Bio


Fringer's research focuses on the development and application of numerical models and high-performance computational techniques to the study of fundamental processes that influence the dynamics of the coastal ocean, rivers, lakes, and estuaries.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • South Africa Teaching Fellow, Department of African and African-American Studies, Stanford University (2002-2003)
  • Frederick A. Howes Scholar in Computational Science, Department of Energy (2003)
  • Young Investigator Award, Office of Naval Research (2008)
  • Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineer, National Science Foundation (2009)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Stanford University, Civil and Environmental Engineering (2003)
  • MS, Stanford University, Aeronautics and Astronautics (1996)
  • BSE, Princeton, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (1995)

2013-14 Courses


Journal Articles


  • Mitigating horizontal divergence "checker-board" oscillations on unstructured triangular C-grids for nonlinear hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic flows OCEAN MODELLING Wolfram, P. J., Fringer, O. B. 2013; 69: 64-78
  • Numerical diffusion for flow-aligned unstructured grids with application to estuarine modeling INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Holleman, R., Fringer, O., Stacey, M. 2013; 72 (11): 1117-1145

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fld.3774

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321445700001

  • Dynamics of barotropic low-frequency fluctuations in San Francisco Bay during upwelling CONTINENTAL SHELF RESEARCH Sankaranarayanan, S., Fringer, O. B. 2013; 65: 81-96
  • Stability and consistency of nonhydrostatic free-surface models using the semi-implicit theta-method INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Vitousek, S., Fringer, O. B. 2013; 72 (5): 550-582

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fld.3755

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318511300003

  • Moving grid method for numerical simulation of stratified flows INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Koltakov, S., Fringer, O. B. 2013; 71 (12): 1524-1545

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fld.3724

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316626400004

  • Nearshore internal bores and turbulent mixing in southern Monterey Bay JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS Walter, R. K., Woodson, C. B., Arthur, R. S., Fringer, O. B., Monismith, S. G. 2012; 117
  • Examining Breaking Internal Waves on a Shelf Slope Using Numerical Simulations OCEANOGRAPHY Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Fringer, O. B. 2012; 25 (2): 132-139
  • REGIONAL MODELS OF INTERNAL TIDES OCEANOGRAPHY Carter, G. S., Fringer, O. B., Zaron, E. D. 2012; 25 (2): 56-65
  • Frontogenesis and Frontal Progression of a Trapping-Generated Estuarine Convergence Front and Its Influence on Mixing and Stratification ESTUARIES AND COASTS Giddings, S. N., Fong, D. A., Monismith, S. G., Chickadel, C. C., Edwards, K. A., Plant, W. J., Wang, B., Fringer, O. B., Horner-Devine, A. R., Jessup, A. T. 2012; 35 (2): 665-681
  • Energetics of Barotropic and Baroclinic Tides in the Monterey Bay Area JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Kang, D., Fringer, O. 2012; 42 (2): 272-290
  • Modeling and Prediction of Internal Waves in the South China Sea OCEANOGRAPHY Simmons, H., Chang, M., Chang, Y., Chao, S., Fringer, O., Jackson, C. R., Ko, D. S. 2011; 24 (4): 88-99
  • Large-eddy simulation of starting buoyant jets ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS Wang, R., Law, A. W., Adams, E. E., Fringer, O. B. 2011; 11 (6): 591-609
  • Numerical modeling of aquaculture dissolved waste transport in a coastal embayment ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Ku, H., Fringer, O. B., Chiu, A., Naylor, R. L., Koseff, J. R. 2011; 11 (4): 329-352
  • Three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic numerical simulation of nonlinear internal wave generation and propagation in the South China Sea JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS Zhang, Z., Fringer, O. B., Ramp, S. R. 2011; 116
  • Modeling Exposure Close to Air Pollution Sources in Naturally Ventilated Residences: Association of Turbulent Diffusion Coefficient with Air Change Rate ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Cheng, K., Acevedo-Bolton, V., Jiang, R., Klepeis, N. E., Ott, W. R., Fringer, O. B., Hildemann, L. M. 2011; 45 (9): 4016-4022

    Abstract

    For modeling exposure close to an indoor air pollution source, an isotropic turbulent diffusion coefficient is used to represent the average spread of emissions. However, its magnitude indoors has been difficult to assess experimentally due to limitations in the number of monitors available. We used 30-37 real-time monitors to simultaneously measure CO at different angles and distances from a continuous indoor point source. For 11 experiments involving two houses, with natural ventilation conditions ranging from <0.2 to >5 air changes per h, an eddy diffusion model was used to estimate the turbulent diffusion coefficients, which ranged from 0.001 to 0.013 m² s?¹. The model reproduced observed concentrations with reasonable accuracy over radial distances of 0.25-5.0 m. The air change rate, as measured using a SF? tracer gas release, showed a significant positive linear correlation with the air mixing rate, defined as the turbulent diffusion coefficient divided by a squared length scale representing the room size. The ability to estimate the indoor turbulent diffusion coefficient using two readily measurable parameters (air change rate and room dimensions) is useful for accurately modeling exposures in close proximity to an indoor pollution source.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es103080p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289819400033

