Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Radiology
  • Fetal Imaging

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Associate Chairman, Stanford University School of Medicine - Radiology (1992 - Present)
  • Radiologist-In- Chief, Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital at Stanford (2003 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Outstanding Alumni Award, UCSF Radiology Department Alumnus of the Year (2009)
  • 2nd Vice President and Board of Directors, Society for Pediatric Radiology (2010)
  • Presidential Recognition Award, Society for Pediatric Radiology (2010)
  • President, SCORCH (Society of Chairmen of Radiology Departments at Children's Hospitals (2010-2011)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Chair, Commission on Pediatric Radiology, American College of Radiology (2018 - Present)
  • Board of Chancellors, American College of Radiology (2018 - Present)
  • Board of Directors, Society for Pediatric Radiology (2012 - Present)
  • Board of Directors, World Federation of Pediatric Imaging (2017 - Present)
  • Board, Academy for Radiology Research (2016 - Present)
  • Chair, Radiology Advisory Committee, US News Best Chldren's Hospital Survey (2016 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Residency: UCSF Dept of Radiology (1980) CA
  • Fellowship: Boston Children's Hospital (1981) MA
  • Medical Education: Rosalind Franklin University The Chicago Medical School (1975) IL
  • Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology (1980)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Pediatric Radiology (1995)
  • Internship: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (1977) CA

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Sonographic diagnosis of fetal anomalies.
Focus interest in the diagnosis and conservative (non-surgical and minimal radiation) management of congenital broncho pulmonary malformations.
Imaging of appendicitis in children.
Sonography of the pediatric testis.

2023-24 Courses

All Publications

  • Perspective: Author's Reply. Academic radiology Farmakis, S. G., Chertoff, J. D., Straus, C. M., Barth, R. A. 2024

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2023.12.037

    View details for PubMedID 38182441

  • The 2021 ACR/RBMA Workforce Survey: Subspecialty Focus on Pediatric Radiology. Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR Farmakis, S. G., Tarrant, J., Parris, D., Markovich, D., Rubin, E., Barth, R. A. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2023.06.047

    View details for PubMedID 38072222

  • Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Management of a Fetal Pericardial Mass. NeoReviews Weigel, N., Hintz, S., Kaplinski, M., Barth, R., Balakrishnan, K., Panelli, D., Ma, M., Chitkara, R. 2023; 24 (10): e683-e689

    View details for DOI 10.1542/neo.24-10-e683

    View details for PubMedID 37777619

  • Real-time ultrasound-derived fat fraction in pediatric population: feasibility validation with MR-PDFF. Pediatric radiology Zalcman, M., Barth, R. A., Rubesova, E. 2023


    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. To avoid limitations of liver biopsy and MRI, quantitative ultrasound has become a research focus. Ultrasound-derived fat fraction (UDFF) is based on a combination of backscatter coefficient and attenuation parameter.The objectives of the study were to determine (1) agreement between UDFF/MRI proton density fat fraction (MR-PDFF) and (2) whether BMI and age are predictive for UDFF.This cross-sectional prospective study included a convenience sample of 46 children referred for clinically indicated abdominal MRI. MR-PDFF and five acquisitions of UDFF were collected. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis were used to assess agreement between MR-PDFF and UDFF. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for UDFF prediction of liver steatosis (MR-PDFF ≥ 6%). Multivariable regression was performed to assess BMI and age as predictors for UDFF.Twenty-two participants were male, 24 were female, and the mean age was 14 ± 3 (range: 7-18) years. Thirty-six out of 46 participants had normal liver fat fraction <6%, and 10/46 had liver steatosis. UDFF was positively associated with MR-PDFF (ICC 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89-0.96). The mean bias between UDFF and MR-PDFF was 0.64% (95% LOA, -5.3-6.6%). AUROC of UDFF for steatosis was of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-0.99). UDFF cutoff of 6% had a sensitivity of 90% (95% CI, 55-99%) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI, 81-0.99%). BMI was an independent predictor of UDFF (correlation: 0.55 (95% CI, 0.35-0.95)).UDFF shows strong agreement with MR-PDFF in children. A UDFF cutoff of 6% provides good sensitivity and specificity for detection of MR-PDFF of ≥ 6%.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-023-05752-0

    View details for PubMedID 37667050

    View details for PubMedCentralID 5413933

  • Use of Artificial Intelligence in Radiology: Impact on Pediatric Patients, a White Paper From the ACR Pediatric AI Workgroup. Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR Sammer, M. B., Akbari, Y. S., Barth, R. A., Blumer, S. L., Dillman, J. R., Farmakis, S. G., Frush, D., Gokli, A., Halabi, S., Iyer, R., Joshi, A., Kwon, J. K., Otero, H., Sher, A. C., Sotardi, S., Taragin, B. H., Towbin, A. J., Wald, C. 2023


    In this white paper, the ACR Pediatric AI Workgroup of the Commission on Informatics educates the radiology community about the health equity issue of the lack of pediatric artificial intelligence (AI), improves the understanding of relevant pediatric AI issues, and offers solutions to address the inadequacies in pediatric AI development. In short, the design, training, validation, and safe implementation of AI in children require careful and specific approaches that can be distinct from those used for adults. On the eve of widespread use of AI in imaging practice, the group invites the radiology community to align and join Image IntelliGently ( to ensure that the use of AI is safe, reliable, and effective for children.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2023.06.003

    View details for PubMedID 37498259

  • Treatment of Fetal Cystic Fibrosis With Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Modulation Therapy. Annals of internal medicine Blumenfeld, Y. J., Hintz, S. R., Aziz, N., Barth, R. A., Spano, J. M., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Milla, C. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.7326/L23-0112

    View details for PubMedID 37307583

  • A novel fetal MRI lung volume nomogram stratified by estimated fetal weight Gershnabel, S., Jayapal, P., Zalcman, M., Barth, R. A., Rubesova, E., Hintz, S., Zhang, J., Leonard, S. A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Blumenfeld, Y. J. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2023: S577
  • Perspective: Mandatory Radiology Education for Medical Students. Academic radiology Farmakis, S. G., Chertoff, J. D., Straus, C. M., Barth, R. A. 2022


    Radiology education of medical students is increasingly important given the intersection of radiology with virtually all medical specialties and integral role of imaging in modern patient care. Yet radiology education requirements in US medical schools are variable with only a minority of schools requiring a clerkship in radiology. When required, the radiology curriculum is often limited to anatomy courses in the preclinical years or partially incorporated into required core clerkships and often taught by nonradiologists. Given the growing mandate for value-based care and emphasis on patient outcomes, medical students require better imaging education, both interpretive and non-interpretative skills. They should be taught how to apply appropriateness criteria for exam ordering and the relative costs of different imaging modalities given the economic implications of imaging overutilization. Medical students should also be educated regarding imaging safety considerations. In addition, they must learn the radiologist's role as consultant to assure appropriate ordering of imaging studies, oversight for performance of diagnostic exams and image-guided procedures, interpretation of studies, and communication of results. Increasing radiologist teaching and engagement with medical students also has the potential to improve diversity and inclusivity in radiology by increasing interest in the specialty as physicians who identify as underrepresented minorities (URMs) are more likely to practice in underserved areas and with underserved populations thus addressing healthcare disparities and improving access to healthcare for those patient populations. Medical schools should support preclinical and clinical curricula that is designed and taught by radiologists.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2022.10.023

    View details for PubMedID 36414495

  • William H. Northway, MD (1932-2022). Pediatric radiology Vasanawala, S. S., Barth, R. A., Parker, B. R. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-022-05320-y

    View details for PubMedID 35257192

  • Starting a pediatric contrast ultrasound service: made simple! Pediatric radiology Darge, K., Back, S. J., Barth, R. A., Johnson, A. M., Kwon, J. K., McCarville, M. B., Morgan, T. A., Ntoulia, A., Poznick, L., Shellikeri, S., Srinivasan, A. S., Cahill, A. M. 2021


    The addition of contrast US to an existing pediatric US service requires several preparatory steps. This overview provides a guide to simplify the process. Initially, it is important to communicate to all stakeholders the justifications for pediatric contrast US, including (1) its comparable or better diagnostic results relative to other modalities; (2) its reduction in procedural sedation or anesthesia by avoiding MRI or CT; (3) its reduction or elimination of radiation exposure by not having to perform fluoroscopy or CT; (4) the higher safety profile of US contrast agents (UCA) compared to other contrast agents; (5) the improved exam comfort and ease inherent to US, leading to better patient and family experience, including bedside US exams for children who cannot be transported; (6) the need for another diagnostic option in light of increasing demand by parents and providers; and (7) its status as an approved and reimbursable exam. It is necessary to have an UCA incorporated into the pharmacy formulary noting that only SonoVue/Lumason is currently approved for pediatric use. In the United States this UCA is approved for intravenous administration for cardiac and liver imaging and for vesicoureteric reflux detection with intravesical application. In Europe and China it is only approved for the intravesical use in children. All other applications are off-label. The US scanner needs to be equipped with contrast-specific software. The UCA has to be prepared just before the exam and it is important to strictly follow the steps as outlined in the packaging inserts in order to prevent premature destruction of the microbubbles. The initial training in contrast US is best focused on the frontline staff actually performing the US studies; these might be sonographers, pediatric or interventional radiologists, or trainees. It is important from the outset to educate the referring physicians about contrast US. It is helpful to participate in existing contrast US courses, particularly those with hands-on components.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-021-04998-w

