Clinical Focus

  • Geriatrics
  • Internal Medicine

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Clinical Co-Chief (Interim), Stanford Section of Geriatrics (2023 - 2024)
  • Medical Director, Inpatient Geriatrics Consult Service, Stanford Health Care (2020 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • HRSA Geriatric Academic Career Award, Health Resources and Services Administration (2023)
  • Geriatrics Faculty of the Year Award, Stanford Division of Primary Care and Population Health (2021)
  • Educator of the Year Award, Stanford Division of Primary Care and Population Health (2021)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2017)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Geriatric Medicine (2018)
  • Fellowship: University of Washington Geriatric Medicine Fellowship (2018) WA
  • Residency: University of Washington Medical Center Dept of Medicine (2017) WA
  • Medical Education: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2014) MD

All Publications

  • Association Between Implementation of a Geriatric Trauma Clinical Pathway and Changes in Rates of Delirium in Older Adults With Traumatic Injury. JAMA surgery Park, C., Bharija, A., Mesias, M., Mitchell, A., Krishna, P., Storr-Street, N., Brown, A., Martin, M., Lu, A. C., Staudenmayer, K. L. 2022


    Importance: Older adults (age ≥65 years) are at risk for high rates of delirium and poor outcomes; however, how to improve outcomes is still being explored.Objective: To assess whether implementation of a geriatric trauma clinical pathway was associated with reduced rates of delirium in older adults with traumatic injury.Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective case-control study of electronic health records of patients aged 65 years or older with traumatic injury from 2018 to 2020 was conducted at a single level I trauma center. Eligible patients were age 65 years or older admitted to the trauma service and who did not undergo an operation.Intervention: The implementation of a clinical pathway based on geriatric best practices, which included order sets, guidelines, automated consultations, and escalation pathways executed by a multidisciplinary team.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was delirium. The secondary outcome was hospital length of stay. Process measures for pathway compliance were also assessed.Results: Of the 859 eligible patients, 712 patients were included in the analysis (442 [62.1%] in the baseline group; 270 [37.9%] in the postimplementation group; mean [SD] age: 81.4 [9.1] years; 394 [55.3%] were female). The mechanism of injury was not different between groups, with 247 in the baseline group (55.9%) and 162 in the postimplementation group (60.0%) (P=.43) experiencing a fall. Injuries were minor or moderate in both groups (261 in baseline group [59.0%] and 168 in postimplementation group [62.2%]; P=.87). The adjusted odds ratio for delirium in the postimplementation cohort was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.37-0.80; P<.001). Goals of care documentation improved significantly in the postimplementation cohort vs the baseline cohort with regard to documented goals of care notes (53.7% in the postimplementation cohort [145 of 270] vs 16.7% in the baseline cohort [74 of 442]; P<.001) and a shortened time to discussion from presenting to the emergency department (36 hours in the postimplementation cohort vs 50 hours in the baseline cohort; P=.03).Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, implementation of a multidisciplinary clinical pathway for injured older adults at a single level I trauma center was associated with improved care and clinical outcomes. Interventions such as these may have utility in this vulnerable population, and findings should be confirmed across multiple centers.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2022.1556

    View details for PubMedID 35675065

  • Barriers to Telemedicine Video Visits for Older Adults in Independent Living Facilities: Mixed Methods Cross-sectional Needs Assessment. JMIR aging Mao, A., Tam, L., Xu, A., Osborn, K., Sheffrin, M., Gould, C., Schillinger, E., Martin, M., Mesias, M. 2022; 5 (2): e34326


    Despite the increasing availability of telemedicine video visits during the COVID-19 pandemic, older adults have greater challenges in getting care through telemedicine.We aim to better understand the barriers to telemedicine in community-dwelling older adults to improve the access to and experience of virtual visits.We conducted a mixed methods needs assessment of older adults at two independent living facilities (sites A and B) in Northern California between September 2020 and March 2021. Voluntary surveys were distributed. Semistructured interviews were then conducted with participants who provided contact information. Surveys ascertained participants' preferred devices as well as comfort level, support, and top barriers regarding telephonic and video visits. Qualitative analysis of transcribed interviews identified key themes.Survey respondents' (N=249) average age was 84.6 (SD 6.6) years, and 76.7% (n=191) of the participants were female. At site A, 88.9% (111/125) had a bachelor's degree or beyond, and 99.2% (124/125) listed English as their preferred language. At site B, 42.9% (51/119) had a bachelor's degree or beyond, and 13.4% (16/119) preferred English, while 73.1% (87/119) preferred Mandarin. Regarding video visits, 36.5% (91/249) of all participants felt comfortable connecting with their health care team through video visits. Regarding top barriers, participants at site A reported not knowing how to connect to the platform (30/125, 24%), not being familiar with the technology (28/125, 22.4%), and having difficulty hearing (19/125, 15.2%), whereas for site B, the top barriers were not being able to speak English well (65/119, 54.6%), lack of familiarity with technology and the internet (44/119, 36.9%), and lack of interest in seeing providers outside of the clinic (42/119, 35.3%). Three key themes emerged from the follow-up interviews (n=15): (1) the perceived limitations of video visits, (2) the overwhelming process of learning the technology for telemedicine, and (3) the desire for in-person or on-demand help with telemedicine.Substantial barriers exist for older adults in connecting with their health care team through telemedicine, particularly through video visits. The largest barriers include difficulty with technology or using the video visit platform, hearing difficulty, language barriers, and lack of desire to see providers virtually. Efforts to improve telemedicine access for older adults should take into account patient perspectives.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/34326

