESTIGATION INC. 1997: 2881–91


    Re-epithelialization of skin wounds depends upon the migration of keratinocytes from the cut margins of the wound and is enhanced when human keratinocytes are covered with occlusive dressings that induce hypoxia. In this study, two independent migration assays were used to compare cellular motility on connective tissue components under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Human keratinocytes apposed to collagens or fibronectin exhibited increased motility when subjected to hypoxic (0.2 or 2% oxygen) conditions compared with normoxic (9 or 20% oxygen) conditions. When compared with normoxic cells, hypoxic keratinocytes exhibited increased expression and redistribution of the lamellipodia-associated proteins (ezrin, radixin, and moesin). Furthermore, hypoxic keratinocytes demonstrated decreased secretion of laminin-5, a laminin isoform known to inhibit keratinocyte motility. Hypoxia did not alter the number of integrin receptors on the cell surface, but did induce enhanced secretion of the 92-kD type IV collagenase. These data demonstrate that hypoxia promotes human keratinocyte motility on connective tissue. Hypoxia-driven motility is associated with increased expression of lamellipodia proteins, increased expression of collagenase and decreased expression of laminin-5, the locomotion brake for keratinocytes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071007300031

    View details for PubMedID 9389755

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC508495

  • Phosphorylation of T-558 of moesin detected by site-specific antibodies in RAW264.7 macrophages BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS Nakamura, F., Amieva, M. R., Hirota, C., Mizuno, Y., FURTHMAYR, H. 1996; 226 (3): 650-656


    To determine, whether 558Thr in the carboxyl-terminal domain of moesin is phosphorylated in cells other than platelets, rabbit phosphorylation state-specific antibodies were made to the chemically phosphorylated synthetic hexapeptide KYKpTLR of the moesin sequence, as well as to the unphosphorylated form. The affinity-purified antibody populations were specific for either the phosphorylated or the unmodified peptide conjugated to BSA. Site-specific phosphorylation of moesin is detected in RAW macrophages by Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence studies demonstrate that phosphorylated moesin is localized in filopodial protrusions. After pretreatment with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A, a similar effect to that seen in platelets in found, namely a substantial increase in moesin phosphorylation at 558Thr and redistribution of phospho-moesin together with F-actin into one or more ring-like structures in the cytoplasm, presumably due to binding of phosphorylated moesin to F-actin.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VL16400011

    View details for PubMedID 8831671

  • The cytoskeletal linking proteins, moesin and radixin, are upregulated by platelet-derived growth factor, but not basic fibroblast growth factor in experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Hugo, C., Hugo, C., Pichler, R., Gordon, K., Schmidt, R., Amieva, M., Couser, W. G., FURTHMAYR, H., JOHNSON, R. J. 1996; 97 (11): 2499-2508


    The expression of the two cytoskeletal linking proteins, moesin and radixin, was examined in experimental mesangial proliferative nephritis in rats (anti-Thy1 model). Moesin and radixin mRNA and protein are constitutively expressed in all cell types of normal rat glomeruli, except podocytes. In the anti-Thy1 model the expression of moesin and radixin was increased in infiltrating macrophages and in activated, alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive mesangial cells and was concentrated in the cellular extensions of mesangial cells in areas of glomerular remodelling. Studies using neutralizing antibodies demonstrated that the increase in moesin and radixin expression by mesangial cells is mediated by PDGF, but not bFGF. The increase in these cytoskeletal proteins appears to be regulated primarily (radixin) or partially (moesin) posttranscriptionally. The data suggest that PDGF mediated upregulation of the cytoskeletal proteins, moesin and radixin, is important for cell migration and other changes that accompany the coordinated restoration of glomerular architecture after injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UQ23800014

    View details for PubMedID 8647942

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC507335

  • Phosphorylation of threonine 558 in the carboxyl-terminal actin-binding domain of moesin by thrombin activation of human platelets JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Nakamura, F., Amieva, M. R., FURTHMAYR, H. 1995; 270 (52): 31377-31385


    The phosphorylation and localization of the membrane-linking protein moesin was analyzed during early activation of platelets with thrombin. Activated platelets elaborate filopodia and spread to assume flat pancake-like shapes, and moesin is localized in filopodia and cell body. In resting platelets, approximately 25% of moesin molecules are phosphorylated as shown by metabolic labeling with 32P(i) and by isoelectric focusing. Within seconds after exposure to thrombin, phosphorylation increases, reaching a maximum of 35% labeled molecules by 1 min, followed by a decrease to a new basal level within 5 min. This modification affects a single residue, Thr558, which is located within or close to a binding site for F-actin. Rapid shifts (0-100%) in the number of phosphorylated molecules are observed in the presence of inhibitors of serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases. Inhibitors affecting tyrosine phosphorylation also modulate phosphorylation at this site suggesting that the enzymes involved in the modification of Thr558 are regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Platelets respond to both extremes of modification by forming extremely long filopodia and the absence of spreading on glass. Completely phosphorylated moesin is concentrated together with F-actin in the center of the cell. The rapid modification of moesin at or near its actin-binding domain suggests a model for regulated membrane-cytoskeleton interaction during cell activation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TN44400078