    View details for PubMedID 33978800

  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of blunt abdominal trauma in children. Pediatric radiology Paltiel, H. J., Barth, R. A., Bruno, C., Chen, A. E., Deganello, A., Harkanyi, Z., Henry, M. K., Kljucevsek, D., Back, S. J. 2021


    Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and rapid identification of organ injury is essential for successful treatment. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an appealing alternative to contrast-enhanced CT in the evaluation of children with blunt abdominal trauma, mainly with respect to the potential reduction of population-level exposure to ionizing radiation. This is particularly important in children, who are more vulnerable to the hazards of ionizing radiation than adults. CEUS is useful in hemodynamically stable children with isolated blunt low- to moderate-energy abdominal trauma to rule out solid organ injuries. It can also be used to further evaluate uncertain contrast-enhanced CT findings, as well as in the follow-up of conservatively managed traumatic injuries. CEUS can be used to detect abnormalities that are not apparent by conventional US, including infarcts, pseudoaneurysms and active bleeding. In this article we present the current experience from the use of CEUS for the evaluation of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma, emphasizing the examination technique and interpretation of major abnormalities associated with injuries in the liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas and testes. We also discuss the limitations of the technique and offer a review of the major literature on this topic in children, including an extrapolation of experience from adults.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-020-04869-w

    View details for PubMedID 33978795

  • Liver Fat Quantification by Ultrasound in Children: A Prospective Study. AJR. American journal of roentgenology D'Hondt, A. n., Rubesova, E. n., Xie, H. n., Shamdasani, V. n., Barth, R. A. 2021


    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children in certain regions and is rising in prevalence with increasing obesity. Accurate noninvasive imaging methods for diagnosing and quantifying liver fat are needed to guide NAFLD management. Objective: To evaluate four ultrasound technologies for quantitative assessment of liver fat content in children, using MRI proton density fat fraction (PDFF) as reference standard. Methods: This prospective study enrolled children who underwent clinical abdominal MRI without general anesthesia between November 2018 and July 2019. Patients underwent investigational liver ultrasound within a day of 1.5 or 3T MRI. Acquired ultrasound radiofrequency data were processed offline to compute acoustic attenuation coefficient, hepatorenal index (HRI), Nakagami parameter, and shear wave elastography (SWE) parameters (elasticity, viscosity and dispersion). Ultrasound parameters were compared to MRI PDFF obtained using a multi-echo sequence. A second observer independently performed offline attenuation coefficient and HRI measurements in all patients. Results: A total of 48 patients were enrolled: 22 girls, 26 boys; mean age 13 years (range, 7-17 years); mean body mass index 22.25 kg/m2 (range, 14.5-48.1 kg/m2). A total of 21% (10/48) had steatosis (PDFF >5%). PDFF was correlated with attenuation coefficient (r=0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.86, p<.001), HRI (r=0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.91, p<.001), and Nakagami parameter (r=0.55, 95% CI, 0.32-0.72, p<.001), but not SWE parameters (r=0.05-0.25; p>.05). In patients with no, mild, moderate, and severe steatosis based on PDFF, mean±SD attenuation coefficient was 0.48±0.08, 0.54±0.03, 0.57±0.04, and 0.86±0.07 dB/cm/MHz, and mean±SD HRI was 1.28±0.30, 1.59±0.23, 2.25±0.04, and 3.06±0.49. For attenuation coefficient, threshold of 0.54 dB/cm/MHz achieved sensitivity 80% and specificity 82% for steatosis, and of 0.60 dB/cm/MHz achieved sensitivity 80% and specificity 98% for moderate steatosis. For HRI, threshold of 1.48 achieved sensitivity 90% and specificity 76% for steatosis, and of 2.11 achieved sensitivity 100% and specificity 100% for moderate steatosis. Inter-observer concordance coefficient was 0.92 for attenuation coefficient and 0.91 for HRI. Conclusion: Attenuation coefficient and HRI accurately detected and quantified liver fat in this small sample of children. Clinical Impact: Quantitative ultrasound parameters may guide NAFLD diagnosis and management in children.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.20.24874

    View details for PubMedID 33438457

  • Pediatric Radiologist Workforce Shortage: Action Steps to Resolve. Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR Farmakis, S. G., Chertoff, J. D., Barth, R. A. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2021.07.026

    View details for PubMedID 34547272

  • Ultrasound shear wave elastography: does it add value to gray-scale ultrasound imaging in differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice? Pediatric radiology Sandberg, J. K., Sun, Y. n., Ju, Z. n., Liu, S. n., Jiang, J. n., Koci, M. n., Rosenberg, J. n., Rubesova, E. n., Barth, R. A. 2021


    Neonatal/infantile jaundice is relatively common, and most cases resolve spontaneously. However, in the setting of unresolved neonatal cholestasis, a prompt and accurate assessment for biliary atresia is vital to prevent poor outcomes.To determine whether shear wave elastography (SWE) alone or combined with gray-scale imaging improves the diagnostic performance of US in discriminating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice over that of gray-scale imaging alone.Infants referred for cholestatic jaundice were assessed with SWE and gray-scale US. On gray-scale US, two radiology readers assessed liver heterogeneity, presence of the triangular cord sign, hepatic artery size, presence/absence of common bile duct and gallbladder, and gallbladder shape; associated interobserver correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. SWE speeds were performed on a Siemens S3000 using 6C2 and 9 L4 transducers with both point and two-dimensional (2-D) SWE US. Both univariable and multivariable analyses were performed, as were receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and statistical significance tests (chi-squared, analysis of variance, t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum) when appropriate.There were 212 infants with biliary atresia and 106 without biliary atresia. The median shear wave speed (SWS) for biliary atresia cases was significantly higher (P<0.001) than for non-biliary-atresia cases for all acquisition modes. For reference, the median L9 point SWS was 2.1 m/s (interquartile range [IQR] 1.7-2.4 m/s) in infants with biliary atresia and 1.5 m/s (IQR 1.3-1.9 m/s) in infants without biliary atresia (P<0.001). All gray-scale US findings were significantly different between biliary-atresia and non-biliary-atresia cohorts (P<0.001), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) range 0.7-1.0. Triangular cord sign was most predictive of biliary atresia independent of other gray-scale findings or SWS - 96% specific and 88% sensitive. Multistep univariable/multivariable analysis of both gray-scale findings and SWE resulted in three groups being predictive of biliary atresia likelihood. Abnormal common bile duct/gallbladder and enlarged hepatic artery were highly predictive of biliary atresia independent of SWS (100% for girls and 95-100% for boys). Presence of both the common bile duct and the gallbladder along with a normal hepatic artery usually excluded biliary atresia independent of SWS. Other gray-scale combinations were equivocal, and including SWE improved discrimination between biliary-atresia and non-biliary-atresia cases.Shear wave elastography independent of gray-scale US significantly differentiated biliary-atresia from non-biliary-atresia cases. However, gray-scale findings were more predictive of biliary atresia than elastography. SWE was useful for differentiating biliary-atresia from non-biliary-atresia cases in the setting of equivocal gray-scale findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-021-05024-9

    View details for PubMedID 33772640

  • Clinical use of shear-wave elastography for detecting liver fibrosis in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Pediatric radiology Levitte, S. n., Lee, L. W., Isaacson, J. n., Zucker, E. J., Milla, C. n., Barth, R. A., Sellers, Z. M. 2021


    Complications from liver cirrhosis are a leading cause of death in children with cystic fibrosis. Identifying children at risk for developing liver cirrhosis and halting its progression are critical to reducing liver-associated mortality.Quantitative US imaging, such as shear-wave elastography (SWE), might improve the detection of liver fibrosis in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) over gray-scale US alone. We incorporated SWE in our pediatric CF liver disease screening program and evaluated its performance using magnetic resonance (MR) elastography.Ninety-four children and adolescents with CF underwent 178 SWE exams, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and platelet measurements. Of these, 27 children underwent 34 MR elastography exams. We evaluated SWE performance using 6-MHz and 9-MHZ point SWE, and 9-MHz two-dimensional (2-D) SWE.The 6-MHz point SWE was the only method that correlated with MR elastography (r=0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20-0.74; P=0.003). SWE of 1.45 m/s distinguished normal from abnormal MR elastography (79% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value [PPV], 55% negative predictive value [NPV], area under the receiver operating characteristic [AUROC] curve 0.94). SWE of 1.84 m/s separated mild-moderate (3.00-4.77 kPa) from severe (>4.77 kPa) MR elastography (88% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 78% PPV, 93% NPV, AUROC 0.79). Elevations of AST, ALT, GGT and thrombocytopenia were associated with higher SWE. AST-to-platelet ratio index of 0.42, fibrosis-4 of 0.29, and GGT-to-platelet ratio of 1.43 all had >95% NPV for SWE >1.84 m/s.Given its correlation with MR elastography, SWE might be a clinically useful predictor of liver fibrosis. We identified imaging criteria delineating the use of SWE to identify increased liver stiffness in children with CF. With multicenter validation, these data might be used to improve the detection and monitoring of liver fibrosis in children with CF.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-021-05015-w

    View details for PubMedID 33759025

  • Economically Motivated Patient Steerage: The Pediatric Perspective. Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR Heller, R. E., Milla, S. S., Barth, R. A. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2020.04.014