    View details for PubMedID 35438648

  • Transient ischemic attacks characterized by RNA profiles in blood. Neurology Zhan, X., Jickling, G. C., Tian, Y., Stamova, B., Xu, H., Ander, B. P., Turner, R. J., Mesias, M., Verro, P., Bushnell, C., Johnston, S. C., Sharp, F. R. 2011; 77 (19): 1718-24


    Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) are common. Though systemic inflammation and thrombosis are associated with TIA, further study may provide insight into TIA pathophysiology and possibly lead to the development of treatments specifically targeted to TIA. We sought to determine whether gene expression profiles in blood could better characterize the proinflammatory and procoagulant states in TIA patients.RNA expression in blood of TIA patients (n = 26) was compared to vascular risk factor control subjects without symptomatic cardiovascular disease (n = 26) using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Differentially expressed genes in TIA were identified by analysis of covariance and evaluated with cross-validation and functional analyses.Patients with TIA had different patterns of gene expression compared to controls. There were 480 probe sets, corresponding to 449 genes, differentially expressed between TIA and controls (false discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons, p ≤ 0.05, absolute fold change ≥1.2). These genes were associated with systemic inflammation, platelet activation, and prothrombin activation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the identified genes suggested the presence of 2 patterns of RNA expression in patients with TIA. Prediction analysis identified a set of 34 genes that discriminated TIA from controls with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity.Patients with recent TIA have differences of gene expression in blood compared to controls. The 2 gene expression profiles associated with TIA suggests heterogeneous responses between subjects with TIA that may provide insight into cause, risk of stroke, and other TIA pathophysiology.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318236eee6

    View details for PubMedID 21998319

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3208953

  • Signatures of cardioembolic and large-vessel ischemic stroke. Annals of neurology Jickling, G. C., Xu, H., Stamova, B., Ander, B. P., Zhan, X., Tian, Y., Liu, D., Turner, R. J., Mesias, M., Verro, P., Khoury, J., Jauch, E. C., Pancioli, A., Broderick, J. P., Sharp, F. R. 2010; 68 (5): 681-92


    The cause of stroke remains unknown or cryptogenic in many patients. We sought to determine whether gene expression signatures in blood can distinguish between cardioembolic and large-vessel causes of stroke, and whether these profiles can predict stroke etiology in the cryptogenic group.A total of 194 samples from 76 acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. RNA was isolated from blood and run on Affymetrix U133 Plus2.0 microarrays. Genes that distinguish large-vessel from cardioembolic stroke were determined at 3, 5, and 24 hours following stroke onset. Predictors were evaluated using cross-validation and a separate set of patients with known stroke subtype. The cause of cryptogenic stroke was predicted based on a model developed from strokes of known cause and identified predictors.A 40-gene profile differentiated cardioembolic stroke from large-vessel stroke with >95% sensitivity and specificity. A separate 37-gene profile differentiated cardioembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation from nonatrial fibrillation causes with >90% sensitivity and specificity. The identified genes elucidate differences in inflammation between stroke subtypes. When applied to patients with cryptogenic stroke, 17% are predicted to be large-vessel and 41% to be cardioembolic stroke. Of the cryptogenic strokes predicted to be cardioembolic, 27% were predicted to have atrial fibrillation.Gene expression signatures distinguish cardioembolic from large-vessel causes of ischemic stroke. These gene profiles may add valuable diagnostic information in the management of patients with stroke of unknown etiology though they need to be validated in future independent, large studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ana.22187

    View details for PubMedID 21031583

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2967466