    View details for PubMedID 21456572

  • Modeling and understanding turbulent mixing in a macrotidal salt wedge estuary JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS Wang, B., Giddings, S. N., Fringer, O. B., Gross, E. S., Fong, D. A., Monismith, S. G. 2011; 116
  • Reconstruction of vector fields for semi-Lagrangian advection on unstructured, staggered grids OCEAN MODELLING Wang, B., Zhao, G., Fringer, O. B. 2011; 40 (1): 52-71
  • Physical vs. numerical dispersion in nonhydrostatic ocean modeling OCEAN MODELLING Vitousek, S., Fringer, O. B. 2011; 40 (1): 72-86
  • Sensitivity analysis of three-dimensional salinity simulations in North San Francisco Bay using the unstructured-grid SUNTANS model OCEAN MODELLING Chua, V. P., Fringer, O. B. 2011; 39 (3-4): 332-350
  • On the Calculation of Available Potential Energy in Internal Wave Fields JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Kang, D., Fringer, O. 2010; 40 (11): 2539-2545
  • A model for the simulation of coupled flow-bed form evolution in turbulent flows JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS Chou, Y., Fringer, O. B. 2010; 115
  • Mechanistic Modeling of Broth Temperature in Outdoor Photobioreactors ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Bechet, Q., Shilton, A., Fringer, O. B., Munoz, R., Guieysse, B. 2010; 44 (6): 2197-2203

    Abstract

    This study presents the first mechanistic model describing broth temperature in column photobioreactors as a function of static (location, reactor geometry) and dynamic (light irradiance, air temperature, wind velocity) parameters. Based on a heat balance on the liquid phase the model predicted temperature in a pneumatically agitated column photobioreactor (1 m(2) illuminated area, 0.19 m internal diameter, 50 L gas-free cultivation broth) operated outdoor in Singapore to an accuracy of 2.4 °C at the 95% confidence interval over the entire data set used (104 measurements from 7 different batches). Solar radiation (0 to 200 W) and air convection (-30 to 50 W)were the main contributors to broth temperature change. The model predicted broth temperature above 40 °C will be reached during summer months in the same photobioreactor operated in California, a value well over the maximum temperature tolerated by most commercial algae species. Accordingly, 18,000 and 5500 GJ year(-1) ha(-1) of heat energy must be removed to maintain broth temperature at or below 25 and 35 °C, respectively, assuming a reactor density of one reactor per square meter. Clearly, the significant issue of temperature control must be addressed when evaluating the technical feasibility, costs, and sustainability of large-scale algae production.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es903214u

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275325600051

    View details for PubMedID 20178334

  • Consistent discretization for simulations of flows with moving generalized curvilinear coordinates INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Chou, Y. J., Fringer, O. B. 2010; 62 (7): 802-826

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fld.2046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274876500006

  • Simulations of shear instabilities in interfacial gravity waves JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS Barad, M. F., Fringer, O. B. 2010; 644: 61-95
  • Buoyant formation number of a starting buoyant jet PHYSICS OF FLUIDS Wang, R., Law, A. W., Adams, E. E., Fringer, O. B. 2009; 21 (12)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3275849

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273216700021

  • Remotely sensed river surface features compared with modeling and in situ measurements JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS Plant, W. J., Branch, R., Chatham, G., Chickadel, C. C., Hayes, K., Hayworth, B., Horner-Devine, A., Jessup, A., Fong, D. A., Fringer, O. B., Giddings, S. N., Monismith, S., Wang, B. 2009; 114
  • The variability of the large-amplitude internal wave field on the Australian North West Shelf CONTINENTAL SHELF RESEARCH Van Gastel, P., Ivey, G. N., Meuleners, M. J., Antenucci, J. P., Fringer, O. 2009; 29 (11-12): 1373-1383
  • High-resolution simulations of a macrotidal estuary using SUNTANS OCEAN MODELLING Wang, B., Fringer, O. B., Giddings, S. N., Fong, D. A. 2009; 26 (1-2): 60-85
  • High-resolution simulations of a macrotidal estuary using SUNTANS OCEAN MODELLING Wang, B., Fringer, O. B., Giddings, S. N., Fong, D. A. 2009; 28 (1-3): 167-192
  • Modeling dilute sediment suspension using large-eddy simulation with a dynamic mixed model PHYSICS OF FLUIDS Chou, Y., Fringer, O. B. 2008; 20 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3005863

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261213300019

  • High-Resolution Simulations of Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves in the South China Sea PROCEEDINGS OF THE HPCMP USERS GROUP CONFERENCE 2008 Fringer, O. B., Zhang, Z. 2008: 43-46
  • On the formation and propagation of nonlinear internal boluses across a shelf break JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Fringer, O. B. 2007; 577: 137-159
  • Numerical simulations of the interaction of internal waves with a shelf break PHYSICS OF FLUIDS Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Fringer, O. B. 2006; 18 (7)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2221863