    View details for PubMedID 32413351

  • Re: "2019 ACR Commission on Human Resources Workforce Survey". Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR Farmakis, S. G., Barth, R. n. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2020.06.036

    View details for PubMedID 32910936

  • Normal values of the resistivity index of the pericallosal artery with and without compression of the anterior fontanelle. Pediatric radiology Elmfors, A. F., Sandgren, T., Ford, K., Rosenberg, J., Ringertz, H., Barth, R. A., Rubesova, E. 2019


    BACKGROUND: Resistivity index (RI) of the pericallosal artery as is commonly measured during head ultrasound (US) examination in neonates. Some studies have shown that RI measured with gentle compression of the fontanelle provides additional information in cases of neonatal brain anomalies.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish normal RI values with and without compression in a large population of neonates with normal cranial ultrasound as a function of gestational age.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors of this retrospective study reviewed the RI of 323 infants with normal gray-scale cranial US and with a gestational age ranging 26-42weeks. We conducted the exams both with and without compression of the anterior fontanelle and we studied changes in RI depending on gestational age, gender and type of delivery.RESULTS: Infants with a gestational age of more than 35weeks tended to have a lower RI (P=0.011). The compression of the anterior fontanelle emphasized the change in RI with increasing gestational age, with higher gestational ages having a lower RI (P<0.001). The results concerning the percentage change between baseline RI and RI with compression showed that infants with higher gestational ages have a smaller percentage change in RI (P=0.002).CONCLUSION: We established the normal values for RI from 26weeks to 42weeks of gestation. The results of the study show the importance of taking the gestational age into consideration when evaluating the RI.

    View details for PubMedID 30712160

  • Obstetric and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by fetal lung masses: does final histology matter? The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians Anderson, J. N., Girsen, A. I., Hintz, S. R., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Davis, A. S., Barth, R. A., Halabi, S. n., Hazard, F. K., Sylvester, K. G., Bruzoni, M. n., Blumenfeld, Y. J. 2019: 1–7


    Purpose: Fetal lung masses complicate approximately 1 in 2000 live births. Our aim was to determine whether obstetric and neonatal outcomes differ by final fetal lung mass histology.Materials and methods: A review of all pregnancies complicated by a prenatally diagnosed fetal lung mass between 2009 and 2017 at a single academic center was conducted. All cases included in the final analysis underwent surgical resection and histology diagnosis was determined by a trained pathologist. Clinical data were obtained from review of stored electronic medical records which contained linked maternal and neonatal records. Imaging records included both prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for continuous variables. The level of significance was p<.05.Results: Of 61 pregnancies complicated by fetal lung mass during the study period, 45 cases underwent both prenatal care and postnatal resection. Final histology revealed 10 cases of congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) type 1, nine cases of CPAM type 2, and 16 cases of bronchopulmonary sequestration. There was no difference in initial, maximal, or final CPAM volume ratio between groups, with median final CPAM volume ratio of 0.6 for CPAM type 1, 0.7 for CPAM type 2, and 0.3 for bronchopulmonary sequestration (p = .12). There were no differences in any of the maternal or obstetric outcomes including gestational age at delivery and mode of delivery between the groups. The primary outcome of neonatal respiratory distress was not statistically different between groups (p = .66). Median neonatal length of stay following delivery ranged from 3 to 4 days, and time to postnatal resection was similar as well, with a median of 126 days for CPAM type 1, 122 days for CPAM type 2, and 132 days for bronchopulmonary sequestration (p = .76).Conclusions: In our cohort, there was no significant association between histologic lung mass subtypes and any obstetric or neonatal morbidity including respiratory distress.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14767058.2019.1689559

    View details for PubMedID 31722592

  • New Algorithm for the Integration of Ultrasound Into Cystic Fibrosis Liver Disease Screening. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition Sellers, Z. M., Lee, L. W., Barth, R. A., Milla, C. n. 2019; 69 (4): 404–10


    Liver nodularity occurs across the spectrum of cystic fibrosis liver disease (CFLD), from regenerative nodules to cirrhosis, and can occur without liver enzyme abnormalities. Our aims were to determine if incorporating abdominal ultrasound (US) with annual laboratory testing improves the detection of CFLD and establish CF-specific thresholds for liver screening labs.CF patients at least 6 years old who were exocrine pancreatic-insufficient had an US with Doppler and shear wave elastography. Patients were divided into Normal, Echogenic, or Nodular groups, based on US findings. Results were compared with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), platelets, AST to platelet ratio index (APRI), Fibrosis 4 (FIB-4), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) to platelet ratio (GPR). Receiver operator curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and optimal cut-off with Youden Index were calculated.From 82 patients, incorporation of US identified more nodular livers than using labs alone. The Nodular group had significantly greater median AST (44), ALT (48), GGT (46), APRI (0.619), FIB-4 (0.286), GPR (1.431). Optimal cut-offs to detect liver nodularity in CF were AST >33, ALT >45, GGT >21, Platelets <230, APRI >0.367, FIB-4 >0.222, GPR >0.682. Using GGT, APRI, and GPR, we generated an algorithm to direct the use of US in CFLD screening.Using modified serum lab thresholds, addition of liver fibrosis indices, and/or abdominal US can increase detection of liver nodularity in CF. A combination of GGT, GPR, and APRI can help direct which CF children should undergo US evaluation. These tools may improve earlier identification of fibrosis and/or cirrhosis in CF patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002412

    View details for PubMedID 31181020

  • Prospective Assessment of Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography for Discriminating Biliary Atresia from other Causes of Neonatal Cholestasis. The Journal of pediatrics Dillman, J. R., DiPaola, F. W., Smith, S. J., Barth, R. A., Asai, A. n., Lam, S. n., Campbell, K. M., Bezerra, J. A., Tiao, G. M., Trout, A. T. 2019


    To prospectively assess the diagnostic performance of ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) and hepatobiliary laboratory biomarkers for discriminating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal cholestasis.Forty-one patients <3 months of age with neonatal cholestasis (direct bilirubin >2 mg/dL) and possible biliary atresia were prospectively enrolled. Both 2-dimensional (2D) and point ultrasound SWE were performed prior to knowing the final diagnosis. Median 2D (8) and point (10) shear wave speed measurements were calculated for each subject and used for analyses. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare shear wave speed and laboratory measurements between patients with and without biliary atresia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate diagnostic performance.Thirteen subjects (31.7%) were diagnosed with biliary atresia, and 28 subjects (68.3%) were diagnosed with other causes of neonatal cholestasis. Median age at the time of ultrasound SWE was 37 days. Median 2D (2.08 vs 1.49 m/s, P = .0001) and point (1.95 vs 1.21 m/s, P = .0014) ultrasound SWE measurements were significantly different between subjects with and without biliary atresia. Using a cut-off value of >1.84 m/s, 2D ultrasound SWE had a sensitivity = 92.3%, specificity = 78.6%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AuROC) of 0.89 (P < .0001). Using a cut-off value of >320 (U/L), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) had a sensitivity = 100.0%, specificity = 77.8%, and AuROC of 0.85 (P < .0001). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated an AuROC of 0.93 (P < .0001), with 2 significant covariates (2D ultrasound SWE [OR = 23.06, P = .01]; GGT [OR = 1.003, P = .036]).Ultrasound SWE and GGT can help discriminate biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal cholestasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.05.048

    View details for PubMedID 31253405

  • Predicting Pathology From Imaging in Children Undergoing Resection of Congenital Lung Lesions. The Journal of surgical research Narayan, R. R., Abadilla, N., Greenberg, D. R., Sylvester, K. G., Hintz, S. R., Barth, R. A., Bruzoni, M. 2018; 236: 68–73


    BACKGROUND: Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly obtained to define congenital lung lesions (CLL) for surgical management. Postnatal, preoperative computed tomography (CT) provides further clarity at the cost of radiation. Depending on the lesion identified, the indication for resection remains controversial. We investigated the differences in detail found on prenatal MRI and postnatal CT compared with final pathology to determine their utility in preoperative decision-making.MATERIALS AND METHODS: All children undergoing resection of CLLs at a single institution between July 2009 and February 2018 were retrospectively identified. Their imaging, operative, and pathology reports were compared. All imaging studies were examined by pediatric radiologists with experience in prenatal CLL diagnosis.RESULTS: Fifty-five patients underwent CLL resection during the study period with 31 undergoing prenatal MRI, 45 postnatal CT, and 22 both. Resection was performed before 6 mo of age in 62% of patients. In the cohort undergoing both imaging studies, pathologic CLL diagnosis correlated with prenatal MRI and CT in 82% and 100% of patients, respectively (P=0.13). Eight patients had systemic feeding vessels, of which 38% were identified on MRI, and 88% on CT (P=0.13). Both studies had a specificity of 100% for detecting systemic feeding vessels.CONCLUSIONS: For children where prenatal MRI detected a systemic feeding vessel, CT was redundant for preoperative planning but had greater sensitivity. Ultimately, the CLL type predicted from postnatal CT was not significantly different from that predicted by prenatal MRI; however, both imaging modalities had some level of discrepancy with pathology.

