A two-step actin polymerization mechanism drives dendrite branching.
2021; 16 (1): 3
BACKGROUND: Dendrite morphogenesis plays an essential role in establishing the connectivity and receptive fields of neurons during the development of the nervous system. To generate the diverse morphologies of branched dendrites, neurons use external cues and cell surface receptors to coordinate intracellular cytoskeletal organization; however, the molecular mechanisms of how this signaling forms branched dendrites are not fully understood.METHODS: We performed in vivo time-lapse imaging of the PVD neuron in C. elegans in several mutants of actin regulatory proteins, such as the WAVE Regulatory Complex (WRC) and UNC-34 (homolog of Enabled/Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (Ena/VASP)). We examined the direct interaction between the WRC and UNC-34 and analyzed the localization of UNC-34 in vivo using transgenic worms expressing UNC-34 fused to GFP.RESULTS: We identify a stereotyped sequence of morphological events during dendrite outgrowth in the PVD neuron in C. elegans. Specifically, local increases in width ("swellings") give rise to filopodia to facilitate a "rapid growth and pause" mode of growth. In unc-34 mutants, filopodia fail to form but swellings are intact. In WRC mutants, dendrite growth is largely absent, resulting from a lack of both swelling and filopodia formation. We also found that UNC-34 can directly bind to the WRC. Disrupting this binding by deleting the UNC-34 EVH1 domain prevented UNC-34 from localizing to swellings and dendrite tips, resulting in a stunted dendritic arbor and reduced filopodia outgrowth.CONCLUSIONS: We propose that regulators of branched and linear F-actin cooperate to establish dendritic branches. By combining our work with existing literature, we propose that the dendrite guidance receptor DMA-1 recruits the WRC, which polymerizes branched F-actin to generate "swellings" on a mother dendrite. Then, WRC recruits the actin elongation factor UNC-34/Ena/VASP to initiate growth of a new dendritic branch from the swelling, with the help of the actin-binding protein UNC-115/abLIM. Extension of existing dendrites also proceeds via swelling formation at the dendrite tip followed by UNC-34-mediated outgrowth. Following dendrite initiation and extension, the stabilization of branches by guidance receptors further recruits WRC, resulting in an iterative process to build a complex dendritic arbor.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s13064-021-00154-0
View details for PubMedID 34281597
The Golgi Outpost Protein TPPP Nucleates Microtubules and Is Critical for Myelination.
Oligodendrocytes extend elaborate microtubule arbors that contact up to 50 axon segments per cell, then spiral around myelin sheaths, penetrating from outer to inner layers. However, how they establish this complex cytoarchitecture is unclear. Here, we show that oligodendrocytes contain Golgi outposts, an organelle that can function as an acentrosomal microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). We identify a specific marker for Golgi outposts-TPPP (tubulin polymerization promoting protein)-that we use to purify this organelle and characterize its proteome. In in vitro cell-free assays, recombinant TPPP nucleates microtubules. Primary oligodendrocytes from Tppp knockout (KO) mice have aberrant microtubule branching, mixed microtubule polarity, and shorter myelin sheaths when cultured on 3-dimensional (3D) microfibers. Tppp KO mice exhibit hypomyelination with shorter, thinner myelin sheaths and motor coordination deficits. Together, our data demonstrate that microtubule nucleation outside the cell body at Golgi outposts by TPPP is critical for elongation of the myelin sheath.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.025
View details for PubMedID 31522887
SAP102 regulates synaptic AMPAR function through a CNIH-2-dependent mechanism
JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
2018; 120 (4): 1578–86
The postsynaptic density (PSD)-95-like, disk-large (DLG) membrane-associated guanylate kinase (PSD/DLG-MAGUK) family of proteins scaffold α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) complexes to the postsynaptic compartment and are postulated to orchestrate activity-dependent modulation of synaptic AMPAR functions. SAP102 is a key member of this family, present from early development, before PSD-95 and PSD-93, and throughout life. Here we investigate the role of SAP102 in synaptic transmission using a cell-restricted molecular replacement strategy, where SAP102 is expressed against the background of acute knockdown of endogenous PSD-95. We show that SAP102 rescues the decrease of AMPAR-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (AMPAR eEPSCs) and AMPAR miniature EPSC (AMPAR mEPSC) frequency caused by acute knockdown of PSD-95. Further analysis of the mini events revealed that PSD-95-to-SAP102 replacement but not direct manipulation of PSD-95 increases the AMPAR mEPSC decay time. SAP102-mediated rescue of AMPAR eEPSCs requires AMPAR auxiliary subunit cornichon-2, whereas cornichon-2 knockdown did not affect PSD-95-mediated regulation of AMPAR eEPSC. Combining these observations, our data elucidate that PSD-95 and SAP102 differentially influence basic synaptic properties and synaptic current kinetics potentially via different AMPAR auxiliary subunits. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Synaptic scaffold proteins postsynaptic density (PSD)-95-like, disk-large (DLG) membrane-associated guanylate kinase (PSD-MAGUKs) regulate synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) function. However, the functional diversity among different PSD-MAGUKs remains to be categorized. We show that distinct from PSD-95, SAP102 increase the AMPAR synaptic current decay time, and the effect of SAP102 on synaptic AMPAR function requires the AMPAR auxiliary subunit cornichon-2. Our data suggest that PSD-MAGUKs target and modulate different AMPAR complexes to exert specific experience-dependent modification of the excitatory circuit.