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239424200034

  • Numerical simulation of internal tides and the resulting energetics within Monterey Bay and the surrounding area GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Jachec, S. M., Fringer, O. B., Gerritsen, M. G., Street, R. L. 2006; 33 (12)
  • Efficient computation of the nonhydrostatic pressure PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTEENTH (2006) INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE AND POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL 3 Kang, D., Fringer, O. B. 2006: 414-419
  • An unstructured-grid, finite-volume, nonhydrostatic, parallel coastal ocean simulator OCEAN MODELLING Fringer, O. B., Gerritsen, M., Street, R. L. 2006; 14 (3-4): 139-173
  • Internal wave energetics on a shelf break PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTEENTH (2006) INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE AND POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL 3 Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Fringer, O. B. 2006: 473-480
  • Effects of grid resolution on the simulation of internal tides PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTEENTH (2006) INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE AND POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL 3 Jachec, S. M., Fringer, O. B., Street, R. L., Gerritsen, M. G. 2006: 432-438
  • Reducing numerical diffusion in interfacial gravity wave simulations INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Fringer, O. B., Armfield, S. W., Street, R. L. 2005; 49 (3): 301-329

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fld.993

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231890800003

  • Nonhydrostatic and nonlinear contributions to the energy flux budget in nonlinear internal waves GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Fringer, O. B. 2005; 32 (15)
  • The dynamics of breaking progressive interfacial waves JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS Fringer, O. B., Street, R. L. 2003; 494: 319-353
  • Integrable vs. nonintegrable geodesic soliton behavior PHYSICA D-NONLINEAR PHENOMENA Fringer, O. B., Holm, D. D. 2001; 150 (3-4): 237-263

Conference Proceedings


  • Analysis of stratified flow and separation over complex bathymetry in a field-scale estuarine model Fringer, O., B., Wang, B. 2011
  • The determination of formation number for starting buoyant jet Wang, R., Q., Law, A. W., K., Adams, E., E., Fringer, O., B. 2010

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3452156.

  • Large-Eddy Simulation of Starting Buoyant Jets Wang, R., Q., Law, A. W., K., Adams, E., E., Fringer, O., B. 2009
  • Effects of grid resolution on the simulation of internal tides Jachec, S. M., Fringer, O. B., Street, R. L., Gerritsen, M. G. INT SOC OFFSHORE POLAR ENGINEERS. 2007: 105-111
  • Internal wave energetics on a shelf break Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Fringer, O. B. INT SOC OFFSHORE POLAR ENGINEERS. 2007: 22-29
  • Simulations of mixing and transport of dissolved wasted discharged from an aquaculture pen Venayagamoorthy, S., K., Fringer, O., B., Koseff, J., R., Naylor, R., L. 2007
  • Modeling the dynamics of the Snohomish River Estuary with a finite volume, unstructured-grid parallel coastal ocean simulator Wang, B., Fringer, O., B. 2007
  • Modeling Sediment Suspension in High Reynolds Number Flow Using Large Eddy Simulation Chou, Y., J., Fringer, O., B. 2007
  • Numerical simulations of shear instabilities in open-ocean internal gravity waves Barad, M., F., Fringer, O., B. 2007
  • The dynamics of breaking internal gravity waves over a shelf break Venayagamoorthy, S., K., Fringer, O., B. 2006
  • Multiscale simulations of internal gravity waves Barad, M., F., Fringer, O., B., Colella, P. 2006
  • The Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Nature of Internal Waves Entering Monterey Submarine Canyon Jachec, S., M., Fringer, O., B., Gerritsen, M., Street, R., L. 2006
  • Coupled ROMS-SUNTANS simulations of highly nonlinear internal gravity waves on the Australian northwest shelf Fringer, O., B., Gross, E., S., Meuleners, M., Ivey, G., N. 2006
  • A Numerical Study of Nonlinear Internal Wave Generation in the Luzon Strait Zhang, Z., Fringer, O., B. 2006
  • An unstructured immersed boundary method for simulation of flow over complex topography Chou, Y., Fringer, O., B. 2005
  • Time accuracy for pressure methods for nonhydrostatic free-surface flows Kang, D., Fringer, O., B. 2005
  • Energy partitioning in breaking internal waves on slopes Venayagamoorthy, S., K., Fringer, O., B. edited by Lee, J.H., W., Lam, K., M. 2004
  • Internal waves in Monterey Bay: An application of SUNTANS Fringer, O., B., Gerritsen, M., Street, R., L. edited by Lee, J.H., W., Lam, K., M. 2004
  • A nonstaggered curvilinear grid pressure correction method applied to interfacial waves Fringer, O., B., Armfield, S., W., Street, R., L. 2003
  • The dynamics of breaking progressive interfacial waves Fringer, O., B., Street, R., L. 2001
  • Direct numerical simulation of unstable finite amplitude progressive interfacial waves Fringer, O., B., Armfield, S., W., Street, R., L. 2000