    View details for PubMedID 30694781

  • Utility of prenatal MRI in the evaluation and management of fetal ventriculomegaly JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Katz, J. A., Chock, V. Y., Davis, A. S., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Hahn, J. S., Barnes, P., Barth, R. A., Rubesova, E., Hintz, S. R. 2018; 38 (11): 1444–52
  • Utility of prenatal MRI in the evaluation and management of fetal ventriculomegaly. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association Katz, J. A., Chock, V. Y., Davis, A. S., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Hahn, J. S., Barnes, P., Barth, R. A., Rubesova, E., Hintz, S. R. 2018


    OBJECTIVE: Fetal ventriculomegaly may occur in isolation or as part of a broader syndrome. We aimed to determine the added value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for informing the pre-natal and postnatal care of pregnancies complicated by ventriculomegaly (VM).STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all cases of prenatally diagnosed VM referred to the fetal center at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford 1/1/2009-6/1/2014 were reviewed. Ultrasound (US) and MRI findings were reviewed, and the added yield of MRI evaluated.RESULTS: A total of 91 cases of fetal VM were identified and 74 (81%) underwent MRI. In 62/74 (84%) cases, additional CNS or non-CNS findings, not seen on US, were discovered on MRI, of which 58 were CNS-related. Forty-six (62%) of the additional findings were considered clinically relevant, of which 45 were CNS-related.CONCLUSION: Fetal MRI identifies additional, clinically relevant CNS and non-CNS findings in a majority of cases of VM following initial US.

    View details for PubMedID 30158676

  • Normal values of the resistivity index of the pericallosal artery with and without compression of the anterior fontanelle PEDIATRIC RADIOLOGY Elmfors, A., Sandgren, T., Ford, K., Rosenberg, J., Ringertz, H., Barth, R. A., Rubesova, E. 2018; 49 (5): 646–51
  • Current controversies in prenatal diagnosis 3: Fetal MRI should be performed in all prenatally detected fetuses with a major structural abnormality PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS Platt, L. D., Barth, R. A., Pugash, D. 2018; 38 (3): 166–72

    View details for PubMedID 29380869

  • Imaging before 24 weeks gestation can predict neonatal respiratory morbidity in pregnancies complicated by fetal lung masses Sherwin, K., Girsen, A. I., Halabi, S. S., Spiegel, A. M., Lee, C. J., Hintz, S. R., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Barth, R. A., Blumenfeld, Y. J. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2018: S287–S288
  • Pediatric scrotal ultrasound: review and update Alkhori, N. A., Barth, R. A. SPRINGER. 2017: 1125–33


    In this pictorial essay the authors review the normal sonographic gray-scale and Doppler appearance of the pediatric scrotum with an emphasis on technique. The authors present an update on ultrasound diagnosis and outcomes in testicular torsion and differentiation from other acute scrotal processes, as well as sonographic imaging of testicular microlithiasis and uncommon or atypical scrotal masses including splenogonadal fusion, polyorchidism, meconium peritonitis and epidermoid cyst. Further, the authors discuss testicular neoplasms in the context of testicular microlithiasis.

    View details for PubMedID 28779199

  • Impact of California Computed Tomography Dose Legislation: Survey of Radiologists JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION SCIENCES Zucker, E. J., Barth, R. A. 2017; 48 (2): 144–50
  • Impact of California Computed Tomography Dose Legislation: Survey of Radiologists. Journal of medical imaging and radiation sciences Zucker, E. J., Barth, R. A. 2017; 48 (2): 144-150


    Highly publicized accounts of radiation overdose from computed tomography (CT) in both children and adults prompted legislation in California regulating CT dose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the law (codified in Senate Bill [SB] 1237) on California radiologist practice patterns and understanding of CT dose.All radiologist members of the California Radiological Society were surveyed in August-September 2013. Questions gauged radiologists' familiarity with and attitudes toward the law, awareness of CT dose, and changes in practice following the law's enactment.Of 1,300 surveyed, 138 (11%) responded; 132 of 137 (96%) were familiar with SB 1237. Of 135 responding, 126 and 115 (93% and 85%, respectively) knew to report CT dose index volume and dose-length product. Sixty of 134 (45%) attributed dose reporting to an increased awareness of appropriate dose ranges. Twenty-nine of 133 (22%) had modified protocols in concert with SB 1237s enactment. Of 31 responding, 5 (16%), 23 (74%), and 3 (74%) had modified protocols in only children, both adults and children, and only adults, respectively. Twenty-four of 129 (19%) utilized automated dose reporting; 48 (37%) and 57 (44%) used dictation/transcription and template-assisted voice recognition, respectively. Forty of 134 (30%) noted delays finalizing CT reports.Most radiologists who responded in our sample were familiar with SB 1237. Nearly half attributed dose reporting to an increased awareness of appropriate dose ranges. Almost one quarter indicated protocol modifications, the majority including children, occurring in conjunction with the law. Reporting inefficiency was a common concern.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmir.2017.02.072

    View details for PubMedID 31047362

  • Prediction of neonatal respiratory distress in pregnancies complicated by fetal lung masses. Prenatal diagnosis Girsen, A. I., Hintz, S. R., Sammour, R., Naqvi, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Sherwin, K., Davis, A. S., Chock, V. Y., Barth, R. A., Rubesova, E., Sylvester, K. G., Chitkara, R., Blumenfeld, Y. J. 2017


    The objective of this article is to evaluate the utility of fetal lung mass imaging for predicting neonatal respiratory distress.Pregnancies with fetal lung masses between 2009 and 2014 at a single center were analyzed. Neonatal respiratory distress was defined as intubation and mechanical ventilation at birth, surgery before discharge, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The predictive utility of the initial as well as maximal lung mass volume and congenital pulmonary airway malformation volume ratio by ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was analyzed.Forty-seven fetal lung mass cases were included; of those, eight (17%) had respiratory distress. The initial US was performed at similar gestational ages in pregnancies with and without respiratory distress (26.4 ± 5.6 vs 22.3 ± 3 weeks, p = 0.09); however, those with respiratory distress had higher congenital volume ratio at that time (1.0 vs 0.3, p = 0.01). The strongest predictors of respiratory distress were maximal volume >24.0 cm(3) by MRI (100% sensitivity, 91% specificity, 60% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value) and maximal volume >34.0 cm(3) by US (100% sensitivity, 85% specificity, 54% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value).Ultrasound and MRI parameters can predict neonatal respiratory distress, even when obtained before 24 weeks. Third trimester parameters demonstrated the best positive predictive value. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pd.5002

    View details for PubMedID 28061000

  • Prenatally Diagnosed Cases of Binder Phenotype Complicated by Respiratory Distress in the Immediate Postnatal Period. Journal of ultrasound in medicine Blumenfeld, Y. J., Davis, A. S., Hintz, S. R., Milan, K., Messner, A. H., Barth, R. A., Hudgins, L., Chueh, J., Homeyer, M., Bernstein, J. A., Enns, G., Atwal, P., Manning, M. 2016; 35 (6): 1353-1358


    Binder phenotype, or maxillonasal dysostosis, is a distinctive pattern of facial development characterized by a short nose with a flat nasal bridge, an acute nasolabial angle, a short columella, a convex upper lip, and class III malocclusion. We report 3 cases of prenatally diagnosed Binder phenotype associated with perinatal respiratory impairment.

    View details for DOI 10.7863/ultra.15.02050

    View details for PubMedID 27162279

  • Fetal suprarenal masses - assessing the complementary role of magnetic resonance and ultrasound for diagnosis. Pediatric radiology Flanagan, S. M., Rubesova, E., Jaramillo, D., Barth, R. A. 2016; 46 (2): 246-254


    To assess the value and complementary roles of fetal MRI and US for characterization and diagnosis of suprarenal masses.We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective database search for prenatally diagnosed suprarenal masses between 1999 and 2012 and evaluated the roles of prenatal US and fetal MRI for characterization and diagnosis, using postnatal diagnosis or surgical pathology as the reference standard. Prenatal US and fetal MRI were assessed for unique findings of each modality.The database yielded 25 fetuses (gestational age 20-37 weeks) with suprarenal masses. Twenty-one fetuses had prenatal US, 22 had MRI, 17 had both. Postnatal diagnoses included nine subdiaphragmatic extralobar sequestrations, seven adrenal hemorrhages, five neuroblastomas (four metastatic), two lymphatic malformations, one duplex kidney with upper pole cystic dysplasia, and one adrenal hyperplasia. Ultrasound was concordant with MRI for diagnoses in 12/17 (70.6%) cases. Discordant diagnoses between US and MRI included three neuroblastomas and two adrenal hemorrhages. In the three neuroblastomas US was equivocal and MRI was definitive for neuroblastoma, demonstrating heterogeneous, intermediate-signal solid masses and liver metastases. In the two cases of adrenal hemorrhage US was equivocal and MRI was definitive with signal characteristics of hemorrhage. In 2/4 neuroblastomas, Doppler US demonstrated a systemic artery suggesting extralobar sequestration; however MRI signal characteristics correctly diagnosed neuroblastoma. All cases of extralobar sequestration were correctly diagnosed by US and MRI.US and MRI both accurately detect suprarenal masses. MRI complements US in equivocal diagnoses and detects additional findings such as liver metastases in neuroblastoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-015-3470-1

    View details for PubMedID 26589304

  • Added Value of Radiologist Consultation for Pediatric Ultrasound: Implementation and Survey Assessment. AJR. American journal of roentgenology Zucker, E. J., Newman, B., Larson, D. B., Rubesova, E., Barth, R. A. 2015; 205 (4): 822-826