View details for DOI 10.1152/jn.00731.2017
View details for Web of Science ID 000451350100012
View details for PubMedID 30067114
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6230800
A Dendritic Guidance Receptor Complex Brings Together Distinct Actin Regulators to Drive Efficient F-Actin Assembly and Branching
2018; 45 (3): 362-+
Proper morphogenesis of dendrites plays a fundamental role in the establishment of neural circuits. The molecular mechanism by which dendrites grow highly complex branches is not well understood. Here, using the Caenorhabditis elegans PVD neuron, we demonstrate that high-order dendritic branching requires actin polymerization driven by coordinated interactions between two membrane proteins, DMA-1 and HPO-30, with their cytoplasmic interactors, the RacGEF TIAM-1 and the actin nucleation promotion factor WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). The dendrite branching receptor DMA-1 directly binds to the PDZ domain of TIAM-1, while the claudin-like protein HPO-30 directly interacts with the WRC. On dendrites, DMA-1 and HPO-30 form a receptor-associated signaling complex to bring TIAM-1 and the WRC to close proximity, leading to elevated assembly of F-actin needed to drive high-order dendrite branching. The synergistic activation of F-actin assembly by scaffolding distinct actin regulators might represent a general mechanism in promoting complex dendrite arborization.
View details for PubMedID 29738713
- Shank Proteins Differentially Regulate Synaptic Transmission (vol 4, e0163-15.2017, 2017) ENEURO 2018; 5 (1)
Dissecting the Role of P/Q-Type Calcium Channels in Corticothalamic Circuit Dysfunction and Absence Epilepsy.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
2016; 36 (21): 5677–79
View details for PubMedID 27225758
Differential requirement for NMDAR activity in SAP97 beta-mediated regulation of the number and strength of glutamatergic AMPAR-containing synapses
JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
2014; 111 (3): 648-658
PSD-95-like, disc-large (DLG) family membrane-associated guanylate kinase proteins (PSD/DLG-MAGUKs) are essential for regulating synaptic AMPA receptor (AMPAR) function and activity-dependent trafficking of AMPARs. Using a molecular replacement strategy to replace endogenous PSD-95 with SAP97β, we show that the prototypic β-isoform of the PSD-MAGUKs, SAP97β, has distinct NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent roles in regulating basic properties of AMPAR-containing synapses. SAP97β enhances the number of AMPAR-containing synapses in an NMDAR-dependent manner, whereas its effect on the size of unitary synaptic response is not fully dependent on NMDAR activity. These effects contrast with those of PSD-95α, which increases both the number of AMPAR-containing synapses and the size of unitary synaptic responses, with or without NMDAR activity. Our results suggest that SAP97β regulates synaptic AMPAR content by increasing surface expression of GluA1-containing AMPARs, whereas PSD-95α enhances synaptic AMPAR content presumably by increasing the synaptic scaffold capacity for synaptic AMPARs. Our approach delineates discrete effects of different PSD-MAGUKs on principal properties of glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Our results suggest that the molecular diversity of PSD-MAGUKs can provide rich molecular substrates for differential regulation of glutamatergic synapses in the brain.
View details for DOI 10.1152/jn.00262.2013
View details for Web of Science ID 000331215500019
View details for PubMedID 24225540
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3921414