Education & Certifications

  • M.S., Stanford University, Stanford, CA, Bioengineering
  • B.Eng. (Hons.), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

All Publications

  • Integrated "lab-on-a-chip" microfluidic systems for isolation, enrichment, and analysis of cancer biomarkers. Lab on a chip Surappa, S., Multani, P., Parlatan, U., Sinawang, P. D., Kaifi, J., Akin, D., Demirci, U. 2023


    The liquid biopsy has garnered considerable attention as a complementary clinical tool for the early detection, molecular characterization and monitoring of cancer over the past decade. In contrast to traditional solid biopsy techniques, liquid biopsy offers a less invasive and safer alternative for routine cancer screening. Recent advances in microfluidic technologies have enabled handling of liquid biopsy-derived biomarkers with high sensitivity, throughput, and convenience. The integration of these multi-functional microfluidic technologies into a 'lab-on-a-chip' offers a powerful solution for processing and analyzing samples on a single platform, thereby reducing the complexity, bio-analyte loss and cross-contamination associated with multiple handling and transfer steps in more conventional benchtop workflows. This review critically addresses recent developments in integrated microfluidic technologies for cancer detection, highlighting isolation, enrichment, and analysis strategies for three important sub-types of cancer biomarkers: circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA and exosomes. We first discuss the unique characteristics and advantages of the various lab-on-a-chip technologies developed to operate on each biomarker subtype. This is then followed by a discussion on the challenges and opportunities in the field of integrated systems for cancer detection. Ultimately, integrated microfluidic platforms form the core of a new class of point-of-care diagnostic tools by virtue of their ease-of-operation, portability and high sensitivity. Widespread availability of such tools could potentially result in more frequent and convenient screening for early signs of cancer at clinical labs or primary care offices.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d2lc01076c

    View details for PubMedID 37314731

  • Methods to Evaluate Changes in Mitochondrial Structure and Function in Cancer. Cancers Rickard, B. P., Overchuk, M., Chappell, V. A., Kemal Ruhi, M., Sinawang, P. D., Nguyen Hoang, T. T., Akin, D., Demirci, U., Franco, W., Fenton, S. E., Santos, J. H., Rizvi, I. 2023; 15 (9)


    Mitochondria are regulators of key cellular processes, including energy production and redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with various human diseases, including cancer. Importantly, both structural and functional changes can alter mitochondrial function. Morphologic and quantifiable changes in mitochondria can affect their function and contribute to disease. Structural mitochondrial changes include alterations in cristae morphology, mitochondrial DNA integrity and quantity, and dynamics, such as fission and fusion. Functional parameters related to mitochondrial biology include the production of reactive oxygen species, bioenergetic capacity, calcium retention, and membrane potential. Although these parameters can occur independently of one another, changes in mitochondrial structure and function are often interrelated. Thus, evaluating changes in both mitochondrial structure and function is crucial to understanding the molecular events involved in disease onset and progression. This review focuses on the relationship between alterations in mitochondrial structure and function and cancer, with a particular emphasis on gynecologic malignancies. Selecting methods with tractable parameters may be critical to identifying and targeting mitochondria-related therapeutic options. Methods to measure changes in mitochondrial structure and function, with the associated benefits and limitations, are summarized.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/cancers15092564

    View details for PubMedID 37174030

  • Review of HIV Self Testing Technologies and Promising Approaches for the Next Generation. Biosensors Bacon, A., Wang, W., Lee, H., Umrao, S., Sinawang, P. D., Akin, D., Khemtonglang, K., Tan, A., Hirshfield, S., Demirci, U., Wang, X., Cunningham, B. T. 2023; 13 (2)


    The ability to self-test for HIV is vital to preventing transmission, particularly when used in concert with HIV biomedical prevention modalities, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In this paper, we review recent developments in HIV self-testing and self-sampling methods, and the potential future impact of novel materials and methods that emerged through efforts to develop more effective point-of-care (POC) SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. We address the gaps in existing HIV self-testing technologies, where improvements in test sensitivity, sample-to-answer time, simplicity, and cost are needed to enhance diagnostic accuracy and widespread accessibility. We discuss potential paths toward the next generation of HIV self-testing through sample collection materials, biosensing assay techniques, and miniaturized instrumentation. We discuss the implications for other applications, such as self-monitoring of HIV viral load and other infectious diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/bios13020298

    View details for PubMedID 36832064

  • Robotic Pill for Biomarker and Fluid Sampling in the Gastrointestinal Tract ADVANCED INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS Soto, F., Purcell, E., Ozen, M., Sinawang, P., Wang, J., Akin, D., Demirci, U. 2022
  • Progress and challenges in biomarker enrichment for cancer early detection Progress in Biomedical Engineering Sinawang, P., Soto, F., Ozen, M. O., Akin, D., Demirci, U. 2021; 3 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1088/2516-1091/ac1ea3

  • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Fenestrated Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Compared With Open Surgical Repair for Patients With Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms George, E. L., Nardacci, L., Sinawang, P., Rao, I., Owens, D. K., Garcia-Toca, M. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2019: E244–E245
  • TEMPO-based immuno-lateral flow quantitative detection of dengue NS1 protein SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL Sinawang, P., Fajs, L., Elouarzaki, K., Nugraha, J., Marks, R. S. 2018; 259: 354–63
  • Photoinducible silane diazirine as an effective crosslinker in the construction of a chemiluminescent immunosensor targeting a model E. coli analyte SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL Ye, K., Sinawang, P., Tok, A., Marks, R. S. 2018; 256: 234–42
  • Rapid and label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor for detecting hepatitis A virus BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS Manzano, M., Viezzi, S., Mazerat, S., Marks, R. S., Vidic, J. 2018; 100: 89–95


    Diagnostic systems that can deliver highly specific and sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food and water are of particular interest in many fields including food safety, biosecurity and control of outbreaks. Our aim was the development of an electrochemical method based on DNA hybridization to detect HAV. A ssDNA probe specific for HAV (capture probe) was designed and tested on DNAs from various viral and bacterial samples using Nested-Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (nRT-PCR). To develop the electrochemical device, a disposable gold electrode was functionalized with the specific capture probe and tested on complementary ssDNA and on HAV cDNA. The DNA hybridization on the electrode was measured through the monitoring of the oxidative peak potential of the indicator tripropylamine by cyclic voltammetry. To prevent non-specific binding the gold surface was treated with 3% BSA before detection. High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed the efficiency of electrode functionalization and on-electrode hybridization. The proposed device showed a limit of detection of 0.65pM for the complementary ssDNA and 6.94fg/µL for viral cDNA. For a comparison, nRT-PCR quantified the target HAV cDNA with a limit of detection of 6.4fg/µL. The DNA-sensor developed can be adapted to a portable format to be adopted as an easy-to- use and low cost method for screening HAV in contaminated food and water. In addition, it can be useful for rapid control of HAV infections as it takes only a few minutes to provide the results.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2017.08.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000416187600013

    View details for PubMedID 28865923

  • Electrochemical impedimetric detection of stroke biomarker NT-proBNP using disposable screen-printed gold electrodes EUROBIOTECH JOURNAL Sinawang, P., Harpaz, D., Fajs, L., Seet, R., Tok, A., Marks, R. S. 2017; 1 (2): 165–76
  • Electrochemical lateral flow immunosensor for detection and quantification of dengue NS1 protein BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS Sinawang, P., Rai, V., Ionescu, R. E., Marks, R. S. 2016; 77: 400–408


    An Electrochemical Lateral Flow Immunosensor (ELFI) is developed combining screen-printed gold electrodes (SPGE) enabling quantification together with the convenience of a lateral flow test strip. A cellulose glassy fiber paper conjugate pad retains the marker immunoelectroactive nanobeads which will bind to the target analyte of interest. The specific immunorecognition event continues to occur along the lateral flow bed until reaching the SPGE-capture antibodies at the end of the cellulosic lateral flow strip. The rationale of the immunoassay consists in the analyte antigen NS1 protein being captured selectively and specifically by the dengue NS1 antibody conjugated onto the immunonanobeads thus forming an immunocomplex. With the aid of a running buffer, the immunocomplexes flow and reach the immuno-conjugated electrode surface and form specific sandwich-type detection due to specific, molecular recognition, while unbound beads move along past the electrodes. The successful sandwich immunocomplex formation is then recorded electrochemically. Specific detection of NS1 is translated into an electrochemical signal contributed by a redox label present on the bead-immobilized detection dengue NS1 antibody while a proportional increase of faradic current is observed with increase in analyte NS1 protein concentration. The first generation ELFI prototype is simply assembled in a cassette and successfully demonstrates wide linear range over a concentration range of 1-25 ng/mL with an ultrasensitive detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL for the qualitative and quantitative detection of analyte dengue NS1 protein.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2015.09.048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000366766900058

    View details for PubMedID 26433352

  • Lateral Flow Immunoassays - from Paper Strip to Smartphone Technology ELECTROANALYSIS Eltzov, E., Guttel, S., Kei, A., Sinawang, P., Ionescu, R. E., Marks, R. S. 2015; 27 (9): 2116–30
  • Optimizing aerosolization efficiency of dry-powder aggregates of thermally-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles produced by spray-freeze-drying POWDER TECHNOLOGY Kho, K., Hadinoto, K. 2011; 214 (1): 169–76