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether radiologist-parent (guardian) consultation sessions for pediatric ultrasound with immediate disclosure of examination results if desired increases visit satisfaction, decreases anxiety, and increases understanding of the radiologist's role.Parents chaperoning any outpatient pediatric ultrasound were eligible and completed surveys before and after ultrasound examinations. Before the second survey, parents met with a pediatric radiologist on a randomized basis but could opt out and request or decline the consultation. Differences in anxiety and understanding of the radiologist's role before and after the examination were compared, and overall visit satisfaction measures were tabulated.Seventy-seven subjects participated, 71 (92%) of whom spoke to a radiologist, mostly on request. In the consultation group, the mean score (1, lowest; 4, highest) for overall experience was 3.8 ± 0.4 (SD), consultation benefit was 3.7 ± 0.6, and radiologist interaction was 3.7 ± 0.6. Demographics were not predictive of satisfaction with statistical significance in a multivariate model. Forty-six of 68 (68%) respondents correctly described the radiologist's role before consultation. The number increased to 60 (88%) after consultation, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant decrease in mean anxiety score from 2.0 ± 1.0 to 1.5 ± 0.8 after consultation (p < 0.001). Sixty-four of 70 (91%) respondents indicated that they would prefer to speak with a radiologist during every visit.Radiologist consultation is well received among parents and associated with decreased anxiety and increased understanding of the radiologist's role. The results of this study support the value of routine radiologist-parent interaction for pediatric ultrasound.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.15.14542

    View details for PubMedID 26397331

  • Radiologist Compliance With California CT Dose Reporting Requirements: A Single-Center Review of Pediatric Chest CT AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Zucker, E. J., Larson, D. B., Newman, B., Barth, R. A. 2015; 204 (4): 810-816


    Effective July 1, 2012, CT dose reporting became mandatory in California. We sought to assess radiologist compliance with this legislation and to determine areas for improvement.We retrospectively reviewed reports from all chest CT examinations performed at our institution from July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013, for errors in documentation of volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and phantom size. Reports were considered as legally compliant if both CTDIvol and DLP were documented accurately and as institutionally compliant if phantom size was also documented accurately. Additionally, we tracked reports that did not document dose in our standard format (phantom size, CTDIvol for each series, and total DLP).Radiologists omitted CTDIvol, DLP, or both in nine of 664 examinations (1.4%) and inaccurately reported one or both of them in 56 of the remaining 655 examinations (8.5%). Radiologists omitted phantom size in 11 of 664 examinations (1.7%) and inaccurately documented it in 20 of the remaining 653 examinations (3.1%). Of 664 examinations, 599 (90.2%) met legal reporting requirements, and 583 (87.8%) met institutional requirements. In reporting dose, radiologists variably used less decimal precision than available, summed CTDIvol, included only series-level DLP, and specified dose information from the scout topogram or a nonchest series for combination examinations.Our institutional processes, which primarily rely on correct human performance, do not ensure accurate dose reporting and are prone to variation in dose reporting format. In view of this finding, we are exploring higher-reliability processes, including better-defined standards and automated dose reporting systems, to improve compliance.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.14.13693

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351614700037

    View details for PubMedID 25794071

  • Fast pediatric 3D free-breathing abdominal dynamic contrast enhanced MRI with high spatiotemporal resolution. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging Zhang, T., Cheng, J. Y., Potnick, A. G., Barth, R. A., Alley, M. T., Uecker, M., Lustig, M., Pauly, J. M., Vasanawala, S. S. 2015; 41 (2): 460-473


    To develop a method for fast pediatric 3D free-breathing abdominal dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and investigate its clinical feasibility.A combined locally low rank parallel imaging method with soft gating is proposed for free-breathing DCE MRI acquisition. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and informed consent/assent, 23 consecutive pediatric patients were recruited for this study. Free-breathing DCE MRI with ∼1 mm(3) spatial resolution and a 6.5-sec frame rate was acquired on a 3T scanner. Undersampled data were reconstructed with a compressed sensing method without motion correction (FB-CS) and the proposed method (FB-LR). A follow-up respiratory-triggered acquisition (RT-CS) was performed as a reference standard. The reconstructed images were evaluated independently by two radiologists. Wilcoxon tests were performed to test the hypothesis that there was no significant difference between different reconstructions. Quantitative evaluation of contrast dynamics was also performed.The mean score of overall image quality of FB-LR was 4.0 on a 5-point scale, significantly better (P < 0.05) than FB-CS reconstruction (mean score 2.9), and similar to RT-CS (mean score 4.1). FB-LR also matched the temporal fidelity of contrast dynamics with a root mean square error less than 5%.Fast 3D free-breathing DCE MRI with high scan efficiency and image quality similar to respiratory-triggered acquisition is feasible in a pediatric clinical setting.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24551

    View details for PubMedID 24375859

  • CVR at the time of mid-trimester diagnosis of congenital lung lesions as a predictor of adverse neonatal outcomes Sammour, R., Hintz, S., Davis, A., Riley, K., Barth, R., Rubesova, E., Sylvester, K., Girsen, A., Blumenfeld, Y. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2015: S197
  • Clinical Correlation Needed: What Do Emergency Physicians Do After an Equivocal Ultrasound for Pediatric Acute Appendicitis? JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND Ramarajan, N., Krishnamoorthi, R., Gharahbaghian, L., Pirrotta, E., Barth, R. A., Wang, N. E. 2014; 42 (7): 385-394


    Although follow-up CT is recommended for pediatric appendicitis if initial ultrasound (US) is equivocal, many physicians observe the patient at home. There are limited data to understand currently how common or safe this practice is. Our objectives are to assess prevalence of acute appendicitis and outcomes in patients with equivocal US with and without follow-up CT and to identify variables associated with ordering a follow-up CT.Retrospective analysis of the prevalence of appendicitis and outcomes of patients 1-18 years old with an equivocal US at a pediatric emergency department from 2003 to 2008. Recursive partitioning analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify variables associated with ordering follow-up CT.Fifty-five percent (340/620) of children with equivocal US did not receive CT, none of whom returned with a missed appendicitis. The prevalence of appendicitis in children with equivocal US was 12.5% (78/620). In children with follow-up CT, the prevalence was 22.1% (62/280); in those without follow-up CT, the prevalence was 4.7% (16/340). Recursive partitioning identified age >11 years, leukocytosis >15,000 cells/ml, and secondary signs predisposing toward acute appendicitis on US as significant predictors of CT.We view our study as a fundamental part of the incremental progress to understand how best to use US and CT imaging to diagnose pediatric appendicitis while minimizing ionizing radiation. Children at low risk for appendicitis with equivocal US are amenable to observation and reassessment prior to reimaging with US or CT.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jcu.22153

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340536300001

    View details for PubMedID 24700515

  • Advances in fetal imaging. American journal of perinatology Rubesova, E., Barth, R. A. 2014; 31 (7): 567-576


    While ultrasound (US) has been a part of prenatal care for almost 40 years, technical progress over the last two decades has resulted in improved image quality and detection rate of congenital anomalies. The past 15 years have also seen the expansion of three-dimensional (3D) US, providing enhancements over with 2D US, and more realistic images of babies to parents and providers. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was first performed over 30 years ago, and has undergone major technical improvement over the past 15 to 20 years. Fetal MRI complements US by providing better visualization in the fetus when US is limited such as in oligohydramnios or severe maternal obesity. It offers a larger field of view and better tissue contrast than US and is not limited by shadowing from osseous structures. However, MRI has a limited resolution compared with US, is less readily available, and more expensive. While indications for fetal MRI have been clearly established for some abnormalities, such as neurological anomalies, other indications especially for fetal body imaging are not as clearly defined. In this article, we discuss recent developments in fetal MRI and 3D US and their common and newest indications.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0034-1371712

    View details for PubMedID 24792771

  • Fetal MRI correlates with postnatal CT angiogram assessment of pulmonary anatomy in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve. Congenital heart disease Sun, H. Y., Boe, J., Rubesova, E., Barth, R. A., Tacy, T. A. 2014; 9 (4): E105-9


    In tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve, pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation results in significant pulmonary artery dilatation. Branch pulmonary artery dilatation often compresses the tracheobronchial tree, causing fluid trapping in fetal life and air trapping and/or atelectasis after birth. Prenatal diagnosis predicts poor prognosis, which depends on the degree of respiratory insufficiency from airway compromise and lung parenchymal disease after birth. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been useful in evaluating the effects of congenital lung lesions on lung development and indicating severity of pulmonary hypoplasia. This report is the first demonstrating the utility of fetal MRI in tetralogy of Fallot/absent pulmonary valve patients, which predicted postnatal pulmonary artery size and visualized airway compression and lung parenchymal lesions. The distribution of lobar fluid trapping on fetal MRI correlated with air trapping on postnatal computed tomography angiogram.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/chd.12091

    View details for PubMedID 23701739

  • Fetal MRI Correlates with Postnatal CT Angiogram Assessment of Pulmonary Anatomy in Tetralogy of Fallot with Absent Pulmonary Valve. Congenital heart disease Sun, H. Y., Boe, J., Rubesova, E., Barth, R. A., Tacy, T. A. 2014; 9 (4): E105-9

    View details for DOI 10.1111/chd.12091

    View details for PubMedID 23701739

  • Advances in Fetal Imaging AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Rubesova, E., Barth, R. A. 2014; 31 (7): 567-576