    View details for PubMedID 8537411



    Moesin, a member of the talin-4.1 superfamily, is a linking protein of the submembraneous cytoskeleton. It is expressed in variable amounts in cells of different phenotypes such as macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblastic, endothelial, epithelial, and neuronal cell lines. In this report we show that moesin is not randomly distributed throughout the cortical cytoskeleton, but rather that it is concentrated in specialized microdomains. It is localized in the intracellular core of microextensions known as filopodia, microvilli, microspikes, and retraction fibers. This subcellular distribution follows closely the dynamic changes in cell shape that take place when cells attach, spread, and move spontaneously or in response to extracellular signals. This suggests a similar function for moesin in diverse cell types related to the dynamic restructuring of domains of the plasma membrane and underlying membrane skeleton. Support for this comes from studies on PC-12 cells, which respond to NGF by extending neurites and moesin is redistributed from a diffuse localization to growth cone filopodia. In fibroblastic (NIH3T3) or macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines, moesin is found in filopodia appearing at random on the cell surface soon after the cells are placed in culture, begin to attach, and spread. In polarized epithelial cells (LLC-PK1), moesin is associated with peripheral filopodia and apical microvilli. The cellular microextensions containing moesin are devoid of microtubules, focal contact proteins such as vinculin, and cortical cytoskeletal elements such as protein 4.1, but they do contain varying amounts of actin microfilaments. This localization of moesin in microextensions is not influenced by cytochalasin B. Treatment of cells with phorbolester (PMA) causes rapid cell spreading, disappearance of filopodia and retraction fibers, and moesin does not accumulate in the actin-rich lamellae that form at the cellular edges. After removal of PMA, cells retract and moesin again becomes concentrated in filopodia and retraction fibers. These studies support the hypothesis that filopodia, retraction fibers, and other microextensions of the plasma membrane are unique cellular microdomains with characteristic submembraneous components. Moesin could be involved in the dynamic restructuring of such microdomains by regulating binding interactions between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RL83100022

    View details for PubMedID 7628534



    Actin-binding proteins in bovine neutrophil plasma membranes were identified using blot overlays with 125I-labeled F-actin. Along with surface-biotinylated proteins, membranes were enriched in major actin-binding polypeptides of 78, 81, and 205 kDa. Binding was specific for F-actin because G-actin did not bind. Further, unlabeled F-actin blocked the binding of 125I-labeled F-actin whereas other acidic biopolymers were relatively ineffective. Binding also was specifically inhibited by myosin subfragment 1, but not by CapZ or plasma gelsolin, suggesting that the membrane proteins, like myosin, bind along the sides of the actin filaments. The 78- and 81-kDa polypeptides were identified as moesin and ezrin, respectively, by co-migration on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation with antibodies specific for moesin and ezrin. Although not present in detectable amounts in bovine neutrophils, radixin (a third and closely related member of this gene family) also bound 125I-labeled F-actin on blot overlays. Experiments with full-length and truncated bacterial fusion proteins localized the actin-binding site in moesin to the extreme carboxy terminus, a highly conserved sequence. Immunofluorescence micrographs of permeabilized cells and cell "footprints" showed moesin co-localization with actin at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, consistent with a role as a membrane-actin-linking protein.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QR87900002

    View details for PubMedID 7612961


    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MP59700021

    View details for PubMedID 8269991

  • CDNA SEQUENCE AND INTRACELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF HUMAN RADIXIN 78th Meeting of the Deutschen-Gesellschaft-fur-Pathologie Wilgenbus, K. K., Amieva, M., FURTHMAYR, H. GUSTAV FISCHER VERLAG. 1994: 245–245

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HG07000030

    View details for PubMedID 1573844



    The early neurogenesis of the mouse olfactory nerve, from its exist at the nasal epithelium to its entrance into the embryonic telencephalon, has been investigated by using the rapid Golgi method and electron microscopy. Previously unrecognized anatomical and possible functional interrelationships between developing olfactory nerve axons and their sheath cells have been observed: 1) at their exit from sensory epithelium (nasal compartment), 2) at their contact with the CNS surface (intracranial compartment), and 3) at their entrance into the embryonic telencephalon (central nervous tissue compartment). Based on these observations the anatomy of the mouse olfactory nerve is herein redefined. Exiting olfactory nerve axons and sheath cells from the same regions of the nasal epithelium establish an early association which is maintained up to their terminal glomerular neuropile. No disruptions have been found in either the olfactory nerve axons or in the continuity of their sheath cells from exit at the nasal epithelium to entrance into the developing olfactory bulb. Corresponding olfactory nerve axons with their sheath cells enter together and become incorporated into the developing olfactory bulb as units. Consequently, the cellular envelope of the olfactory glomerulus must be composed of olfactory sheath cells rather than of glial (astroglial) cells from the CNS. With this simple anatomical arrangement, a topographic map of the sensory epithelium could be established progressively in the developing olfactory bulb. Eventually, "regenerating" olfactory nerve axons from different nasal regions could be guided by their specific sheath cell conduits toward their target glomeruli; hence, the olfactory message may be maintained undisturbed throughout the life span of the animal. In addition, olfactory nerve axons establish synaptic-like contacts with their corresponding sheath cells prior to or during the perforation of the CNS surface. Reciprocal recognition between corresponding axons and their sheath cells at this crucial stage in their neurogenesis may play a significant role in the establishment of their terminal glomerulus. This new concept of the anatomy of the mammalian olfactory nerve should provide insights helpful in clarifying some of the still-unresolved questions regarding the structural and functional organizations of this primitive system.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AT46300010

    View details for PubMedID 2794142