    While ultrasound (US) has been a part of prenatal care for almost 40 years, technical progress over the last two decades has resulted in improved image quality and detection rate of congenital anomalies. The past 15 years have also seen the expansion of three-dimensional (3D) US, providing enhancements over with 2D US, and more realistic images of babies to parents and providers. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was first performed over 30 years ago, and has undergone major technical improvement over the past 15 to 20 years. Fetal MRI complements US by providing better visualization in the fetus when US is limited such as in oligohydramnios or severe maternal obesity. It offers a larger field of view and better tissue contrast than US and is not limited by shadowing from osseous structures. However, MRI has a limited resolution compared with US, is less readily available, and more expensive. While indications for fetal MRI have been clearly established for some abnormalities, such as neurological anomalies, other indications especially for fetal body imaging are not as clearly defined. In this article, we discuss recent developments in fetal MRI and 3D US and their common and newest indications.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0034-1371712

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337933200004

  • Clinical performance of contrast enhanced abdominal pediatric MRI with fast combined parallel imaging compressed sensing reconstruction. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI Zhang, T., Chowdhury, S., Lustig, M., Barth, R. A., Alley, M. T., Grafendorfer, T., Calderon, P. D., Robb, F. J., Pauly, J. M., Vasanawala, S. S. 2014; 40 (1): 13-25


    To deploy clinically, a combined parallel imaging compressed sensing method with coil compression that achieves a rapid image reconstruction, and assess its clinical performance in contrast-enhanced abdominal pediatric MRI.With Institutional Review Board approval and informed patient consent/assent, 29 consecutive pediatric patients were recruited. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was acquired on a 3 Tesla scanner using a dedicated 32-channel pediatric coil and a three-dimensional SPGR sequence, with pseudo-random undersampling at a high acceleration (R = 7.2). Undersampled data were reconstructed with three methods: a traditional parallel imaging method and a combined parallel imaging compressed sensing method with and without coil compression. The three sets of images were evaluated independently and blindly by two radiologists at one siting, for overall image quality and delineation of anatomical structures. Wilcoxon tests were performed to test the hypothesis that there was no significant difference in the evaluations, and interobserver agreement was analyzed.Fast reconstruction with coil compression did not deteriorate image quality. The mean score of structural delineation of the fast reconstruction was 4.1 on a 5-point scale, significantly better (P < 0.05) than traditional parallel imaging (mean score 3.1). Fair to substantial interobserver agreement was reached in structural delineation assessment.A fast combined parallel imaging compressed sensing method is feasible in a pediatric clinical setting. Preliminary results suggest it may improve structural delineation over parallel imaging. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014;40:13-25. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24333

    View details for PubMedID 24127123

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3984374

  • Perforated appendicitis: an underappreciated mimic of intussusception on ultrasound. Pediatric radiology Newman, B., Schmitz, M., Gawande, R., Vasanawala, S., Barth, R. 2014; 44 (5): 535-541


    We encountered multiple cases in which the US appearance of ruptured appendicitis mimicked intussusception, resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic delay and multiple additional imaging studies.To explore the clinical and imaging discriminatory features between the conditions.Initial US images in six children (age 16 months to 8 years; 4 boys, 2 girls) were reviewed independently and by consensus by three pediatric radiologists. These findings were compared and correlated with the original reports and subsequent US, fluoroscopic, and CT images and reports.All initial US studies demonstrated a multiple-ring-like appearance (target sign, most apparent on transverse views) with diagnostic consensus supportive of intussusception. In three cases, US findings were somewhat discrepant with clinical concerns. Subsequently, four of the six children had contrast enemas; two were thought to have partial or complete intussusception reduction. Three had a repeat US examination, with recognition of the correct diagnosis. None of the US examinations demonstrated definite intralesional lymph nodes or mesenteric fat, but central echogenicity caused by debris/appendicolith was misinterpreted as fat. All showed perilesional hyperechogenicity that, in retrospect, represented inflamed fat "walling off" of the perforated appendix. There were four CTs, all of which demonstrated a double-ring appearance that correlated with the US target appearance, with inner and outer rings representing the dilated appendix and walled-off appendiceal rupture, respectively. All six children had surgical confirmation of perforated appendicitis.Contained perforated appendicitis can produce US findings closely mimicking intussusception. Clinical correlation and careful multiplanar evaluation should allow for sonographic suspicion of perforated appendicitis, which can be confirmed on CT if necessary.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-014-2873-8

    View details for PubMedID 24463638

  • Isolated umbilical vein varix with a poor outcome despite close fetal surveillance. Journal of ultrasound in medicine Brookfield, K. F., Osmundson, S. S., Chetty, S., Chueh, J., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Barth, R. A., El-Sayed, Y. Y. 2013; 32 (9): 1680-1682

    View details for DOI 10.7863/ultra.32.9.1680

    View details for PubMedID 23980233

  • Urachal duct carcinoma complicating pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology McNally, L., Osmundson, S., Barth, R., Chueh, J. 2013; 122 (2): 469-472


    Degenerating myomas are common explanations for pain associated with abdominal masses in pregnancy. However, masses arising from other pelvic organs should be included in the differential diagnosis.We present a case of an abdominal mass in pregnancy that was originally misdiagnosed as a uterine leiomyoma. Attention to the patient's history along with judicious use of imaging modalities led to the correct diagnosis of urachal duct carcinoma. This was treated appropriately and resulted in a term vaginal delivery. We present a review of the literature on this tumor and its management in pregnancy.Urologic malignancies are rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any woman presenting with pain and an abdominal mass in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary approach optimizes outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318292a3ab

    View details for PubMedID 23884263

  • Conservatively Managed Fetal Goiter: An Alternative to in utero Therapy. Fetal diagnosis and therapy Blumenfeld, Y. J., Davis, A., Milan, K., Chueh, J., Hudgins, L., Barth, R. A., Hintz, S. R. 2013; 34 (3): 184-187


    Fetal goiter may arise from a variety of etiologies including iodine deficiency, overtreatment of maternal Graves' disease, inappropriate maternal thyroid replacement and, rarely, congenital hypothyroidism. Fetal goiter is often associated with a retroflexed neck and polyhydramnios, raising concerns regarding airway obstruction in such cases. Prior reports have advocated for cordocentesis and intra-amniotic thyroid hormone therapy in order to confirm the diagnosis of fetal thyroid dysfunction, reduce the size of the fetal goiter, reduce polyhydramnios, aid with the assistance of maternal thyroid hormone therapy and reduce fetal malpresentation. We report two cases of conservatively managed fetal goiter, one resulting in a vaginal delivery, and no evidence of postnatal respiratory distress despite the presence of polyhydramnios and a retroflexed neck on prenatal ultrasound. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000353387

    View details for PubMedID 23920148

  • Imaging of fetal chest masses. Pediatric radiology Barth, R. A. 2012; 42: S62-73


    Prenatal imaging with high-resolution US and rapid acquisition MRI plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis of congenital chest masses. Imaging has enhanced our understanding of the natural history of fetal lung masses, allowing for accurate prediction of outcome, parental counseling, and planning of pregnancy and newborn management. This paper will focus on congenital bronchopulmonary malformations, which account for the vast majority of primary lung masses in the fetus. In addition, anomalies that mimic masses and less common causes of lung masses will be discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-011-2171-7

    View details for PubMedID 22395720

  • Imaging of fetal chest masses PEDIATRIC RADIOLOGY Barth, R. A. 2012; 42: 62-73
  • Effectiveness of a Staged US and CT Protocol for the Diagnosis of Pediatric Appendicitis: Reducing Radiation Exposure in the Age of ALARA RADIOLOGY Krishnamoorthi, R., Ramarajan, N., Wang, N. E., Newman, B., Rubesova, E., Mueller, C. M., Barth, R. A. 2011; 259 (1): 231-239


    To evaluate the effectiveness of a staged ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) imaging protocol for the accurate diagnosis of suspected appendicitis in children and the opportunity for reducing the number of CT examinations and associated radiation exposure.This retrospective study was compliant with HIPAA, and a waiver of informed consent was approved by the institutional review board. This study is a review of all imaging studies obtained in children suspected of having appendicitis between 2003 and 2008 at a suburban pediatric emergency department. A multidisciplinary staged US and CT imaging protocol for the diagnosis of appendicitis was implemented in 2003. In the staged protocol, US was performed first in patients suspected of having appendicitis; follow-up CT was recommended when US findings were equivocal. Of 1228 pediatric patients who presented to the emergency department for suspected appendicitis, 631 (287 boys, 344 girls; age range, 2 months to 18 years; median age, 10 years) were compliant with the imaging pathway. The sensitivity, specificity, negative appendectomy rate (number of appendectomies with normal pathologic findings divided by the number of surgeries performed for suspected appendicitis), missed appendicitis rate, and number of CT examinations avoided by using the staged protocol were analyzed.The sensitivity and specificity of the staged protocol were 98.6% and 90.6%, respectively. The negative appendectomy rate was 8.1% (19 of 235 patients), and the missed appendicitis rate was less than 0.5% (one of 631 patients). CT was avoided in 333 of the 631 patients (53%) in whom the protocol was followed and in whom the US findings were definitive.A staged US and CT imaging protocol in which US is performed first in children suspected of having acute appendicitis is highly accurate and offers the opportunity to substantially reduce radiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.10100984

    View details for PubMedID 21324843

  • MR imaging in cases of antenatal suspected appendicitis - a meta-analysis JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE Blumenfeld, Y. J., Wong, A. E., Jafari, A., Barth, R. A., El-Sayed, Y. Y. 2011; 24 (3): 485-488


    Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency in pregnancy. Acute appendicitis is often difficult to diagnose clinically, and concerns regarding antenatal CT imaging limit its use resulting in high false negative rates at laparotomy. MRI has recently been reported as a reasonable alternative to CT imaging in cases of suspected appendicitis. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis of recently published data regarding the utility of MR imaging in cases of antenatal suspected acute appendicitis.We searched the PubMed database using keywords 'MRI', 'appendicitis', and 'pregnancy'. Five case series describing the role of MRI in cases of antenatal appendicitis were included. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated.Two hundred twenty-nine patients were included in the study. In the first analysis in which non-diagnostic scans were excluded, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of MRI for diagnosing appendicitis were 95.0%, 99.9%, 90.4%, and 99.5%, respectively. In the second analysis, which included non-diagnostic scans, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 90.5%, 98.6%, 86.3%, and 99.0%, respectivelyMR imaging may be useful in cases of suspected antenatal appendicitis. Data are still limited and larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm this finding.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/14767058.2010.506227

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286993000020

    View details for PubMedID 20695758

  • Improved Pediatric MR Imaging with Compressed Sensing RADIOLOGY Vasanawala, S. S., Alley, M. T., Hargreaves, B. A., Barth, R. A., Pauly, J. M., Lustig, M. 2010; 256 (2): 607-616


    To develop a method that combines parallel imaging and compressed sensing to enable faster and/or higher spatial resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and show its feasibility in a pediatric clinical setting.Institutional review board approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study, and informed consent or assent was given by subjects. A pseudorandom k-space undersampling pattern was incorporated into a three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo sequence; aliasing then has an incoherent noiselike pattern rather than the usual coherent fold-over wrapping pattern. This k-space-sampling pattern was combined with a compressed sensing nonlinear reconstruction method that exploits the assumption of sparsity of medical images to permit reconstruction from undersampled k-space data and remove the noiselike aliasing. Thirty-four patients (15 female and 19 male patients; mean age, 8.1 years; range, 0-17 years) referred for cardiovascular, abdominal, and knee MR imaging were scanned with this 3D gradient-echo sequence at high acceleration factors. Obtained k-space data were reconstructed with both a traditional parallel imaging algorithm and the nonlinear method. Both sets of images were rated for image quality, radiologist preference, and delineation of specific structures by two radiologists. Wilcoxon and symmetry tests were performed to test the hypothesis that there was no significant difference in ratings for image quality, preference, and delineation of specific structures.Compressed sensing images were preferred more often, had significantly higher image quality ratings, and greater delineation of anatomic structures (P < .001) than did images obtained with the traditional parallel reconstruction method.A combination of parallel imaging and compressed sensing is feasible in a clinical setting and may provide higher resolution and/or faster imaging, addressing the challenge of delineating anatomic structures in pediatric MR imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.10091218

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280272100032

    View details for PubMedID 20529991

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2909438

  • Standardizing resistive indices in healthy pediatric transplant recipients of adult-sized kidneys PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Gholami, S., Sarwal, M. M., Naesens, M., Ringertz, H. G., Barth, R. A., Balise, R. R., Salvatierra, O. 2010; 14 (1): 126-131


    Small pediatric recipients of an adult-sized kidney have insufficient renal blood flow early after transplantation, with secondary chronic hypoperfusion and irreversible histological damage of the tubulo-interstitial compartment. It is unknown whether this is reflected by renal resistive indices. We measured renal graft resistive indices and volumes of 47 healthy pediatric kidney transplant recipients of an adult-sized kidney in a prospective study for six months post-transplant. A total of 205 measurements were performed. The smallest recipients (BSA or= 1.5 m(2) (p < 0.0001). Resistive indices increased during the first six months in the smallest recipients (p = 0.02), but not in the two larger recipient groups (BSA 0.75-1.5 m(2) and >or=1.5 m(2)). All three BSA groups showed a reduction in renal volume after transplantation, with the greatest reduction occurring in the smallest recipients. In conclusion, renal transplant resistive indices reflect pediatric recipient BSA dependency. The higher resistance to intra-renal vascular flow and significant decrease in renal volume in the smallest group likely reflect accommodation of the size discrepant transplanted adult-sized kidney to the smaller pediatric recipient vasculature with associated lower renal artery flow.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2009.01180.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273478100024

    View details for PubMedID 19413712

  • MR Assessment of Normal Fetal Lung Volumes - A literature Review American Journal of Roentgenology Deshmukh S, Rubesova E, Barth RA 2010; 194: 212-217
  • USING COMPUTERIZED PROVIDER ORDER ENTRY (CPOE) TO PROMOTE SUSTAINED OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGIC SERVICE UTILIZATION 39th Critical Care Congress of the Society-of-Critical-Care-Medicine Pageler, N., Longhurst, C., Shin, A., Adams, E., Widen, E., Barth, R., Cornfield, D. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2009: A363–A363
  • An Interdisciplinary Initiative to Reduce Radiation Exposure: Evaluation of Appendicitis in a Pediatric Emergency Department With Clinical Assessment Supported by a Staged Ultrasound and Computed Tomography Pathway 10th Annual Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference/Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Academic-Emergency-Medicine Ramarajan, N., Krishnamoorthi, R., Barth, R., Ghanouni, P., Mueller, C., Dannenburg, B., Wang, N. E. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC. 2009: 1258–65


    In the emergency department (ED), a significant amount of radiation exposure is due to computed tomography (CT) scans performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis. Children are at increased risk of developing cancer from low-dose radiation and it is therefore desirable to utilize CT only when appropriate. Ultrasonography (US) eliminates radiation but has sensitivity inferior to that of CT. We describe an interdisciplinary initiative to use a staged US and CT pathway to maximize diagnostic accuracy while minimizing radiation exposure.This was a retrospective outcomes analysis of patients presenting after hours for suspected appendicitis at an academic children's hospital ED over a 6-year period. The pathway established US as the initial imaging modality. CT was recommended only if US was equivocal. Clinical and pathologic outcomes from ED diagnosis and disposition, histopathology and return visits, were correlated with the US and CT. ED diagnosis and disposition, pathology, and return visits were used to determine outcome.A total of 680 patients met the study criteria. A total of 407 patients (60%) followed the pathway. Two-hundred of these (49%) were managed definitively without CT. A total of 106 patients (26%) had a positive US for appendicitis; 94 (23%) had a negative US. A total of 207 patients had equivocal US with follow-up CT. A total of 144 patients went to the operating room (OR); 10 patients (7%) had negative appendectomies. One case of appendicitis was missed (<0.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive values of our staged US-CT pathway were 99%, 91%, 99%, and 85%, respectively. A total of 228 of 680 patients (34%) had an equivocal US with no follow-up CT. Of these patients, 10 (4%) went to the OR with one negative appendectomy. A total of 218 patients (32%) were observed clinically without complications.Half of the patients who were treated using this pathway were managed with definitive US alone with an acceptable negative appendectomy rate (7%) and a missed appendicitis rate of less than 0.5%. Visualization of a normal appendix (negative US) was sufficient to obviate the need for a CT in the authors' experience. Emergency physicians (EPs) used an equivocal US in conjunction with clinical assessment to care for one-third of study patients without a CT and with no known cases of missed appendicitis. These data suggest that by employing US first on all children needing diagnostic imaging for diagnosis of acute appendicitis, radiation exposure may be substantially decreased without a decrease in safety or efficacy.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00511.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271465000031

    View details for PubMedID 20053244

  • MR Voiding Cystography for Evaluation of Vesicoureteral Reflux AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Vasanawala, S. S., Kennedy, W. A., Ganguly, A., Fahrig, R., Rieke, V., Daniel, B., Barth, R. A. 2009; 192 (5): W206-W211


    The purpose of our study is to present a real-time interactive continuous fluoroscopy MRI technique for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) diagnosis.MR voiding cystography with a real-time interactive MR fluoroscopic technique on an open MRI magnet is feasible for the evaluation of VUR in children.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.08.1251

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265387300045

    View details for PubMedID 19380524

  • Neonatal Malrotation with Midgut Volvulus Mimicking Duodenal Atresia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Gilbertson-Dahdal, D. L., Dutta, S., Varich, L. J., Barth, R. A. 2009; 192 (5): 1269-1271


    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical, imaging, and surgical findings in the cases of four neonates with radiographic findings suggesting duodenal atresia (double-bubble sign) who were subsequently found to have malrotation with midgut volvulus.When the surgical treatment of a patient with the double-bubble sign is to be delayed, an upper gastrointestinal radiographic or ultrasound study is needed to evaluate for malrotation with midgut volvulus.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.08.2132

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265387300020

    View details for PubMedID 19380551

  • Three-Dimensional MRI Volumetric Measurements of the Normal Fetal Colon AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Rubesova, E., Vance, C. J., Ringertz, H. G., Barth, R. A. 2009; 192 (3): 761-765


    The use of fetal MRI markedly improves characterization of abdominal congenital anomalies. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of the level and cause of congenital intestinal obstruction is desired for optimal parental counseling and perinatal care. Because accurate diagnosis would be aided by nomograms of colonic volume, this study was conducted to determine normal colonic volumes at different gestational ages.This retrospective study consisted of a review of 83 fetal MRI examinations performed on fetuses with no gastrointestinal abnormalities. MRI was performed with a 1.5-T system. Axial, sagittal, and coronal T1-weighted fast gradient-refocused echo images were acquired at TR/TE, 165/2.6; flip angle, 90 degrees; matrix size, 384 x 192; slice thickness, 5 mm; field of view, 38 cm(2). Two investigators determined the region of interest in the colon by outlining areas of high signal intensity of meconium slice by slice. They then calculated colonic luminal volume in the regions of interest. Colonic luminal volumes were reported relative to gestational age and abdominal circumference. Normative curves were generated, and interobserver and intraobserver analyses were performed.Seventeen of the 83 fetuses (20%) were excluded because of movement artifacts on the images. Normal colonic luminal volume increased exponentially with gestational age and abdominal circumference. The range of colonic luminal volumes at 20-37 weeks' gestational age was 1.1-65 mL. Variation of volume was greater at advanced gestational age. Interobserver and intraobserver correlation was good.This study yielded preliminary volumetric measurements of the normal fetal colon at 20-37 weeks of gestational age that suggest the fetal colon grows exponentially.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.08.1504

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264005700032

    View details for PubMedID 19234275

  • Prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta - Sonography or magnetic resonance imaging? JOURNAL OF ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE Dwyer, B. K., Belogolovkin, V., Tran, L., Rao, A., Carroll, I., Barth, R., Chitkara, U. 2008; 27 (9): 1275-1281


    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of transabdominal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta.A historical cohort study was undertaken at 3 institutions identifying women at risk for placenta accreta who had undergone both sonography and MRI prenatally. Sonographic and MRI findings were compared with the final diagnosis as determined at delivery and by pathologic examination.Thirty-two patients who had both sonography and MRI prenatally to evaluate for placenta accreta were identified. Of these, 15 had confirmation of placenta accreta at delivery. Sonography correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 14 of 15 patients (93% sensitivity; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80%-100%) and the absence of placenta accreta in 12 of 17 patients (71% specificity; 95% CI, 49%-93%). Magnetic resonance imaging correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 12 of 15 patients (80% sensitivity; 95% CI, 60%-100%) and the absence of placenta accreta in 11 of 17 patients (65% specificity; 95% CI, 42%-88%). In 7 of 32 cases, sonography and MRI had discordant diagnoses: sonography was correct in 5 cases, and MRI was correct in 2. There was no statistical difference in sensitivity (P = .25) or specificity (P = .5) between sonography and MRI.Both sonography and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta; however, specificity does not appear to be as good as reported in other studies. In the case of inconclusive findings with one imaging modality, the other modality may be useful for clarifying the diagnosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258853200002

    View details for PubMedID 18716136

  • Fetus in fetu: 11 fetoid forms in a single fetus - Review of the literature and imaging JOURNAL OF ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE Gerber, R. E., Kamaya, A., Miller, S. S., Cronin, D. M., Dwyer, B., Chueh, J., Conner, K. E., Barth, R. A. 2008; 27 (9): 1381-1387

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258853200015

    View details for PubMedID 18716149

  • Prenatal sonography of congenital renal malformations AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Zhou, Q., Cardoza, J. D., Barth, R. 1999; 173 (5): 1371-1376

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083312300044

    View details for PubMedID 10541122

  • Normal pediatric testis: Comparison of power Doppler and color Doppler US in the detection of blood flow RADIOLOGY Barth, R. A., Shortliffe, L. D. 1997; 204 (2): 389-393


    To compare power Doppler and conventional color Doppler ultrasound (US) in the detection of blood flow in the normal pediatric testis and to assess the symmetry of blood flow and the spectral Doppler tracing waveforms in the normal pediatric testis.Testicular blood flow was assessed prospectively in 68 testes in 34 boys (age range, 6 weeks to 13 years; mean age, 4.6 years) with both conventional color and power Doppler US. Intratesticular blood flow was graded as follows: 0, no intratesticular flow; 1, single intratesticular Doppler signal identified; and 2, multiple intratesticular Doppler signals identified. The symmetry of intratesticular flow was assessed both subjectively and objectively by using the same grading system. Spectral Doppler tracings were obtained in 62 testes in 31 patients.Power Doppler US demonstrated intratesticular blood flow in 66 (97%) testes. Color Doppler US demonstrated intratesticular blood flow in 60 (88%) testes. Combined techniques depicted blood flow in all 68 (100%) testes. Testicular blood flow was judged symmetric in all 34 (100%) patients with power Doppler US and in 31 (91%) patients with color Doppler US. Spectral Doppler tracings demonstrated absence of diastolic flow in 20 (32%) of 62 testes.In children, power Doppler US is more sensitive than color Doppler US in the detection of intratesticular blood flow. With power Doppler US, testicular blood flow in healthy children is symmetric, underscoring that the asymptomatic testis can be used as a baseline for assessing flow in the symptomatic testis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XL64400018

    View details for PubMedID 9240525

  • Power Doppler imaging of focal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract: Comparison with conventional color Doppler imaging JOURNAL OF ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE CLAUTICEENGLE, T., Jeffrey, R. B., Li, K. C., Barth, R. A. 1996; 15 (1): 63-66


    To compare the usefulness of power Doppler imaging and color Doppler imaging in the vascular evaluation of gastrointestinal lesions, 21 patients with focal gastrointestinal tract lesions were examined with both power and color Doppler imaging. Two reviewers blinded to the diagnosis compared intramural vascularity detected by each of these methods. Power Doppler imaging detected flow in 16 patients with nonischemic lesions, whereas color Doppler imaging detected flow in only 11 patients. Neither modality detected flow in three patients with transmural infarction, but only power Doppler imaging detected minimal flow in the two patients with reversible ischemia. Power Doppler imaging improves visualization of intramural gastrointestinal vascularity, increasing the level of confidence in differentiating ischemic from nonischemic lesions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TN42100010

    View details for PubMedID 8667486



    A variety of retroperitoneal diseases such as pancreatitis, infection, and trauma may cause fluid collections in the three major retroperitoneal spaces. The purpose of our study was to elucidate flow patterns of fluid between the various compartments to assist the clinical-radiologic assessment and treatment of various retroperitoneal diseases.In eight cadavers, CT guidance was used to selectively inject 35-1000 ml of contrast medium by hand or power injector into five perirenal, two posterior pararenal, and two anterior pararenal spaces. After the injections, CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was done with 10-mm-thick sections at intervals of 10-40 mm. All images were reviewed in detail by a group of experienced body imagers to assess the pathways of flow of contrast material between the three major retroperitoneal spaces.The caudal cone of perirenal fascia was uniformly patent. A narrow channel connected the two perirenal spaces in the midline; the posterior border of this channel abutted the anterior margins of the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava. The perirenal, anterior pararenal, and posterior pararenal spaces all communicated with the infrarenal space, which in turn connected with the extraperitoneal spaces in the pelvis. When large quantities of contrast medium are injected in the perirenal or pararenal spaces and the infrarenal space is filled, the infrarenal space may then serve as a conduit across the midline of the abdomen. The anterior pararenal space crossed the midline and had a distinct retrorenal extension but no intraperitoneal connection. The slender posterior pararenal space had an anterolateral extension en route to the prevesical space.Our findings show pathways and extensions of the perirenal, anterior pararenal, and posterior pararenal spaces that should be considered when assessing a variety of retroperitoneal diseases. Perinephric collections, such as hematomas and urinomas, have at least a potential conduit across the midline or into the pelvis. Our study explains how blood from a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm may enter either perinephric space. Anterior pararenal processes, such as pancreatitis or appendicitis, can extend into the pelvis or cross the midline, and posterior pararenal blood from trauma can also flow into the pelvis.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/ajr.164.5.7717227

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QT93600024

    View details for PubMedID 7717227



    Osteogenesis imperfecta type II was diagnosed prenatally by analysis of DNA obtained from chorionic villus sampling (CVS) performed at 12 weeks of gestation in a woman who previously had had an affected child. The father had been shown to be mosaic for a mutation in the gene (COL1A2) which encodes the alpha 2(I) chain of type I collagen. An affected fetus was predicted by detection of the mutation in amplified chorionic villus genomic DNA. Ultrasound examination at 13 weeks 4 days demonstrated femoral deformity and virtual absence of calvarial mineralization. In pregnancies at risk for osteogenesis imperfecta type II, sonographic evidence of skeletal abnormalities may be evident by 13 weeks' gestation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LN89500008

    View details for PubMedID 8415424



    Sonography is the primary method used to image the fetal chest. Many significant congenital anomalies such as pleural effusion, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, cystic adenomatoid malformation, pulmonary sequestration, and congenital heart disease can be detected during early prenatal sonography. Fetal sonography also permits accurate assessment of the severity of these processes, allowing for parental counseling and optimal planning of postnatal care. After birth, sonography is the primary method for evaluating cardiac anatomy and diagnosing congenital heart disease. Sonography also serves as a useful adjunct to plain film radiology and other modalities in evaluation of the mediastinum, diaphragm, pleura, and chest wall.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LD87200005

    View details for PubMedID 8497587